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Walking Tour Calendar – Lower East Side Jewish Conservancy

Posted By on November 21, 2016

Sunday, October 9. 2016

Boarded by Central Park to the east and Riverside Park to the west, this two and half mile neighborhood – a ‘powerhouse’ of shuls, schools, and Jewish culture – boasts of some of the most exceptional residences in NYC, exemplifying Beaux Art, Art Nouveau & Art Deco architecture.

Tour Guide Marty Shore

Highlights include a guided tour of the JEWISH CENTER, (1918). This Neo-Classical, Modern Orthodox site was the first in the US to feature a pool and recreational space. Its founding rabbi was the controversial Mordecai Kaplan.

Other world-renowned synagogues discussed include Ohab Zedek, Shaare Zedek and B’nai Jeshurun. We will view the (former) homes of Zero Mostel, I.B. Singer and Lee Strasberg. This tour will also include a view of one of the original Upper West Side mansions, built in the height of the ‘glory days’ of Riverside Drive, circa 1890. We will hear the history of the distinguished families who lived in the Rice Mansion, and how it came to be the UWS location of Yeshiva Chofetz Chaim.(a.k.a. Yeshiva Ketana of the UWS).

Time: 10:45 a.m.

Meeting Place: 86th Street and Central Park West, NE corner, park side.

Fees/Info: $22 Adult; $20 students and seniors ($2 additional day of tour)

Visit TWO grand synagogues remaining on the Lower East Side today. One is the first great house of worship built by Eastern European Jews, and the other a former church, and a site on the Underground Railroad.

We start our tour at Bialystoker Synagogue, the largest active orthodox congregation on the Lower East Side today, covered in murals, showcasing Tiffany inspired glass windows.

From there we will walk down historic East Broadway discussing the Educational Alliance, The Henry Street Settlement, Seward Park (the first municipal park in the country), Straus Square, and much more. View Beth Hamedrash Hagadol, the nation’s oldest Orthodox Jewish Russian congregation, and the site of the only Chief Rabbi ever in America.

The last stop will be at the Museum at Eldridge Street, located in the 1887 Eldridge Street Synagogue, which stands as a tribute to immigrant’s faith in America. We will end the tour with a little snack. Learn how Jewish traditions are being carried on at these sites today.

This tour is being offered jointly by The Lower East Side Jewish Conservancy & the Museum at Eldridge Street.

Time: 10:45 AM. (Lasts approximately 3 hours) Significant amount of walking

Meeting Place: Meet in front of Abrons Art Center 466 Grand Street (between Pitt Street & Bialystoker Pl/Willett Street)

Fees/Info: $24 ($2 additional day of tour if space available)

Pre-registration is highly recommended capacity limited

For much of the 20th century, the Borscht Belt was a thriving vacation destination for the New York Jewish community. By the 1980s and ’90s, though, the region was in a state of rapid economic decline. The result is now the subject of a new coffee table book, Borscht Belt: Revisiting the Remains of America’s Jewish Vacationland (Cornell University, 2016). The Conservancy was proud to exhibit a selection of Marissa’s work in our former Kling and Niman Family Center. We are now proud to co-sponsor this event. Join us for a reception and remarks by the author. This is a Free event.

Time: 6:30 PM (2 hours)

Meeting Place: Museum at Eldridge Street – 12 Eldridge Street, New York, NY 10002

Fees/Info: Free, however, registration is required due to popular demand.

Register Here.

The Lower East Side is the iconic New York City immigrant neighborhood. For the past century and a half, immigrants have crowded its streets and tenements and established cultural, social, and religious institutions.

On this tour, journey with your guide, Urban Historian Barry Feldman, our architectural specialist, to explore housing on the Lower East Side. Learn how to distinguish a tenement from a row house and see examples of pre-law, old law and new law tenements. You will be surprised by the rear tenement double-deckers that remain from 1867 pre-law housing legislation.

New architecture will be contrasted to sites visited.

Time: 10:45 a.m. (3 hour tour)

Meeting Place: In front of HSBC Bank, 58 Bowery, corner of Canal Street.

Fees/Info: $22 Adult; $20 students and seniors ($2 additional day of tour)

Arnold Rothstein, Meir Lansky and Bugsy Siegel were all notorious gangsters whose criminal activities extended to Atlantic City, Miami, Cuba and Las Vegas, but their stories began on the Lower East Side of New York. We will examine where these leaders of the Jewish underworld began their nefarious activities. Along the way we will analyze questions of morality, power and assimilation.

Use your imagination to evoke what once existed, as we view sites that were associated with these Jewish Gangsters. Join Rabbi David Kalb, your guide, as he sheds light on the Jews of this dark aspect of New York’s ‘past.

David Kalb is the Rabbi of Beit Ohr Torah, and is an Associate faculty member of CLAL The National Jewish Center for Learning and Leadership, and a Senior Rabbinic Fellow at the Shalom Hartman Institute.

Please join us for a talk with Conservancy board member, Paul Kaplan, who will discuss his indispensable travel guide, which delves into the rich history and immense contribution of Jewish immigrants. Focusing on neighborhoods in Manhattan, Kaplan includes museums, places of historic interest, restaurants, synagogues, and entertainment venues. This book is a road map of Jewish immigration in the Big Apple. A perfect guidebook for those who love experiential travel!

This event is being held in honor of Lower East Side History Month and is co-sponsored with The Neighborhood Preservation Center.

$5.00 Per Person. Pre-payment and pre-registration is required due to limited seating capacity. When you arrive, please press buzzer #1 to gain entrance to the building. A light snack will be served. Location: The Neighborhood Preservation Center 232 East 11th Street, New York, NY 10003 (212) 228-2781

Time: 7:00 PM -9:00PM

Location:The Neighborhood Preservation Center 232 East 11th Street, New York, NY 10003 (212) 228-2781

Fees/Info: $5 per person. Registration is required.


NEW TOUR! From the late 1890s to at least the 1950s, there were multiple Jewish gangs in New York City, which engaged in “book” keeping, bootlegging, gambling and other nefarious crimes. Violence and murder were common in the struggle to expand territories and operations.

Who were these men behind the Prohibition-era organizations that supplied liquor to the speakeasies of Boston, New York and Chicago? How did the gangsters treat the leaders of the local Jewish establishment and their legitimate businesses? What was the gangsters’ connection to the growing labor movement in the garment industry?

On this NEW tour, led by Eric Ferrara, founder of the award-winning Lower East Side History Project, and of the original Museum of the American Gangster, we will explore how the Jewish Gangs and the Italian Mob fought with each other and at times built alliances, including the development of the Las Vegas casino industry by non-Nevadans.

Jewish Gangs of the Lower East Side will visit some of the infamous hangouts where men like Bugsy Siegal, Meyer Lansky & Jack Zelig began their criminal careers, plus the locations where their illegal businesses flourished. This tour will shed light on the Jews of this dark aspect of New York’s past.

The East Village, also known as Alphabet City, was home to many synagogues, schools and benevolent societies. These institutions are less well known than those of the nearby Lower East Side, but they served a sizable community even into the mid 1990s. Join author and tour guide Ellen Levitt (The Lost Synagogues of New York City) as we walk the “East Streets” to see a variety of formerly Jewish sites, including the forerunner to Park East Day School.

See Congregation Adas Yisroel Anshe Mezeritch, a building under transition. We will also view a synagogue that has been re-done in a rainbow riot of color. Expect the unexpected on this special new experience!

Join us as we trace the origins of Jewish settlement in New Amsterdam. We will visit the former locations of Jewish sites in Lower Manhattan and discuss their historical significance. Sites include early Spanish and Portuguese rented synagogues and Mill Street Synagogue, the first synagogue built in North America.

A tour of Congregation Shearith Israel’s cemetery at Chatham Square (now Chinatown) is included. This is the oldest known Jewish cemetery in New York City. From 1654 to 1825 all Jews in New York City belonged to this one congregation. This Jewish cemetery dates from 1683.

The LESJC is so pleased to have Janet Kirchheimer join us as a guide on this very special tour! Janet is a recipient of a Drishna Institute for Jewish Education Arts Fellowship, 2006-2007. She was also nominated for a Pushcart Prize in 2007, and is a teaching Fellow at The National Jewish Center for Learning and Leadership (CLAL). Janet teaches American Jewish history classes, and conducts workshops in which adults & teens explore their Jewishness through creative writing. Janet’s poetry has received endorsements from Nobel Laureate Elie Wiesel and other notable individuals. On the faculty at Congregation Shearith Israel, The Spanish and Portuguese Synagogue, she is more than equipped to be our new guide for this annual tour.

The Greater Lower East Side is recognized as New York City’s most iconic immigrant settlement.

Throughout the 19th and 20th centuries different ethnic groups- Irish fleeing the great famine, Jews from Eastern Europe, Italians, Hispanics and Asians have all shaped the area with distinct cultural patterns, use of physical space and the built environment. This tour will explore cultural institutions, ethnic markets, funeral homes and worship sites that characterized each neighborhood settlement. The accompanying narrative is a blend of New York City history and social history explaining the interaction between ethnicity, time and space.

This tour, led by Barry Feldman, is recommended for walkers with comfortable shoes.

The Upper West Side offers a wealth of cultural history and architectural styles: Beaux Arts, Art Nouveau & Art Deco. Boarded by Central and Riverside Parks, this 2.5 mile neighborhood is home to some of the most outstanding residential buildings in NYC.

In the 1930’s, throngs of Jewish refugees moved to the UWS, joining their numbers to an already large and diverse community. Today’s UWS is a powerhouse of shuls, schools, Jewish eateries and more.

On this new tour we will explore the area from W.86th to W.96th Streets, and discuss the Jewish history from the ‘inside’ with a tour of The Jewish Ceter, and viewings of other world-renown synagogues, including Ohab Zedek, Shaare Zedek, and B’nai Jeshurun. We will visit the former home of Zero Mostel. Isaac Bashevis Singer and Actors Studio founder, Lee Strasberg.

The tour will also include a view of one of the original Upper Westside mansions built at the height of the glory days of Riverside Drive in the 1890s. The Rice mansion was home to two distinguished UWS families and is now the home of Yeshiva Chofetz Chaim.

Time: 10:45 AM

Meeting Place: 86th Street and Central Park West, NE corner, park side.

Fees/Info: $20 adults, $18 seniors & students ($2 additional day of tour)

Have you ever tasted potatonik?

Join the LESJC for a stimulating stroll featuring delicacies based on original European recipes. Nosh on a fresh baked bialy, a pickle right out of the barrel, and potatonik. We will tour historic Jewish sites on and off the beaten path, including the Bialystoker Synagogue, originally the Willet Street Methodist Church (1826), a site on the Underground Railroad. We will also enter a shteibl, a one or two room house of prayer. View Beth Hamedrash Hagadol, pulpit of the only chief Rabbi ever appointed in NYC, and formerly the largest Russian, traditional Jewish congregation in the United States.

This tour will last approximately 3 hours. Price $22 in advance and $26 the day of the tour

Time: 2:00 PM

Meeting Place: Meet in front of Moishe’s Bakery at 504 Grand Street

Fees/Info: $22 adults ($4 additional day of tour)

Welcome to the Lower East Side. We’re shooting for Over the Rainbow with a great children’s program. Weather permitting, we’ll be going outside to the Siempre Verde community garden for seed planting, marshmallow roasting, and enjoying spring. Indoors, art and music teachers will run a scavenger hunt in our historic synagogue building, and teach holiday themed arts & crafts, rock painting, and we’ll have a special music concert. The painting shown here by artist and teacher David Wander connects to an older tradition of Jewish religious zodiacs called mazoles or mazelot, as re-interpreted by Stanton Street artists. The twelve original immigrant mazoles can be seen in the main sanctuary.

The bow and rainbow are symbols associated with Lag B’Omer and with the promise, or covenant of a green world that starts again after the destruction of the flood. Lag B’Omer is a Jewish holiday that joyously marks the halfway point of counting the days between two important festivals: Passover (Pesach) and Shevuot. On Pesach, we mark the Exodus with the remembrance of enslavement; on Shevuot we remember the giving of the Torah at Mount Sinai. Pesach is associated with the barley harvest; Shevuot, the wheat harvest.

Lower East Side History Month “aims to connect our present to our past, exploring how our history can inform and inspire our future.” We welcome you to our synagogue and neighborhood in partnership with the Lower East Side Jewish Conservancy, which connects our community’s historic synagogues to visitors and residents alike.

Popcorn and pretzel snacks will be served.

More Program information can be found on the Over The Rainbow Event Page.

About the Stanton Street Shul Stanton Street Shul is a historic immigrant shul built in 1913 by a small congregation from the town of Brzezan. They were joined by other Galitzianer immigrants from the towns of Rymanov and Blujzhev. All of these towns were in the eastern part of the Austria Hungarian Empire before World War I, and were part of Poland before World War II. The Lower East Side is changing rapidly; today the synagogue has a very young congregation and deeply values its immigrant connections to older congregants who came to the neighborhood after World War II. Check out the Stanton Street Shul Facebook page and website at to find out about our many events and weekly services.

Time: 11:00 AM – 1:00 PM

Meeting Place: Meet in front of the Stanton Street Shul. 180 Stanton Street, between Clinton and Attorney St.

Fees/Info: Adults: $3; children: $2

“You Be The Judge: Jewish Courts of Conciliation in Action”

Eastern European immigrants to America frequently turned to Jewish courts of arbitration to litigate civil, familial and business disputes. This participatory program presents a brief discussion of justice in Biblical and Talmudic sources followed by a lively presentation of cases brought before the courts in early 20th century New York. You be the Judge!

Time: 6:30 PM

Meeting Place:Lower East Side Jewish Conservancy Kling & Niman Family Visitor Center, 400 Grand Street (between Suffolk & Clinton Streets)

Fees/Info: Free. Pre-registration required. Event limited to 30 – Call to register at (212) 374-4100

Insider’s Walking Tours Vintage Goods Benefit Sale Launch of new Arts Exhibition STREETSCAPES OF THE LOWER EAST SIDE: The Paintings of Leah Raab.

This activity-packed day of exploring and learning about the Jewish history of Manhattan’s Lower East Side includes three walking tours of the neighborhood, a vintage goods benefit sale and special presentations by renowned guest speakers.

Events kick off at 10:45 AM at the LESJC Kling & Niman Family Visitor Center with walking tours exploring the historic neighborhood, considered by many the starting point of the American-Jewish experience.

10:45 AM is the “Crossing Delancey” tour, which examines three of the oldest synagogues in New York City: Congregation Chasam Sopher (built in 1853); the Orensanz Foundation (formerly Congregation Anshe Chesed, built in 1850); and Congregation B’nei Jacob Anshei Brzezan, one of only two remaining tenement style synagogues left on the Lower East Side.

11:00 AM “Bialystoker the Beautiful” is a 90-minute tour of the magnificent Bialystoker Synagogue, which was built in 1826 as a Methodist church, and its surroundings. The tour also makes stops at Congregation Beth Hachasidim De Polen (a 19th Century shtiebl, or prayer room) and at Beth Hamedrah Hagadol, former home of the largest Russian-Jewish Orthodox congregation in the United States.

2:00 PM Meet the Artist Reception for Leah Raab, who will address the participants. We are excited to have Artist Leah Raab give a live presentation of her works for her new show on display in our Visitor Center, “STREETSCAPES OF THE LOWER EAST SIDE”. Her works will be on view at the festival, and open to the public for a limited time thereafer.

A professional fine artist, Leah holds an MFA from the NY Studio School, and a BFA with highest honors from the acclaimed Bezalel Academy of Arts, Jerusalem, Israel. She has had numerous solo and collaborative exhibitions and has taught art on 2 continents for over 35 years.

3:00 PM The “Bialystoker the Beautiful” tour is presented a second time.

Tickets for tours are $12 for adults, $10 for seniors and students. Buy your walking tour tickets in advance online. Children under 8 tour for FREE!

This two hour walking tour celebrates the lives of women: ordinary, unsung heroines who battled to raise their families and make a life in the New World, as well as nine inspiring women who played leading social, political and artistic roles on the Lower East Side in the early 20th century. The tour of the famed Manhattan neighborhood will examine how the nine women lived and how they each came to effect change in New York City and beyond.

Participants will also enjoy a rare visit to the historic dining room at Henry Street Settlement, where Lillian D. Wald hosted distinguished guests ranging from President Theodore Roosevelt to W.E.B. Du Bois and delegates of National Negro Conference (after several NYC restaurants refused to accommodate the interracial group). Tour will conclude with a light lunch in the LESJC Kling & Niman Family Visitor Center.

Admission is $22. ($25 if purchased after May 7)

Space is limited. Please register by May 7th, 5 PM

Justin Ferate has been on the Board of Directors of the Fine Arts Federation of NYC, the National and Metropolitan chapters of the Victorian Society in America, the LESJC, and the NYC & Company Tour Guide Enhancement Program. Justin Ferate is also active in numerous historic and preservation societies. With a background in Urban and Architectural History, Justin was awarded fellowships to study 19th Century Architecture and Design in Philadelphia, Newport and London.

Some of the women that will be featured on the tour:

Lillian D. Wald (1867-1940), founder of Henry Street Settlement and the Visiting Nurse Service of New York. The settlement provided home health care, recreational, cultural and educational programs for immigrants and their families living on the Lower East Side. As a social welfare activist, she was an early leader in the movements for public health, education and labor reform, improved housing, civil rights and world peace.

Emma Goldman (1869-1940), anarchist and self-styled revolutionary. She supported herself by working in sweatshops and, later, as a midwife. In her writings and as a fiery orator, she advocated for workers’ rights, free speech, birth control and atheism. Jailed numerous times, she was called “the most dangerous woman in America” and deported to Russia in 1917.

Rose Pastor Stokes (1879-1933), “The Red Yiddish Cinderella.” She was a cigar maker turned journalist whose marriage to a son of a wealthy uptown family made headlines in the NY press. Together the Socialist power couple traveled around the country speaking at lectures and rallies in support of social justice and economic equality.

Belle Moskowitz (1877-1933), political strategist and top advisor to NY Governor and presidential candidate Alfred E. Smith. As a young widow and mother, she worked at the Educational Alliance and became involved in liberal causes. She was successful in mobilizing the women’s vote for Gov. Smith and framing his progressive legislation that led to F.D.R’s New Deal.

Clara Lemlich (1886-1982), union leader. As a youthful shirtwaist maker, she led a strike in 1909 of sweatshop workers known as the “Uprising of the 20,000.” The young women marched on pickets lines for 14 weeks, demanding higher pay and safer working conditions. Although they achieved limited concessions, their determination energized the nascent labor movement.

Anzia Yezierska (c. 1880-1970), author. Her novels, short stories and semi-fictional autobiographical writing vividly depict immigrant life on the Lower East Side and the struggles and conflicts of women of her generation assimilating to life in America. In 1920, Samuel Goldwyn invited her to Hollywood, as an advisor for a film based on some of her short stories.

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Walking Tour Calendar – Lower East Side Jewish Conservancy

Free african-american heritage Essays and Papers

Posted By on November 21, 2016

Title Length Color Rating Everday Use: African-American Heritage – “Everyday Use:” African-American Heritage Everyone is raised within a culture with a set of customs and morals handed down by those generations before us. As individuals, we view and experience heritage in different ways. During history, different ethnic groups have struggled with finding their place within society. In the 1950s and 60s African Americans faced a great deal of political and social discrimination based on the tone of their skin. After the Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s, many African Americans no longer wanted to be identified by their African American lifestyle, so they began to practice African culture by taking on “Afro hairdos, African-influenced clothing, and adoptio… [tags: Alice Walker] 1155 words (3.3 pages) Strong Essays [preview] African American History: Heritage, not Hate – African American History: “Heritage, not Hate” When exploring African-American history, the most important things to focus on are that because of the times, black people were enslaved and treated poorly. They endured it all and worked hard to rise above the boundaries of slavery and prejudice. However, the most portentous aspect of African-American history is that it’s heritage; it’s history; and it’s over. Jane Minor was born as Gensey Snow around the late 1700’s or early 1800’s. She was born into slavery and freed around 1825 when she changed her name…. [tags: American America History] 415 words (1.2 pages) Strong Essays [preview] Defining African-American Heritage in Everyday Use by Alice Walker – Missing Works Cited Everyday Use,: Defining African-American Heritage In ,Everyday Use,, Alice Walker tells a story of a mother,s problematic relationship with her two daughters. At this side, ,Everyday Use, tells that how a mother little by little refuses the cursory values of her older, successful daughter at the aspect of the practical values of her younger, less fortunate daughter. On a deeper side, Alice Walker looks for the concept of heritage and its norms as it applies to African-Americans…. [tags: essays research papers] 2907 words (8.3 pages) Strong Essays [preview] The Significance of the Blues in History – The blues is a musical genre that was created in the fields by slaves as a way of communication that was not understood by their masters and overseers. Slaves sang about their misfortunes, the sadness and abuse they received on the plantations. This music would eventually evolve into lyrics that had a one line stance that would repeat four times. Blues were more of an emotion driven by long lost love, betrayal, adultery, and sadness. The blues progressed in the Mississippi Delta to New Orleans…. [tags: African American Heritage, Blackface Minstrels] :: 6 Works Cited 1742 words (5 pages) Powerful Essays [preview] What Heritage Really Means and What it May be Portrayed As – … Dee misinterprets the essential meaning of the quilts and how they were created because of her understanding to the traditional African culture she became deeply influenced. However, these quilts were a representation of Dees significant family members, and they were meaningful to Mama and Maggie because they understood the importance of these quilts that were so carefully sown. They had been pieced by Grandma Dee and then Big Dee and me had hung them on the quilt frames on the front porch and quilted them (Walker 1129)…. [tags: heritage, alice walker, everyday use] 656 words (1.9 pages) Better Essays [preview] African American History in America – In From Slavery to Freedom (2007), it was said that the transition from slavery to freedom represents one of the major themes in the history of African Diaspora in the Americas (para. 1). African American history plays an important role in American history not only because the Civil Rights Movement, but because of the strength and courage of Afro-Americans struggling to live a good life in America. Afro-Americans have been present in this country since the early 1600s, and have been making history since…. [tags: History Blacks African American] :: 9 Works Cited 1055 words (3 pages) Strong Essays [preview] America Should Pay Reparations to African Americans – America Should Pay Reparations to African Americans The United States government should pay reparations to African Americans as a means of admitting their wrong-doing and making amends. The damages African Americans have sustained from White Americas policy of slavery have been agonizing and inhumane. Therefore, I am in favor of reparations for African Americans. The effect of slavery has been an enduring issue within the African American community. Many of us are cognizant of the harm racism brought to the African American race, conveyed through slavery, racial segregation and discrimination…. [tags: African Americans Slavery Racism Essays] 1153 words (3.3 pages) Strong Essays [preview] Death and the African American Literature – Racism in the United States is without a doubt one of the most gruesome forms of inhumanity. This disease generated the dehumanization of slavery which has taken the lives of innumerable innocent African Americans. It has also robbed a whole race of their identities, heritages and cultures. Throughout the myriad of novels, excerpts, poems, videos and other forms of literature that we encountered in this course, it is unmistakable that the African American literary tradition demonstrates that the past (the unbelievable sufferings of African Americans) can never be arrested and forgotten…. [tags: Racial Relations, Racism] 2485 words (7.1 pages) Powerful Essays [preview] The Importance of Heritage in “Everyday Use” – In Everyday Use by Alice Walker the exact setting is never revealed and therefore, can only be guessed, but it has been guessed that the story takes place on a country side in Georgia. At one point in the story Augusta is mentioned. The time is also estimated to be during the Civil Rights Movement around the year of 1973. Mrs. Johnson, along with her two daughters, reside in a small three room house, and take pride in there small yard. As Maggie and Dee grow older they start to realize how important their heritage, and family heirlooms are, Maggie in particular…. [tags: Literary Analysis ] :: 5 Works Cited 844 words (2.4 pages) Good Essays [preview] African American Hardships – African American Hardships During pre-colonial African kinship and inheritance, it provided the bases of organization of many African American communities. African American men were recognized for the purpose of inheritance. They also inherited their clan names based on their accomplishments, as well as other things when one decease. Land was not owned in many parts of Africa during the pre-colonial period. It was yet held and distributed by African American men. Access to the land by women depended on their obligations or duties within the gendered division of labor…. [tags: African American Studies] 1290 words (3.7 pages) Good Essays [preview] Is The African American Family Slowly Disintegrating? – Is The African American Family Slowly Disintegrating. America, as we know it today, is composed of an eclectic mix of cultures including African, Asian, Hispanic, Native American as well as diverse European cultures. These cultures have amalgamated in some ways, but in other ways certain cultures have established themselves as dominant, immensely contributing to the paradigm shifts in the American culture. The English language, for example, is the language that is prevalently spoken in the United States today; it is traditionally associated with the Yankees who have European descent…. [tags: Family African American Black Essays] :: 3 Works Cited 1485 words (4.2 pages) Powerful Essays [preview] Respecting Heritage and No Discrimination – In 1 Timothy 5:8, it says, If anyone does not provide for his relatives, and especially for his immediate family, he has denied the faith and is worse than an unbeliever (The Holy Bible). Many people have become prideful of them and have rejected anyone who is unlike himself or herself. However, the bible teaches that if anyone rejects and does not care for his or her relatives, then that person is no better than a worldly person who does not have faith and belief. In the short story Everyday Use by Alice Walker, the narrator, mama, tries to comprehend the true significance of heritage…. [tags: Discrimination ] :: 1 Works Cited 936 words (2.7 pages) Better Essays [preview] The Role of Female African American Sculptors in the Harlem Renaissance – The Role of Female African American Sculptors in the Harlem Renaissance The Harlem Renaissance, a time of global appreciation for the black culture, was a door opening for African American women. Until then, African Americans, let alone African American women, were neither respected nor recognized in the artistic world. During this time of this New Negro Movement, women sculptors were able to connect their heritages with the present issues in America. There is an abundance of culture and history to be learned from these sculptures because the artists creatively intertwine both…. [tags: American America History] :: 6 Works Cited 1699 words (4.9 pages) Powerful Essays [preview] Gwendolyn Brooks: An African American Poet – Gwendolyn Brooks did not let her hurdles in life slow her down. In fact, Brooks used her obstacles to her advantage, and sprinted towards the finish line. Gwendolyn faced financial struggles, and limited opportunities due to her racial background. However, Brooks achieved many accomplishments and used her African American heritage to become one of Americas best poetic authors. Gwendolyn Brooks has said that her poetry was written for blacks and about blacks, yet any person of any race can relate to the universal themes portrayed in her pieces…. [tags: Literature, Biography, Author] :: 6 Works Cited 1128 words (3.2 pages) Strong Essays [preview] Understanding Ones Values and Heritage – In Everyday Use by Alice Walker, she describes a persons legacy as particularly useful and sacred through quilting. Walker is an American writer who is best known for her novel The Color Purple, which won an Academy Award in 1985 after it was made into a movie. Dee and Maggie grew up in the same household nurtured by the same mother. The sisters exposure to the same values aided in their expressions of maturity differently. A persons values and the roots of their culture evolve incidentally as they are taught and by what they value historic and sacred…. [tags: Literary Analysis ] :: 10 Works Cited 1629 words (4.7 pages) Powerful Essays [preview] Essential Differences in Terms of Black and African American – In John H. McWhorters essay Why I am Black, Not African American, the term African American is being stressed out and misused. McWhorter says, Its time we descendants of slaves brought to the United States let go of the term African American and go back to calling ourselves black with a capital B (527). I agree with McWhorters argument about calling African Americans Black. I feel people should not be addressing a person as an Italian American, if one has a heritage in America. So why should the term African American be treated by one descendants nationality…. [tags: Race] :: 1 Works Cited 946 words (2.7 pages) Better Essays [preview] African American Issues: Slavery and Continuing Racism – There are many issues that African Americans face in todays society, many of which I had not realized until after taking Africana Studies. Some issues dwell on the horrific past of the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade, which not only is history, but also is part of African American heritage (Karenga, 2010). African Americans frequently experience many perilous problems, such as dire economic situations and feelings of hostility from the cultural mainstream in America (Kaufman, 1971). The cultural collision between African Americans and whites continues to create several problems in society…. [tags: Race, Slavery] :: 9 Works Cited 894 words (2.6 pages) Better Essays [preview] Misconceptions of African American life – Misconceptions of African American life When you control a man’s thinking you do not have to worry about his actions. You do not have to tell him not to stand here or go yonder. He will find his “proper place” and will stay in it. You do not need to send him to the back door. He will go without being told. In fact, if there is no back door, he will cut one for his special benefit. His education makes it necessary. This quote, spoken true by a prominent African American scholar of the 20th century, Carson Woodson, is aimed at shedding light on the inherent miseducation of African Americans…. [tags: essays papers] 2543 words (7.3 pages) Powerful Essays [preview] Targeting African American Consumers – Targeting African American Consumers Introduction African Americans are a core group that influence trends in music, fashion, and television. Corporations are using Mainstream Agencies to target African American consumers by using African American superstars like Michael Jordan, Tyra Banks and Bill Cosby through television. Although Blacks may be reached by mainstream media, many of them respond more favorably to culturally-based communications that acknowledge their heritage and respect their culture (Armstrong, 1999)…. [tags: Papers] 2918 words (8.3 pages) Strong Essays [preview] Family Heritage In Everyday Use – Family Heritage In Everyday Use In Alice Walker’s “Everyday Use,” the message about the preservation of heritage, specifically African-American heritage, is very clear. It is obvious that Walker believes that a person’s heritage should be a living, dynamic part of the culture from which it arose and not a frozen timepiece only to be observed from a distance. There are two main approaches to heritage preservation depicted by the characters in this story. The narrator, a middle-aged African-American woman, and her youngest daughter Maggie, are in agreement with Walker…. [tags: Everyday Use Alice Walker Essays] :: 1 Works Cited 1197 words (3.4 pages) Strong Essays [preview] African American History – African American History During my early years of school, I remember being taught white accomplishments and wondering if blacks and other people of color had made any significant contributions to today’s world. I noticed that television consist of all white people. Throughout my research paper I hope to cover certain aspects of African American heritage. Aspects such as blacks making up the largest minority group in the United States, although Mexican-Americans are rapidly changing that. The contributions blacks have provided to our country are immeasurable…. [tags: Race Papers] :: 1 Works Cited 2126 words (6.1 pages) Powerful Essays [preview] Facts about African American History – FACTS ABOUT AFRICAN AMERICAN HISTORY I. Introduction to Afro-American History A. Central theme-Quest for 1. Freedom, 2. Equality, 3. Manhood/Women Suffrage B. Reasons for the Afro-American Movement-1. Record sake, 2. Inspirational Sake, 3. Fight for the concept that blacks are inferior. C. Africanism-anything that has an African origin D. Eras of History- Ancient (Stone Age), Medieval (Dark Ages History), Modern (Reform), & Current II. Discuss the four group of Black Historians…. [tags: essays research papers] 660 words (1.9 pages) Better Essays [preview] The Theme of Heritage in Everday Use – In her late twentieth-century short story Everyday Use, African-American writer Alice Walker contrasts the struggle between the main characters involving the recurring theme. The story takes place in a rural Georgia setting during the 1970s. The plot circulates around Mama, Maggie, and Dee. Throughout, heritage develops and remains a central theme revolving them. Each of these women in the Johnson family tries to stay true to heritage value. But different roles of heritage exist between each woman, so their ways of achieving this mission differs…. [tags: Character Analysis, Mama, Maggie, and Dee] 1457 words (4.2 pages) Better Essays [preview] West African Kingdoms – West African Kingdoms It is generally accepted by scholars and scientists today that Africa is the original home of man. One of the most tragic misconceptions of historical thought has been the belief that Black Africa had no history before European colonization. Whites foster the image of Africa as a barbarous and savage continent torn by tribal warfare for centuries. It was a common assumption of nineteenth-century European and American Whites – promoted by the deliberate cultivation of pseudoscientific racism – that Africans were inferior to Whites and were devoid of any trace of civilization or culture…. [tags: African History] :: 5 Works Cited 996 words (2.8 pages) Strong Essays [preview] The Meaning of Heritage in Alice Walker’s Everyday Use – The Meaning of Heritage in Alice Walker’s Everyday Use Alice Walker’s “Everyday Use,” is a story about a poor, African-American family and a conflict about the word “heritage.” In this short story, the word “heritage” has two meanings. One meaning for the word “heritage” represents family items, thoughts, and traditions passed down through the years. The other meaning for the word “heritage” represents the African-American culture. There are three women in this short story, two sisters and their mother…. [tags: Everyday Use Alice Walker essays] :: 4 Works Cited 988 words (2.8 pages) Strong Essays [preview] Essay on the African American Dream in Song of Solomon – The African American Dream in Song of Solomon Like most Americans, African Americans have developed variations of the American Dream. Many African Americans find that their dream differs from the traditional American dream in that there is no immediate success. Sometimes the dream consists of equality via liberty or literacy, while at other times it is a simple desire to know self through historical connection. In Toni Morrison’s Song of Solomon, Milkman was literate and had many options for further education, if so desired…. [tags: Song Solomon essays] :: 2 Works Cited 960 words (2.7 pages) Strong Essays [preview] Heritage in Everyday Use, by Alice Walker – Heritage is one of the most important factors that represents where a person came from. In Everyday Use by Alice Walker, this short story characterizes not only the symbolism of heritage, but also separates the difference between what heritage really means and what it may be portrayed as. Throughout the story, it reveals an African-American family living in small home and struggling financially. Dee is a well-educated woman who struggles to understand her family’s heritage because she is embarrassed of her mother and sister, Mama and Maggie…. [tags: everyday use, alice walker] :: 1 Works Cited 1063 words (3 pages) Strong Essays [preview] Accepting One’s Heritage in “Everyday Use” – Author Alice Walker is an African American woman who grew up in the rural south during segregation, as is the narrator in “Everyday Use”, Ms. Johnson. Walker feels that one’s name should be revered for its symbol of ancestry, as she did when she took back her maiden name to honor her great-great-great-grandmother. In Walker’s “Everyday Use,” she uses a symbolic quilt to express the differences of understanding one’s heritage within a single family. The precise setting of “Everyday Use” is not given but it can be assumed that the geographical setting is in a southern countryside likely to be in Georgia…. [tags: American Literature] 772 words (2.2 pages) Good Essays [preview] Double-Conciousness in The Souls of Black Folk by W.E.B. Du Bois – BETWEEN me and the other world there is ever an unasked question: unasked by some through feelings of delicacy; by others through the difficulty of rightly framing it.instead of saying directly, How does it feel to be a problem. They say, I know an excellent colored man in my town; or, I fought at Mechanicsville; or, Do not these Southern outrages make your blood boil (Du Bois 1)? In The Souls of Black Folk W.E.B. Du Bois raises awareness to a psychological challenge of African Americans, known as double – consciousness, as a result of living in two worlds: the world of the predominant white race and the African American community…. [tags: American Values, African Americans] :: 3 Works Cited 1010 words (2.9 pages) Strong Essays [preview] History Of Black Males In American Society – History Of Black Males In American Society The black community have always been suppressed and oppressed by the dominant and powerful white members of society. The historical social order of Americans meant that traditionally positions of power have been held by a very exclusive group of people; members of this group are stereotypically middle class, middle aged, white males with nuclear families. This Caucasian dominance is well documented throughout history and is epitomized by the slavery of African, and Caribbean Negroes in America by white settlers and pilgrims, which continued for many hundreds of years…. [tags: African-American Race Papers] 917 words (2.6 pages) Better Essays [preview] Ira Aldridge: The First African-American Othello – Many actors throughout the centuries have performed William Shakespeares Othello, both on stage and in film. A few famous actors to have played Othello include Richard Burbage, Edmund Kean, Ira Aldridge, Orson Welles, James Earl Jones, and Laurence Fishburne (Arogundade). Othello was described as a Moor by Shakespeare, despite this, Othello was usually performed by white actors that would wear blackface makeup. Not only were women not allowed to perform in theatre, neither were African-Americans…. [tags: actor, william shakespeare, white actors] :: 7 Works Cited 1913 words (5.5 pages) Term Papers [preview] Diversity Statement – African American – Diversity Statement – African American When people hear the word ‘diversity’, they often think in terms of black and white. I believe the true meaning of diversity is not simply about skin color, economic background or the face value of any other characteristic, rather it is the increased knowledge and sensitivity gained from unique experiences. The strength of diversity then comes from having many points of view and trying to reconcile them by finding common truths or resolving differences amongst people…. [tags: College Admissions Essays] 882 words (2.5 pages) Better Essays [preview] Importance of African American Literature Addressing the Black Experience – The role of African American literature in recent years has been to illuminate for the modern world the sophistication and beauty inherent in their culture as well as the constant struggle they experience in the oppressive American system. When writers such as Langston Hughes, W.E.B. DuBois and Alice Walker present their material, they manage to convey to a future world the great depth of feeling and meaning their particular culture retained as compared with the culture of their white counterparts…. [tags: race, racism] 3067 words (8.8 pages) Powerful Essays [preview] Gates and Wilsons Theories on African Diaspora Musics – Gates and Wilsons Theories on African Diaspora Musics Some scholars theorize that the Middle Passage to the Americas was so traumatic that most African influence was eradicated, and that few traces of Africa exist in African-American music. This cultural tabulala [sic] rasa theory is rightfully rejected by many scholars (Wilson 3). The inflow of African people to the New World was brought on by the existence of slavery, and resulted in the creation of a sort of extension of the African continent in a different hemisphere…. [tags: Music Wilson African Gates Essays Papers] :: 4 Works Cited 1584 words (4.5 pages) Strong Essays [preview] Race Murder and Community Trauma: The Impact of the Killing of James Byrd in Jasper, Texas – In the late 1900s, racial tension was considered by society, to be non-existent until James Byrd Jr. was murdered. In 1998, James Byrd Jr, an African American male age of 49 was kidnapped. Byrd was not kidnapped for ransom, but for an outcome of death. After leaving a family gathering Byrd was manipulated into getting a ride home from three white men. The three men included John King, Shawn Berry, and Lawrence Brewer, whom established ties to racist organizations during previous prison terms.(Brookfield)…. [tags: racial tension, african-american ] :: 6 Works Cited 1015 words (2.9 pages) Strong Essays [preview] Influence of African Music in North American and Latin American Music – … African lutes were usually made from gourds, wood, twine, and animal hide. The first appearance of the banjo in American culture is the minstrel era of the middle to late 19th century. In the minstrel show, white players would smear burnt cork on their faces, dress in outrageous clothing, don a banjo, tambourine, and fiddle, and act the fool on stage for an adoring audience; From the late 1860s to 1890s, black minstrel troupes also formed, but audiences preferred Jim Crow acts to authentic performances, further relegating minstrel performances to the realm of comedy at the expense of historical and cultural accuracy (The Banjo: From Africa to American and Beyond)…. [tags: jazz, culture, rhythm, drums] :: 7 Works Cited 1429 words (4.1 pages) Powerful Essays [preview] African American Culture – African American Culture Culture is not a fixed phenomenon, nor is it the same in all places or to all people. It is relative to time, place, and particular people. Learning about other people can help us to understand ourselves and to be better world citizens. One of the most common ways of studying culture is to focus on the differences within and among cultures. Although their specifics may vary form one culture to another, sociologists refer to those elements or characteristics that can be found in every know society as cultural universals…. [tags: Papers] 954 words (2.7 pages) Better Essays [preview] African Americans – … “White” Baldwin’s Nigger. (1968): Print James Baldwin discusses a conversation he had with a and how the man questioned his origin, Baldwin responded I cant find where Im from because my entry to America was a bill of sale and that stops you from going any further , at some point in our history I became Baldwins Nigger, that cant be my fault,. The cause of African Americans having no way of conveniently learns their culture leaves an everlasting effect on the community with a position of inadequacy…. [tags: racism, culture, inferior] 1658 words (4.7 pages) Powerful Essays [preview] Instilled Heritage – Instilled Heritage Alice Walker usually puts herself into characters that she writes about in her stories. However, you dont understand this unless you know about her. Staring with this let us find out about who she is and where she came from. When recounting the life of Alice Walker, you find out that she was born to sharecroppers in Eatonton, Georgia in 1944 and was the baby of eight children. She lost one of her eyes when her brother shot her with a BB gun by accident. She was valedictorian of her class in high school and with that and receiving a scholarship; she went to Spelman, a college for black women, in Atlanta…. [tags: essays research papers fc] :: 1 Works Cited 1373 words (3.9 pages) Strong Essays [preview] The Usability of Symbolism in Everyday Use by Alice Walker – Symbolism is a technique that authors uses to bring out the main importance of an object, but more emphasized details are being extracted in the usage of it. Alice Walker uses quilts, for example, to symbolize a bond between women (Spark Notes) a relationship between women, that would get passed down from generation to generation. In this story, symbolism plays a big role that makes this more attracted to the readers eyes. The characters such as the following: Mama Johnson, Dee, and Maggie all symbolize a manifold of different things that happened and/or took place back in the 1950s and 1960s…. [tags: quilts, civil rights movement, heritage, culture] :: 6 Works Cited 1226 words (3.5 pages) Strong Essays [preview] Essay on African-American American Nightmare in Song of Solomon – American Dream or African-American American Nightmare The Declaration of Independence was written so Americans could achieve this dream, but the African slave was never intended to be a part of this American Dream. To the African-American, there were and still are many restrictions that go along with the American Dream. In Toni Morrison’s novel, Song of Solomon, Macon Dead craved for the American Dream. He was in denial and believed that he could be just as successful as the white man…. [tags: Song Solomon essays] :: 2 Works Cited 782 words (2.2 pages) Better Essays [preview] Beneatha as a paradigm for African American Women in A Raisin in The Sun – In Lorraine Hansberrys 1959 play A Raisin in the Sun a number of social issues are both explicitly and subtly exemplified through out the characters experiences and relationships. Living in a cramped Chicago apartment, the Youngers display both influential goals and conflicting restraints. Beneatha Youngers is a controversial character; she complicates societys typical gender roles, introduces the wrestle between assimilation and ancestry of African-Americans, but specifically serves as a paradigm for her generation in the play…. [tags: Theatre] :: 1 Works Cited 2103 words (6 pages) Term Papers [preview] Hispanic American Culture Dance – Hispanic American community are rooted from their origins in Cuba, Mexico, Puerto Rico, and other Spanish speaking countries that have come together and form a culture in the United State of America. The culture is built in different categories; for instance, religion, social custom, health practices their privacy, and birth. They come from a comprehensive familiar culture that has been called the second in America. Because of their pride and affection they feel unsafe to give up their past. Their notoriety in the United State has been their resistance to assimilate; their guarded image of Hispanic-American culture has been the tongue of flame…. [tags: Hispanic, American, Culture, Dancing, ] 925 words (2.6 pages) Better Essays [preview] African American Youth and their Lack of Interest in Black History Month – … This has affected the African American culture greatly, todays black youth are far less likely to have an understanding of the rich legacy celebrated by Black History Month than lets say their grandparents generation. The average grandparents generation started in the late 50s a time where they would have been directly affected by the Civil Rights Movement and other major events that were taking place in in the Black community. They were there to fight first hand for the rights that todays youth so commonly abuse…. [tags: Teenagers, Culture] 819 words (2.3 pages) Strong Essays [preview] Biography of Alvin Ailey – Although blackness influenced much of Alvin Aileys work, he ultimately felt that the importance lay in the dancer rather than the race. Ailey told the New York Times, “I am trying to show the world that we are all human beings and that color is not important. What is important is the quality of our work.” Alvin Ailey, an iconic American choreographer, was born on January 5, 1931, in Rogers, Texas. Being an African-American born in the South influenced much of Aileys later work. He grew up in the height of racial segregations, lynching, and violence…. [tags: racial segregation, african-american, music] :: 7 Works Cited 1013 words (2.9 pages) Strong Essays [preview] The Idea of Mapping Out American Historiography – … These groups of people would include Native Americans, African Americans, Women, and poor Whites. I believe that this move is very important to understand the whole story of the American Revolution. The Revolution was not fought by a couple of people; the majority of the people living in the thirteen colonies played a role-one side or the other. Even large groups of Europeans living in Europe played a vital role during the founding of this nation. As historians we need to keep adding multiple perspectives to understand the whole story…. [tags: historians, historiography, american history] 759 words (2.2 pages) Better Essays [preview] The Effect of Cultural and Historical Situations on American Literature – Professor Brattoli American literature is almost always tied to historical and social events of the era in which it was written. There is a connection between literary works from different time periods. This connection is how history, current events and social events have impacted American Literature. Literary works and writing styles have been affected and influence by the world around us. This is seen in many of the works assigned for this class. In order to see how cultural and historical situations affect literature throughout history, it is important to get a brief history on each era discussed in this paper…. [tags: American Literature ] 1158 words (3.3 pages) Strong Essays [preview] The African Methodist Episcopal Church – The African Methodist Episcopal Church also known as the AME Church, represents a long history of people going from struggles to success, from embarrassment to pride, from slaves to free. It is my intention to prove that the name African Methodist Episcopal represents equality and freedom to worship God, no matter what color skin a person was blessed to be born with. The thesis is this: While both Whites and Africans believed in the worship of God, whites believed in the oppression of the Africans freedom to serve God in their own way, blacks defended their own right to worship by the development of their own church…. [tags: Religion] 2467 words (7 pages) Powerful Essays [preview] African American Culture – Peace It seems quite safe to assume that all human beings desire peace. What is not always very clear is what each person means by peace and how it can be attained and maintained. Religion and peace in an African culture have been almost natural companions in the minds of humans in different periods of history and in different cultures of the world. This is because, although far too many adherents and leaders of the different religions in the world have disrupted the peace in the society by promoting violence and wars, the vast majority of believers still hold that true religion is a source and guarantor of individual and societal peace…. [tags: essays research papers] 666 words (1.9 pages) Better Essays [preview] Essay on the Myths of the African American Woman in Song of Solomon – Defying the Myths of the African American Woman in Song of Solomon Throughout slavery, myths were created that tainted the image of the African American woman. These myths promote the misconceptions that African American women are promiscuous and are virtually useless. These myths caused these women to be degraded in the eyes of others as well as themselves. In Toni Morrison’s Song of Solomon womanhood is defined in ways that have destroyed these myths. Womanhood is defined according to one’s sexuality, spirituality, beauty, identity, relationships, and motherhood…. [tags: Song Solomon essays] 826 words (2.4 pages) Strong Essays [preview] African American Culture through Oral Tradition – African American Culture through Oral Tradition African American folktales have origins rooted in West African literary and cultural forms of expression. When Africans were taken from their homeland and brought to America as slaves, they also brought with them their individual cultures, languages and customs. However, their white slaveholders suppressed this part of their heritage in them. Thus they had to find other ways of expression, mainly story telling and songs. It is incredible to see how African slaves could ever smile and laugh under the horrible and cruel circumstances, which were imposed on them by the brutal slaveholders…. [tags: Essays Papers] :: 11 Works Cited 3414 words (9.8 pages) Powerful Essays [preview] Sara Smolinsky and Cultural Pluralism in Jewish-American Culture – George Schuylers article The Negro Art Hokum argues that the notion of African-American culture as separate from national American culture is nonsense. To Schuyler, all seemingly distinct elements of African-American culture and artistic endeavors from such are influenced by the dominant white American culture, and therefore, only American. The merit of Schuylers argument stems from the fact that it is practically impossible for one culture to exist within the confines of another without absorbing certain characteristics…. [tags: Literature, American Culture] 1184 words (3.4 pages) Strong Essays [preview] Aspects Of A Negro Life – Aspects Of A Negro Life Through his political activism and his artwork, Douglas dramatically changed the way other artists viewed African Americans. Politically, he helped found and served as president for the activist organization that drastically assisted with employing thousands of artists. he 1920s and 1930s brought drastic changes to the lives of many African Americans. Geographically, they migrated toward the urban, industrialized North, not only to escape racial prejudices and economic hardships, but also to attain higher social and economic status…. [tags: African American Culture Essays] :: 6 Works Cited 1790 words (5.1 pages) Powerful Essays [preview] Conflicting Ideas about Identities and Ancestry in Everyday Use – In Everyday Use, Alice Walker conveys the story of a mother and her two daughters conflicting ideas about their identities and ancestry. Mama is a simple woman that values culture and heritage for its usefulness but also its personal significance. However, her daughter Dee represents a materialistic way of life where culture and heritage are to be valued only for their artistic appeal. Walker displays how Mamas perception of her two daughters changes regarding how they view the importance of heritage…. [tags: superficiality, heritage, alice walker] :: 1 Works Cited 1065 words (3 pages) Better Essays [preview] Impact of Cultural Heritage on Bryce Courtenay and Ernest Hemingway – Impact of Cultural Heritage on Bryce Courtenay and Ernest Hemingway Throughout the world, there are many diverse cultures, each of these distinct cultures have different backgrounds, rituals and practices. These cultures have a profound effect on the minds of their inhabitants. It’s a person’s culture which effects their thoughts, beliefs and their outlook upon life. It doesn’t matter where you are from or where you go to, you always have a piece of your culture with you wherever you are…. [tags: Biography Biographies Essays] :: 7 Works Cited 1861 words (5.3 pages) Strong Essays [preview] Religion, Biothecis and Nursing Practice – Cultural heritage plays a vital role in influencing health practices, and also evaluates how the health care provider and the patient perceive the illness. Cultural competence is exceptionally significant in the nursing practice as a culturally competent health care system can only exist with culturally competent nurses (Green & Reinckens, 2013). Nursing is an all-inclusive profession that scrutinizes and functions with individuals, families and the communities. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines health promotion as the process of enabling people to control and have the knowledge to improve their health (World Health Organization, n.d.)…. [tags: health promotion, nursing, heritage] :: 7 Works Cited 1049 words (3 pages) Strong Essays [preview] 1968: A Year Of American Transformation – In the duration of one year, 1968, the American national mood shifted from general confidence and optimism to chaotic confusion. Certainly the most turbulent twelve months of the post-WWII period and arguably one of the most disturbing episodes the country has endured since the Civil War, 1968 offers the world a glimpse into the tumultuous workings of a revolution. Although the entire epoch of the 1960’s remains significant in US history, 1968 stands alone as the pivotal year of the decade; it was the moment when all of the nation’s urges toward violence, sublimity, diversity, and disorder peaked to produce a transformation great enough to blanket an entire society…. [tags: History Culture US American] 1636 words (4.7 pages) Powerful Essays [preview] Black Reformation through Double Consciousness – Philosophical writer W.E.B. Du Bois provides a stimulating analysis of the importance of African American existence in a society that emphasizes white superiority and black inferiority. Du Bois introduces the idea of double consciousness, an ideology that defines African Americans seeking to reconcile two different cultures that create their modern identity. The application of this concept is important because discovering the identity of an oppressed and indoctrinated people, desperately attempting to bridge the gap between an elaborate African culture and American adaptation that desensitizes the race from heritage, creates a neutral standard of expression that is used to form a new coheren… [tags: Du Bois, African Americans, The Veil] :: 5 Works Cited 1792 words (5.1 pages) Powerful Essays [preview] Comparisons and Contrasts of Phillis Wheatley and Paul Laurence Dunbar – Comparisons and Contrasts of Phillis Wheatley and Paul Laurence Dunbar The purpose of this essay is to clearly acknowledge similarities as well as differences amongst two great writers: Phyllis Wheatley and Paul L. Dunbar. Wheatley and Dunbar were two brilliant African American writers born of two different centuries. Both began writing at an early age and were seen as black child prodigies of their times. The points of comparison these two writers share are that they were both iconic poets of their day and that they wrote in what is referred to as black dialect. The differences between them are their cultural and educational backgrounds…. [tags: African American Writers] 675 words (1.9 pages) Better Essays [preview] The Latino Socioeconomic – Just like every individual in the U.S., the desire to provide a better life for their families is a driving force for the Latino population. The Latino immigrants not only face discrimination upon their arrival, but also deal with the emotions of being away from their home country, the security of their families, friends, culture, and traditions. The reception that they experience on arrival is far from welcoming. The negativity towards immigration, be it warranted or not, is not good for our country…. [tags: Immigration, Illegal, Culture, Heritage] :: 3 Works Cited 873 words (2.5 pages) Better Essays [preview] Racism Is an Ugly Word in America – Racism an ugly word in America, it has been with us since the beginning. Even more, it has been a force that has been directly involved with our foundation and growth. Whether slave trade and labor in the post-revolutionary era, or social upheaval and out right conflict in the Civil War era, to the ultimate uprising and revolution of the civil rights era that changed this country forever, racism has left its fingerprint on our national history. However in 2008, all that seemed to change, as America made history and embraced her first African American president, Barack Obama…. [tags: United States, American History, African Americans] 1432 words (4.1 pages) Powerful Essays [preview] The Piano Lesson Play Analysis – In the play, The Piano Lesson, music played an important role. The piano in the play represented the African American history and culture. The ghost of Sutter represented the pain and trauma that had been endured throughout the generations in the Charles family. Berniece did not play the piano because she associated it with pain and the bad things that happened to her family members. She did not want to accept the things that had happened in her familys past. She thought that she could deny everything and act like it never happened…. [tags: piano, african american culture] 932 words (2.7 pages) Better Essays [preview] Racism and Ethnicity Issues in Morrison, OConnor, and Kingstons Novels – The central problem in Flannery OConnors story, Everything That Rises Must Converge, Maxine Hong Kingstons The Woman Warrior, and Toni Morrisons Recitatif, revolve on the issue of race. Morrison and OConnor focus on the theme of race specifically between blacks and whites in America. It could be said that Kingstons The Woman Warrior concentrates on the racial difference between Asian and Caucasian but race is not made to be a big issue in this novel, since almost all of the characters is ethnically Chinese…. [tags: race, african american, caucasian] 1765 words (5 pages) Powerful Essays [preview] A Lesson Before Dying, Song of Solomon, and athe Piano Lesson – The books of A Lesson Before Dying, Song of Solomon, and The Piano Lesson are all classic tales of African American Literature. While written in assorted periods and by different authors, the lessons found in between the pages transcend time. They recount stories of injustice, perseverance, and success. Memory and the past play a critical role in understanding each characters mindset. A Lesson Before Dying portrays the past as both a hindrance and a source of motivation. Song of Solomon exposes the belief that knowledge of the past is the key that unlocks the door to self discovery…. [tags: African American Literature] 1728 words (4.9 pages) Powerful Essays [preview] Sentimental Gifts in Quilts – Sentimental Gifts in Quilts Quilts were used for various reasons throughout history and they have been a sentimental part of the African American culture for many years. According to Professor Florett Barnett Cash Quilts can be used as resources in reconstructing the experiences of African American women. They provide a record of their cultural and political past (Cash 30). Everyday Use, by Alice Walker illustrates how a quilt that was prepared by Miss Johnson and Maggie played a sentimental, yet important part in their familys, heritage and bond they shared…. [tags: African-American Culture] 1257 words (3.6 pages) Strong Essays [preview] Struggles of African Americans in Langston Hughes Poems, Mother to Son and Lenox Avenue: Midnight – Struggles of African Americans in Langston Hughes Poems, Mother to Son and Lenox Avenue: Midnight The experiences, lessons, and conditions of ones life provide a wellspring of inspiration for ones creative expressions and ideas. Throughout life people encounter situations and circumstances that consequently help to mold them into individualized spirits. An individuals personality is a reflection of his or her life. Langston Hughes, a world-renowned African American poet and self-professed defender of African American heritage, boldly defies the stereotypical and accepted form of poetry at his own discretion…. [tags: Comparison Compare Contrast Essays] :: 2 Works Cited 1663 words (4.8 pages) Powerful Essays [preview] African Art and Architecture – African Art and Architecture The history of art in Africa goes back to prehistoric times. Among the most ancient African art forms are the rock paintings and engravings from Tassili and Ennedi in the Sahara (6000 BC-1st century AD). Other examples of early art include the terracotta sculptures modelled by Nok artists in central Nigeria between 500 BC and AD 200, the decorative bronze works of Igbo Ukwu (9th-10th century AD), and the extraordinary bronze and terracotta sculptures from Ife (12th-15th century AD)…. [tags: Papers] 857 words (2.4 pages) Better Essays [preview] Hispanic American Diversity – The diversity of Hispanics shares the same language but have many differences. In this research paper the four groups that I will be discussing will include: Mexican Americans, Puerto Rican American, Venezuelan American and finally the Colombian American. The areas that will be discussed will include: linguistic, political, social, economic religion and family conventions and or family status. Puerto Rican Americans When leaving the entrance of any train station in the Brooklyn N. Y, you could immediately hear the salsa music blaring from several cars, home and corner stores…. [tags: Hispanic American Diversity Race Immigration] 1278 words (3.7 pages) Strong Essays [preview] Black or White: A Contrast of Liberties – My life, as it stands today, is rarely affected by my racial background; I was born to a Caucasian mother and African American father out of wedlock. I came into this world in 1972 and was adopted by an interracial couple who also reflected the same backgrounds as my birth parents. Upon superficial appearances, many white folk are unaware of my racial mixture; for all intents and purposes, I look like a run of the mill white boy. Rather interestingly though, black folk can just tell; often, they cite that it is my hair, nose, and lips which provide the subtle clues…. [tags: caucasian, african-american, racial background] :: 2 Works Cited 1905 words (5.4 pages) Term Papers [preview] Analysis of the New Negro – In the beginning Alain Locke tells us about the tide of negro migration. During this time in a movement known as the Great Migration, thousands of African-Americans also known as Negros left their homes in the South and moved North toward the beach line of big cities in search of employment and a new beginning. As Locke stated, the wash and rush of this human tide on the beach line of Northern city centers is to be explained primarily in terms of a new vision of opportunity, of social and economic freedom, of a spirit to seize, even in the face of an extortionate and heavy toll, a chance for the improvement of conditions…. [tags: tide of negro migration, african-american] :: 3 Works Cited 1607 words (4.6 pages) Powerful Essays [preview] Symbolism used in Everyday Use by Alice Walker – Symbolism is a literary technique used by a manifold of authors. Symbolism is using an object, person, place to represent something greater than what it actually is or means. For example, the crucifix symbolizes the honor and sacrifice and love off all men. Symbols also represent suggestions for ideas, like traffic lights, red symbolizes stop, yellow symbolizes slow down, and green symbolizes to go. Symbolism is even used to celebrate, in the Hispanic culture a quincenera is used to symbolize a female child becoming a young lady…. [tags: guilts, crucifix, african-american women] :: 4 Works Cited 1056 words (3 pages) Strong Essays [preview] Do the Right Thing by Spike Lee – The African-American inner city is a place where family can come in the form of gangs or collective areas, such as the pizzeria in the movie, Do the Right Thing, and yet these places and the people that find surrogate family in the inner city often only lead lives of violence. There is a common gathering place, in this case the pizza shop. Social networking happens in the streets and in the urban setting. There are many ethnic mixes, and in this case the Italian pizza shop is owned by Italian immigrants, and this is significant…. [tags: african american, civil rights movement] :: 4 Works Cited 1423 words (4.1 pages) Research Papers [preview] Everyday Use by Alice Walker: A Look at Symbolism and Family Values – Alice Walkers Everyday Use, is a story about a family of African Americans that are faced with moral issues involving what true inheritance is and who deserves it. Two sisters and two hand stitched quilts become the center of focus for this short story. Walker paints for us the most vivid representation through a third person perspective of family values and how people from the same environment and upbringing can become different types of people. Like most peoples families there is a dynamic of people involved, although all from the same environment and teachings, it is ultimately an accumulation of personal experiences that shape us and defines how we perceive our existence…. [tags: dee, mama, african american families] :: 4 Works Cited 893 words (2.6 pages) Better Essays [preview] Biography of John Hope Franklin – John Hope Franklin, born January 2nd 1915, was an African-American historian who dedicated his life to the teaching and studying of American history and racial politics, especially that of Southern America. An avid promoter of the teaching, studying and presentation of American history as well as the preservation and access of its materials, Franklin died March 25th 2009. A leading scholar on black American history, Franklin often cited historians as being influential in shaping policy in America and he paved the way for other black scholars…. [tags: african american historian, teaching, inequality] :: 3 Works Cited 1596 words (4.6 pages) Powerful Essays [preview] African Diaspora – African Diaspora The study of cultures in the African Diaspora is relatively young. Slavery and the trans-Atlantic slave trade brought numerous Africans, under forced and brutal conditions, to the New World. Of particular interest to many recent historians and Africanists is the extent to which Africans were able to transfer, retain, modify or transform their cultures under the conditions of their new environments. Three main schools of thought have emerged in scholarly discussion and research on this topic…. [tags: essays papers] 1645 words (4.7 pages) Strong Essays [preview] The Harlem Renaissance: The New Negro Movement – The Harlem Renaissance, also known as The New Negro Movement was a cultural movement that spanned the1920s. The Harlem Renaissance was a defining moment in African American literature causing an outburst of creative activity in black writers and artists in New York City. The Harlem Renaissance was influenced by the migration of African Americans from the South seeking better opportunities for themselves. A black man named Charles Spurgeon Johnson who was the editor for the National Urban League magazine encouraged and supported black writers and artists who were part of the Harlem Renaissance…. [tags: cultural movement, african american literature] :: 7 Works Cited 950 words (2.7 pages) Better Essays [preview] Black Perception – Black Perception Over the course of the past four months I have been introduced to some core areas of African American Studies. I will be focusing on the history, sociology, politics, and religion of my topic. The most broad but well used and understood topic in the world is media. The world is based on the aspects of what we watch, see, read, and hear. Other than attending school, the media is the one of the other things that help us understand life. Everyone perceives different things that they see and hear…. [tags: african americans, media, race] :: 5 Works Cited 2080 words (5.9 pages) Term Papers [preview] The Black Arts Movement – The Black Arts Movement The Black Arts movement refers to a period of furious flowering of African American creativity beginning in the mid-1960s and continuing through much of the 1970s (Perceptions of Black). Linked both chronologically and ideologically with the Black Power Movement, The BAM recognized the idea of two cultural Americas: one black and one white. The BAM pressed for the creation of a distinctive Black Aesthetic in which black artists created for black audiences…. [tags: African Americans History Essays] :: 9 Works Cited 1704 words (4.9 pages) Powerful Essays [preview] Traditional African Music – Traditional African Music An attempt to pin down a single meaning for the word ‘traditional,’ presents a problem in many ways. The implications of the word are many, and are tied to various connotations. Some people, Westerners in particular, may actually shun the ‘traditional,’ as they feel that it implies a resistance to modernity. This view is incorrect, and there exists an ethnocentric double standard when Westerners consider their tradition versus African tradition. Others focus on ‘tradition’ as that which has always been done, for whatever reason, and that it must be continued to maintain the community, a universal balance, a relationship with the gods, or some other goal…. [tags: Musical Traditions Essays Papers] 1592 words (4.5 pages) Powerful Essays [preview] Southern Musical Tradition and the African Tradition – Southern Musical Tradition and the African Tradition The second major tributary of the southern musical tradition comes from the African continent and is the heritage import of the five million slaves brought to North America against their will to provide the bulk of the labor in the pre-industrial agrarian south. Contemporary blues, while not exclusively black music by any means, remains largely black in terms of its leading performers and, to a lesser extent, its listening audience…. [tags: Music Musical South Essays] :: 6 Works Cited 3590 words (10.3 pages) Research Papers [preview]

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BBYO – Wikipedia

Posted By on November 11, 2016

BBYO (formerly B’nai B’rith Youth Organization, now BBYO INC.) is a Jewish teen movement aspiring to involve Jewish teens in Jewish experiences.[1]

In 2002 the movement split from B’nai B’rith International, which had been its parent organization, to become BBYO, Inc.

BBYO’s mission is, “More Jewish Teens, More Meaningful Jewish Experiences.” The organization emphasizes its youth leadership model, in which teen leaders are elected by their peers on a local, regional and international level, and are given the opportunity to make their own programmatic decisions. Membership to BBYO is open to any high school or 8th grade student who identifies as a Jew. Many local programs also may have programs for teens in grades 6th-8th, called BBYO Connect.

BBYO is organized into local fraternity- and sorority-like chapters. Male chapters are known as AZA chapters and their members are known as Alephs, and female chapters as BBG chapters, their members known as BBGs. AZA and BBG were independent organizations (beginning in 1924 and 1944 respectively) before becoming brother and sister organizations under B’nai B’rith. In some communities, there are co-ed BBYO chapters which borrow traditions from both organizations.

AZA’s original advisor, Nathan Mnookin, soon left Omaha for his hometown of Kansas City, where he started a similar group with the same name. The Omaha group selected a new advisor, Sam Beber, who soon laid out his plans for an international youth movement based on the local AZA model. In 1924, the Aleph Zadik Aleph for Young Men, now an international Jewish fraternity, was formed according to Beber’s plan, with the Omaha and Kansas City chapters receiving the first two charters. Four chapters were in attendance at the first convention in June 1924, and ten at the second convention the following summer.

By 1925, AZA had expanded east with dozens of chapters across the country. At Beber’s urging, B’nai B’rith took up the issue of officially adopting AZA as its junior auxiliary at their national convention in 1925. Supported by Henry Monsky, who himself was vying for the B’nai B’rith presidency, the convention adopted a committee report affirming its approval of the organization under B’nai B’rith’s jurisdiction. Immediately following the convention, B’nai B’rith Executive Committee met and officially adopted AZA, which then became known as the Aleph Zadik Aleph of B’nai B’rith.

In 1944, after a few past failed attempts to begin a Jewish youth group for young women, B’nai B’rith Girls (BBG) became officially recognized and adopted by B’nai B’rith. Anita Perlman is credited with the development of BBG as Sam Beber is credited with the AZA. For the first time, AZA and BBG were united under a single organization, officially cementing their relationship and brother and sister organizations. Combined, the two youth movements were called the B’nai B’rith Youth Organization, and BBYO was born.

Although the organization has changed greatly behind-the-scenes over the years, its original tenets still remain true: dedication to Jewish life, a pluralistic approach, commitment to community service and social action, and a youth leadership model. BBYO continues to be open to all teenagers that identify themselves as Jews, without exception. Members participate in meeting rituals and sing pep songs that date back to the organization’s earliest days. The organization continues to maintain and contribute to its International Service Fund, initiated at the very first international convention. Although the number of professional staff has risen dramatically, BBYO continues to maintain democratic youth leadership at every level.

Just as the organization changed greatly in its first few years, starting as a local youth group to being adopted as the official youth auxiliary of the world’s largest Jewish organization, it likewise has undergone drastic changes in recent years. After more than 75 years of a general prosperity, B’nai B’rith began a massive restructuring at the turn of the 21st century in response to the changing face of North American Jewry. As a result, what was then the B’nai B’rith Youth Organization split from B’nai B’rith in 2002 and was re-formed as BBYO, Inc., an independent non-profit organization. The new organization received substantial funding from the Charles and Lynn Schusterman Family Foundation and was chaired by Lynn Schusterman.

Traditionally, BBYO was a conglomeration of many largely independent regions. This was the result of the modification of B’nai B’rith’s long-standing “district” model. As new forms of communication have brought the members and staff of BBYO in closer contact, and as the differences between geographic regions continue to deteriorate, BBYO has become much more of a top-down organization, with standardized marketing materials and directives. BBYO has reached into the online market with its website, into the middle school market with its BBYO Connect programs, and into the adult market with its Friends & Alumni Network.

BBYO has always been the world’s leading pluralistic Jewish youth movement. As the first and the most dynamically inclusive organization of its kind, every Jewish teen, of all backgrounds, anywhere in the world, will find an experience that provides the foundation for a meaningful Jewish life.

BBYO operates at four different levels, each one of which has its own elected teen leaders: international, regional, council and chapter. Depending on the size of and geography of a particular region, it may or may not contain the council level. (Typically, regions that are large in population or spread out geographically are likely to contain councils.) All members are assigned to a chapter, which is part of a region (and sometimes a council). The combined regions make up the international movement.

On the international level, BBYO organizes large-scale programs and offerings for its members, both during the school year and the summer. These programs bring together members from all over North America, and all over the world. Despite the fact that BBYO focuses mostly on activities taking place or originating in North America, the organization nonetheless maintains a presence on five other continents as well. Some of these are affiliate chapters that ascribe to the traditions of BBYO but are not technically under the control of the international office. BBYO programs are known to be active in Israel, UK & Ireland, France, Thailand, Bulgaria, Curaao, South Africa, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and most recently Turkey, Slovakia, Hungary, Serbia, and Argentina due to the new BBYO-JDC partnership.

Districts were a now-defunct organizational unit, that were mostly replaced by regions in the 1980s. The last remaining international districts were disbanded and renamed in 2005 at International Convention.

At the regional level, chapters are brought together on a regular basis for inter-chapter programming and regional programs. All regions have at least one weekend-long convention every year (with some offering as many as a half-dozen). Regions that do not contain councils elect a regional board on a yearly basis. The regional board helps to plan regional events, and supervise their counterparts on the chapter level. There are currently 43 regions in North America. Regions are supervised by professional staff in a regional office.

Larger regions are sometimes split into councils, which operate much the same as regions, with their own council-wide events and elected council boards. A region that has councils will typically have both council events and regional events (encompassing all of the region’s councils) over the course of the year. Councils elect a council board on a year basis; these boards function in the same fashion as do regional boards. Councils are supervised by professional staff, which may be in a regional office or a separate council office depending on the size of the council and region.

Chapters are BBYO’s most basic organizational level, functioning at a local level. There are currently over 600 chapters in operation (roughly 45% B’nai B’rith Girls, 40% Aleph Zadik Aleph and 15% BBYO) across the world. These chapters contain about 48,000 registered members, and their programs reach over 40,000 teens every year.

Chapters regularly engage in self-created programing. Programs are incredibly important and build the relationships among members of a chapter. There are many different programs, and a large bank of ideas can be found at BBYO Program Bank

BBYO each year offers programs in which all regions and councils in the international order come together and gather for various purposes. Through the duration of the school year there are three main programs a member could attend.

A three-day convention in August which the top leaders of the regions: the two presidents and the International Boards, and all regional and council presidents, gather to discuss the goals and objectives of the upcoming programming year.

These leaders meet again in February before the International Convention with the addition of the International Chair Network and discuss how the first half of the year has gone and how to improve off it. They also do some final planning for the 5 days ahead of them.

International convention is a five-day convention in which is open to all members of BBYO. It serves as a weekend to reconnect with those whom youve met over the summer, international execs for a second time, business meetings, elections of the new international board for the next programming year and the state of the order of the International Presidents of the girls and the boys.

This is a trace through the remembrance of the Holocaust. One week of the trip is spent in Poland and the other week in Israel. While in Poland the participants connect to their connection to Judaism. The participants then spend one week in Israel celebrating its independence day. The March of the Living is not a BBYO sponsored program, but does send its own delegation on the trip annually.

BBYO offers a variety of different Summer programs dealing with leadership, Judaism, community service, the business world, and international travels to many different countries. The core of these programs have, for many years, taken place at B’nai B’rith Perlman Camp. These programs include:

This program is a twelve-day program in which incoming sophomores, juniors, and seniors in high school attend to learn about the essentials of leading a chapter. There are eight sessions held during the summer, five of which are held at the Beber Camp in Wisconsin (CLTC 1,3,5,7,8), and the other three at Bethany College in West Virginia (CLTC 2,4,6).

This program is a nineteen day leadership program in which those on regional board learn how to expand what they knew about how to lead a chapter but now how to lead a region. It is part of the Perlman summer.

This program allows those seeking to find their Jewish identity to do so. It is 19 days of forming your own Jewish Self. It constitutes as half of the Perlman summer along with ILTC.

This program is twenty one-day elite leadership program in Israel that combines educational touring, leadership training, interactive seminars and meaningful community service. ILSI allows Jewish teens to gain an appreciation for the complexity of modern Israel and an enduring connection to the Jewish State and the Jewish People worldwide.

A program offering trips to all 5 continents that BBYO maintains a presence on. These trips include tourism, community service, social education, leadership, and Judaic experiences. One of the activities is tour of Israel. The teens are esorting by local team leader and have a basic introduction to Israel’s geography, history, and culture.

BBYO Michigan Business and Entrepreneurship Institute BBYO UT Austin Sports Management Institute BBYO UCLA Leadership and Entertainment Institute

Impact is two weeks of community service in a chosen location to better make one city at a time. Each program focuses on a different aspect of community service.

BBYO Michigan Business and Entrepreneurship Institute

A two-week course highlighting Jewish business leadership along with teaching teens marketing, finance, and product development.

Both AZA and BBG have a segmented programming model, with each proscribed programming area referred to as a “fold”. For AZA, the five folds are social, athletic, community service/social action, Judaic and educational; for BBG, the six folds are sisterhood, creativity, recreation, Jewish heritage, community service, and social action. Some chapters also have adopted the unofficial seventh fold of Mind, Body, Attitude (MBA). It aims to create a better self-image, and better self-esteem. Programs can be any time, and can involve any number of chapters (including both AZA and BBG together).

The teen leaders elected to office by their peers at various organizational levels have their own set of office titles, derived from Hebrew. Elections are typically held on an annual or semi-annual basis. The titles are often similar for the equivalent AZA and BBG positions, varying slightly due to a word’s gender.

Exact board positions elected can vary slightly between regions and chapters, with some chapters electing additional board positions, and some electing multiple members to a single position (e.g. electing two Aym Ha-Chaverot to expand recruitment). It is also possible for chapters to elect one member to two positions (e.g. electing the same person to serve as Mazkirah and Gizborit). Additionally, chairmanships may be appointed on an as-needed basis at every organizational level.

BBYO chapters typically contain the same positions as would an AZA or BBG chapters, with the exact position name corresponding to the gender of the person elected to the position. Some BBYO chapters may also elect both a male and female officer to certain board positions (e.g., electing both a moreh and a aym ha-chaverot).

However, within BBYO in the UK and Ireland, the leadership positions work differently. Each chapter has an exec of about six people, who are voted on by all the members of that chapter. The positions are (in order):President, Vice-President, Administrator (sometimes split into Secretary and Treasurer), Programmer, Judaism and Zionism Awareness Officer (Referred to as JZA) and Welfare. Each of these positions has a specific role, but work together as a team to run the weekly meetings. On a larger scale, there is a National Executive, consisting of the positions listed above.

The BBYO in Curaao also has its own way of composing a board. Elections are held annually (usually in August), where each member attending that day votes. The board consist of 5 members. The positions are: President, Vice-President, Treasurer, Secretary and Past-President (the President chosen at the previous elections). One more position that is also voted on, is the one of PR (Public Relations). This position is filled by two members, each representing one of the congregations respectively. The PRs are not part of the board.

More in-depth histories of AZA and BBG are available, as each organization developed independently before being united by B’nai B’rith. In addition, each organization maintains its own customs, traditions, and songs. Likewise, customs, traditions and program vary greatly from region to region, and more information is available on each.

2. BBYO Parties on Spirit of Philadelphia [1] 3. BBYO Expands Impact, Membership [2] 4. BBYO international teen president visits Orlando Jewish community [3]

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BBYO – Wikipedia

Anti-Defamation League| Jewish Virtual Library

Posted By on November 10, 2016

ANTI-DEFAMATION LEAGUE (ADL). The Anti-Defamation League (originally “The Anti-Defamation League of B’nai B’rith”) was founded in 1913 in reaction to the crude and overt antisemitism of the period, specifically to the Leo *Frank case. The ADL’s goal, as stated in the charter that established the League, is “to end the defamation of the Jewish people to secure justice and fair treatment for all citizens alike.”

Originally headquartered in Chicago, the offices of the League are in New York City. The ADL works out of 31 regional offices located throughout the United States. The ADL has as well a cooperative relationship with the B’nai B’rith Canadian office, an office in Jerusalem, and representation in Rome and Moscow.

The ADL is governed by a National Commission of 700. Unlike the *American Jewish Congress , *American Jewish Committee , and other community relations organizations, the ADL is not a membership organization. It has evolved from being a commission of its parent body to an organization with independent board and fundraising structures, and in reality is fully autonomous. The ADL is staffed by career professionals who are specialists in various disciplines related to community relations: religions, law, communications, promotion, education, labor, foreign affairs (especially Israel and the Middle East), social sciences, politics (national and local), and government.

The ADL recognizes threats to Jewish security coming from an antisemitism that appears in new forms and guises, such as anti-Israel activity and radicalism of the right and left. The League views itself as being an “active” organization, responding in a timely manner to what are perceived to be threats to the rights and security of Jews. It sees itself as taking a pragmatic, rather than an ideological, approach to issues. The ADL, by virtue of its budget and its varied activity, is considered to be a significant voice among the community relations agencies.

The ADL’s initial efforts focused on the blatant antisemitism of the pre- and post-World War I period, which included restricted neighborhoods and resorts, jobs, and schools that rejected Jews. (For example, model legislation drafted by the ADL helped unmask the Ku Klux Klan and drastically diminish its power.) The ADL’s focus, however, in its early decades was not on legal remedies against discrimination but on countering defamation of Jews. For example, the League exposed the vicious antisemitism of the Dearborn Independent, which printed and circularized the infamous Protocols of Zion, and extracted an apology and retraction from its publisher, Henry Ford. Throughout the 1930s the League fought and exposed the many hate groups which sprang up during the Depression and the Hitler period, such as the Christian Front, the Silver Shirts, and the German-American Bund.

Particularly in the post-World War II period, the ADL was successful in advocating on behalf of legislation against such discrimination. It also dealt with vulgar stereotypes and caricatures of Jews on the stage and in communication media and with incidents of antisemitic vandalism, and played a role in strengthening interfaith and interracial relationships.

In the 1960s, the ADL played a role in the successful coalitional effort that resulted in the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and of subsequent fair-housing and voting-rights laws. The ADL’s sponsorship of a comprehensive study of the roots of prejudice (the seven-volume University of California Five-Year Study of Antisemitism in the United States the “Berkeley Studies”) helped create a new climate of interreligious understanding and ecumenism, and was a factor in the deliberations of Vatican II that led to the watershed document Nostra Aetate, which re-defined the Catholic Church’s attitude toward Jews.

On the international scene, advocacy on behalf of the State of Israel and other involvement in Middle East issues became, especially after 1967, an ADL priority. The League carries out an education and action program to help mold public opinion and exposes and counteracts Arab propaganda; ADL led the effort which resulted in the passage of anti-boycott legislation and worked within the European Economic Community to counter the boycott. The League is also active in protecting and securing the rights of Jews wherever they are in danger, and played an important role in the Soviet Jewry movement. Interreligious activities as well have been an important part of the ADL agenda.

During the 1970s, in response to what it then characterized as “the new antisemitism,” which derived less from overt expression and more from apathy and insensitivity to Jews and to Jewish concerns and problems, including Israel, the ADL re-contoured its approaches to antisemitism. A major prejudice-reduction program, “A World of Difference,” has been an ADL centerpiece since the early 1990s, as has been Holocaust education. Convinced that preferential treatment will destroy equality of opportunity and selection based upon merit, the League’s position on affirmative action is nuanced in terms of ADL’s opposition to the re-emergence of quotas.

The ADL’s traditional ideology was that aggressive use of litigation and other legal remedies to counter discrimination and church-state violations was too confrontational and would ultimately damage the constructive relationships that Jews had built up with other faith communities over the years. From its earliest years the ADL, unlike its sister “defense” agencies, rejected advocating on behalf of antidiscrimination legislation, and instead focused on combating prejudice and defamation. The League’s national director until 1947, Richard E. Gustadt, articulated the view that held that intergroup negotiation and education programs emphasizing cultural pluralism offered the best chances to remedy societal abuses. Certain societal evils could not, in the view of the ADL, be eliminated, only tempered. This view (shared in large measure by the American Jewish Committee) marked a fundamental ideological difference with the American Jewish Congress, which believed in direct legal action.

From the late 1940s until the late 1970s the ADL was led by a tandem of Benjamin Epstein and Arnold Forster, who together began aggressively prosecuting a civil rights agenda for the League. Beginning in the early 1980s, however, with a marked shift in the national public policy agenda back to church-state and other First Amendment matters, there was again a shift in the priorities of the ADL. During the tenure of national director Nathan Perlmutter additional legal expertise and resources were added to the agency’s staff (the ADL’s litigation capacity dated back to the late 1940s and was a result of the decision by the American Jewish Congress to organize its Commission on Law and Social Action), and the League became an aggressive “player” in the church-state arena. During this period there was a certain degree of de-emphasis of the traditional civil rights agenda, resulting in large measure from antisemitism within some black civil rights groups.

Even with a new emphasis placed on church-state separation and other legal matters, the ADL always viewed church-state concerns to be but one of several major civil rights and liberties issues on its organizational palette, which includes countering racial supremacist organizations, judicial remedies for “hate crimes,” and discrimination and harassment. Changes within the organization arising out of exogenous factors did not mean that the ADL intended to abandon its charter purpose of public response to anti-Jewish defamation.

From the mid-1980s, under the stewardship of Abraham H. *Foxman , the ADL has become one of the most “visible” national Jewish organizations on the American and indeed international scene. Although viewed as increasingly conservative in some areas of activity, the reality is that the ADL has carved a highly nuanced political path, especially on Israel-related issues, threading its way skillfully between agencies such as the rightist Zionist Organization of America and Jewish groups of the left. This “centrist” approach has been evident in a range of domestic public affairs issues as well. Newer areas of activity for the ADL include threats of global antisemitism, “hate” activity on the Internet, working with law-enforcement agencies, a new generation of church-state situations, and balancing traditional civil liberties concerns with those of national and local security. The ADL has commissioned a series of public opinion surveys, both in the United States and in Europe, which have elicited valuable data on antisemitic attitudes and on attitudes toward Israel.

The core mission of the ADL to combat antisemitism remains as it has been. The related mission of the League working for justice for all has in the view of the ADL not only intrinsic value but instrumental value as well, as it assists in the ADL’s core mission.

In terms of institutional considerations, until the early 1980s the leading “defense” agency, in terms of budget and stature, was the American Jewish Committee; the annual budgets of the two agencies were at approximate parity, at around $12 million. The ADL budget ($5.5 million in 1971) began increasing in the 1980s at approximately $3 million per year in that decade, and soon far outstripped the other “defense” agencies, reaching some $30 million by the early 1990s and approximately $60 million by 2005. The League’s staff and programmatic initiatives have increased commensurately.

Also important in terms of institutional dynamics is the ADL’s relationship with *B’nai B’rith . The ADL began life as a commission of B’nai B’rith, but tensions developed between the two agencies as B’nai B’rith was reshaping itself from being primarily a fraternal and service organization to one that addresses community relations issues. In the mid-to-late 1990s the issue with B’nai B’rith came to a head, with B’nai B’rith itself seeking finally to reshape its own identity asserted that its community relations and “defense” agenda would be pursued aggressively. The ADL, maintaining that it was B’nai B’rith’s “defense” arm, in effect severed its ties with its erstwhile parent. (The ADL does retain a de jure legal connection with B’nai B’rith.)

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Anti-Defamation League| Jewish Virtual Library

Gates of Vienna

Posted By on November 1, 2016

Note: Takuans post (which was originally published last night) is to remain at the top for a while, so I made it sticky. However, much has happened since it went up, including the Blogger outage. Scroll down for a report on that.

See also: Two forthrightly anti-Semitic Islamic leaders in Norway, Judicial coddling in Germany, and Part 3 of the Imran Firasat interview.

More new posts will be added below this one. Oh, and dont mess around with JIM.

The essay below is the conclusion of the ninth part in a series by Takuan Seiyo. See the list at the bottom of this post for links to the previous installments.

Left: Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Dance at Le Moulin de la Galette, 1876 Right: George Grosz, Metropolis, 1916/17

The Bee and the Lamb Part 9 (continued)

By Takuan Seiyo

A Whole New Road to Serfdom

That Which is Not Seen

For over 60 years, White mea-culpists have had a firm grip in all fields of cultural mind imprinting: education high and low; paper media, then electronic, then digital media; all forms of entertainment, the plastic arts and music high and low, and religious instruction and worship too. Their main endeavor has been to enforce their compulsory (e.g. K-12) and discretionary (e.g. television) self-flaying on account of long-ago Slavery, Colonialism, Imperialism, Male Supremacism, Racism, Antisemitism, and so on.

Its the evils of the Iberian Inquisition which were evil but not the evils of the Japanese equivalent in which, in the 40 years up to 1597, 50,000 Christians were publicly crucified, burned or beheaded. Nor the evils of the worldwide Islamic Inquisition which not in the 16th century but now, in the 21st, condemns Muslim apostates to barbaric execution. Its Americas destruction of the snail darter but not Mussulmanisms destruction of the Bamyan Buddhas or its proposed destruction of the Sphinx and the Pyramids, let alone its obliteration of all the pre-Rome cradles of Christianity but for remaining ruins in the Middle East and dust of the desert in North Africa.

Its the evils of feudalism and industrial workers exploitation in Europe and America, but not the strict Confucian evils of Northeast Asia. There, a member of the ruling class in China had, essentially, a free hand with anyone of the lower classes, a Japanese samurai could test his sword by cutting down an insolent peasant, and farmers were so squeezed by their fief holders that they habitually sold their daughters to bordellos for the few coins it provided for next seasons seed.

Feminism, Socialism and anti-Antisemitism should have arisen in Saudi Arabia or Yemen, Algeria or Peshawar, for good reasons. Instead, aggressive White androphobes of all genders which I can no longer count are decimating the philogynous and egalitarian West. Equality psychos are tearing down the most egalitarian society that ever existed (except for initial communist experiments, before they turned bloody). American Jews, at the apex of the greatest fortune and philosemitic tolerance their long diaspora has ever bestowed on their kind, are busy supporting all the ideologies and policies that demolish their safe harbor and build up their Muslim, Black and Third World enemies. They will come to rue their tacit assumption that better the antisemite you dont know than the few hundred imputed and real ones catalogued at ADL.

One would be hard put to find a nation not based on the invasion of another peoples territory and their mass slaughter. Yet poisoned American madmen proclaim No Thanks for Thanksgiving as though the Indians themselves did not fight endless genocidal wars from Peru to Canada, with torture, ritual murder or slavery for the captives and, at times, cannibalism too.

Leftoid masochists and the Christian meek call for returning Hawaii to the Hawaiians and capitulating before a massive Mexican reconquista of one-third of America. The self-defined Feminist-Tauist-NeoPagan-Post-Structuralist-Deconstructionist-Socialist useful idiot Gillian Schutte begins her New Year 2013 Dear White People by wholeheartedly apologizing for what my ancestors did to the people of South Africa and inviting you to do the same.

Yet the Magyars dont seem to feel much guilt over the Illyrians, Pannonians, Sarmatians and Celts whose land and lives they took in the 9th century, to form Hungary. The rightful Etruscan landowners are not bearing angry placards in front of the Vatican. The Japanese are not planning to relinquish Hokkaido to its original owners, the Ainu. The tall, white and fair-haired Chachapoyas of the Andean forest have, alas, no remnants left to sue the Incas for genocide in a Peruvian court of law. The Aztecs, whether in Jalisco or Los Angeles, dont agonize over having taken what would become Mexico City from its original Culhuacan owners, with lots of grisly details. Yet for 38 years Neil Young has been reminding adoring audiences about Cortez the Killer, discreetly omitting Tlacaelel the killer and the killer people whom Cortez killed.

Hitlers Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust (1996) is a book by Daniel Goldhagen presenting the thesis that the German nation as such was composed of willing executioners of the Jews because of a unique eliminationist antisemitism in the German people, with long historical roots. However, even that great moral abyss of Western civilization the Holocausts stands out more in its industrialized and organizational features than it does either in the quality of its hatefulness or its relative or even absolute volumes. And Holocausts they were, for in addition to the nearly 6 million Jews, the Germans also murdered over 21 million civilian Slavs, and thats counting Russia, Ukraine, Poland, Lithuania, Belarus and Czechoslovakia alone.

In absolute numbers, the total number of World War II non-German civilian victims of Nazi Germany is smaller than the 50 million victims of the Bolsheviks in Russia, or Maos 70 million in China, or the Mughal-Muslim genocide of Hindus the latter have their own Holocaust Day on August 14.

In relative numbers, in just one year, 1994, the Hutus and Tutsis in Rwanda, killed off a total of one million, in a population of 7 million. 75% of the Tutsi population was erased. Is it more humane to go by a stroke of a blunt machete than by a whiff of Zyklon B?

The Khmer Rouge murdered at least 2 million Cambodians between 1975 and 1979: one quarter of the population, by a conservative count. Is it more humane to die by wallops from a Cambodian pickaxe handle than by a bullet from a German Mauser?

Inscription on the back (in German): Ukraine 1942, Jewish Aktion, Ivangorod.

There is a special horror attached to the Third Reich, because those were 20 th century Europeans, Christians, and in many ways the smartest, most civilized people on Earth. But the Holocausts do not prove that Whites are worse than other people, just that they are no better. The history of the Third Reich also proves that with the right formula of economic blowup, misery and humiliation, sparked by charismatic evil, no people are immune to such horror, at no time.

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Anti-Defamation League – Wikipedia

Posted By on October 31, 2016

Anti-Defamation League

Logo of the Anti-Defamation League


Key people

The Anti-Defamation League (ADL; formerly known as the Anti-Defamation League of B’nai B’rith) is an international Jewish non-governmental organization based in the United States. Describing itself as “the nation’s premier civil rights/human relations agency,” the ADL states that it “fights anti-Semitism and all forms of bigotry, defends democratic ideals and protects civil rights for all,” doing so through “information, education, legislation, and advocacy.”[1][2]

Founded in October 1913 by The Independent Order of B’nai B’rith, a Jewish service organization in the United States, its original mission statement was “to stop, by appeals to reason and conscience and, if necessary, by appeals to law, the defamation of the Jewish people. Its ultimate purpose is to secure justice and fair treatment to all citizens alike and to put an end forever to unjust and unfair discrimination against and ridicule of any sect or body of citizens.”[1] The ADL has 29 offices in the United States and three offices in other countries, with its headquarters located in New York City. Abraham Foxman had been the national director since 1987. In November 2014, it was announced that Jonathan Greenblatt would succeed Foxman as national director in July 2015.[3] The national chair is Barry Curtiss-Lusher.[4]

The Anti-Defamation League has drawn both criticism and controversy over its priorities. Noam Chomsky accuses them of “having lost entirely its focus on civil rights issues in order to become solely an advocate for Israeli policy”. Journalist Mark Arax has criticized the organization’s failure to recognize the Armenian Genocide.[5] The Washington Post has noted that the ADL has repeatedly accused Israeli policy critic Norman Finkelstein of being a “Holocaust denier” and that “these charges have proved baseless.”[6]

Founded in October 1913 by B’nai B’rith with Sigmund Livingston as its first leader, the ADL’s charter states,

“The immediate object of the League is to stop, by appeals to reason and conscience and, if necessary, by appeals to law, the defamation of the Jewish people. Its ultimate purpose is to secure justice and fair treatment to all citizens alike and to put an end forever to unjust and unfair discrimination against and ridicule of any sect or body of citizens.”[1]

The Anti-Defamation League was founded by B’nai B’rith as a response to attacks on Jews; the Leo Frank affair was mentioned by Adolf Kraus when he announced the creation of the ADL.[7][8]

The stated purpose of the ADL is to fight “anti-Semitism and all forms of bigotry (in the United States) and abroad, combat international terrorism, probe the roots of hatred, advocate before the United States Congress, come to the aid of victims of bigotry, develop educational programs, and serve as a public resource for government, media, law enforcement, and the public, all towards the goal of countering and reducing hatred.”

Historically, the ADL has opposed groups and individuals it considered to be anti-Semitic and/or racist, including: Nazis, the Ku Klux Klan, Henry Ford, Father Charles Coughlin (leader of the Christian Front), the Christian Identity movement, the German-American Bund, neo-Nazis, the American militia movement and white power skinheads (although the ADL acknowledges that there are also non-racist skinheads).[9][10] The ADL publishes reports on a variety of countries, regarding alleged incidents of anti-Jewish attacks and propaganda.

The ADL maintains that some forms of anti-Zionism and criticism of Israel cross the line into anti-Semitism. The Anti-Defamation League states:

“Criticism of particular Israeli actions or policies in and of itself does not constitute anti-Semitism. Certainly the sovereign State of Israel can be legitimately criticized just like any other country in the world. However, it is undeniable that there are those whose criticism of Israel or of ‘Zionism’ is used to mask anti-Semitism.”[11]

The ADL gives out its Courage to Care Award to honor rescuers of Jews during the Holocaust era.

Since 2010 the ADL has published a list of the “ten leading organizations responsible for maligning Israel in the US,” which has included ANSWER, the International Solidarity Movement, and Jewish Voice for Peace for its call for BDS.[12]

In October 2010, the ADL condemned remarks by Haham Ovadia Yosef that the sole purpose of non-Jews was to serve the Jews.[13]

When the anti-Mormon film The God Makers was produced, Rhonda M. Abrams, Central Pacific (San Francisco) Regional Director for the ADL wrote a critical review, including the following statement:

Had a similar movie been made with either Judaism or Catholicism as its target, it would be immediately denounced for the scurrilous piece that it is. I sincerely hope that people of all faiths will similarly repudiate “The Godmakers” as defamatory and untrue, and recognize it for what it truly representsa challenge to the religious liberty of all.[14]

One of the ADL’s major focuses is religious freedom for people of all faiths.[15] In the context of public schools, the ADL has taken the position that because creationism and intelligent design are religious beliefs, and the government is prohibited from endorsing the beliefs of any particular religion, they should not be taught in science classrooms: “The U.S. Constitution guarantees the rights of Americans to believe the religious theories of creation (as well as other theories) but it does not permit them to be taught in public school science classes.”[16] Similarly, the ADL supports the legal precedent that it is unconstitutional for the government to post the Ten Commandments in courthouses, schools, and other public places: “True religious liberty means freedom from having the government impose the religion of the majority on all citizens.”[17] The ADL has also condemned the public school Bible curriculum published by the National Council on Bible Curriculum in Public Schools, saying that it raises “serious constitutional problems” and “advocates the acceptance of one faith tradition’s interpretation of the Bible over another.”[18] The ADL opposed Proposition 8 and supported the Matthew Shepard Act.

The ADL keeps track of the activities of various extremist groups and movements.[19] According to ADL Director Abe Foxman, “Our mission is to monitor and expose those who are anti-Jewish, racist, anti-democratic, and violence-prone, and we monitor them primarily by reading publications and attending public meetings . Because extremist organizations are highly secretive, sometimes ADL can learn of their activities only by using undercover sources [who] function in a manner directly analogous to investigative journalists. Some have performed great service to the American peoplefor example, by uncovering the existence of right-wing extremist paramilitary training campswith no recognition and at considerable personal risk.”[20] A person apprehended in connection to the 2002 white supremacist terror plot had drawn a cartoon of himself blowing up the Boston offices of the ADL.[21]

The ADL regularly releases reports on anti-Semitism and extremist activities on the far left and the far right. For instance, as part of its Law Enforcement Agency Resource Network (L.E.A.R.N.), the ADL has published information about the Militia Movement[22] in America and a guide for law enforcement officials titled Officer Safety and Extremists.[23] An archive of “The Militia Watchdog” research on U.S. right-wing extremism (including groups not specifically cited as anti-Semitic) from 1995 to 2000 is also available on the ADL website.[22]

In the 1990s, some details of the ADL’s monitoring activities became public and controversial, including the fact that the ADL had gathered information about some non-extremist groups.

In October 2008 the ADL reportedly assisted the US Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) by providing, on request, information on Daniel Cowart and Paul Schlesselman and their associates and contacts, and on their ties to the Supreme White Alliance. Shortly thereafter the two men were arrested on charges of plotting to murder dozens of African Americans and plotting to assassinate US President-elect Barack Obama.[24][25]

The ADL holds that it is important to remember the Holocaust, in order to prevent such an event from reoccurring. Along with sponsoring events and fighting Holocaust deniers and revisionists, the ADL has been active in urging action to stop modern-day ethnic cleansing and genocide in places such as Bosnia, Darfur, and Sudan.[citation needed]

The ADL spoke out against an advertising campaign by People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) beginning in 2003 that equated meat-eating with the Holocaust. A press release from the ADL stated that “PETA’s effort to seek ‘approval’ for their ‘Holocaust on Your Plate’ campaign is outrageous, offensive and takes chutzpah to new heights. Rather than deepen our revulsion against what the Nazis did to the Jews, the project will undermine the struggle to understand the Holocaust and to find ways to make sure such catastrophes never happen again.”[26] In May 2005 PETA apologized for its campaign, with PETA President Ingrid Newkirk stating that causing pain “was never our intention, and we are deeply sorry.”[27]

The national ADL issued a “Statement on the Armenian Genocide” on August 21, 2007. The statement declared, “The consequences of those actions were indeed tantamount to genocide.” Activists felt that the statement was not a full, unequivocal acknowledgment of the Armenian genocide, because the use of the qualifier “tantamount” was seen as inappropriate, and the use of the word “consequences” was seen as an attempt to circumvent the international legal definition of genocide by avoiding any language that would imply intent, a crucial aspect of the 1948 UN Genocide Convention definition. The ADL convened its national meeting in New York City in early November 2007 at which time the issue of the Armenian Genocide was discussed. Upon conclusion, a one sentence press statement was issued that “The National Commission of the Anti-Defamation League (ADL) today, at its annual meeting, decided to take no further action on the issue of the Armenian genocide.”[28]

The ADL supports the Jewish state and has vociferously opposed resolutions such as the 1975 United Nations resolution (revoked in 1991) which equated Zionism with racism,[29] and attempts to revive that formulation at the 2001 U.N. World Conference Against Racism in Durban, South Africa.[30] The ADL also has expressed concern over Israeli legislative proposals that would stifle freedom of expression and undermine Israeli democracy.[31][32]

The ADL honors individuals throughout the year for various reasons. On September 23, 2003, at its Tribute to Italy Dinner, the ADL awarded Italian prime minister Silvio Berlusconi the ADL’s distinguished statesman award, an honor “conferred on world leaders who exhibit a commitment to furthering the achievement of regional and world peace, and who possess a special commitment to promoting human and civil rights.”[33] Berlusconi is also known for his staunch pro-Israel stance.[34][35]

The ADL has spoken out against red-baiting[36] and McCarthyism.[37]

In 2006 the ADL condemned Senate Republicans in the United States for attempting to ban same-sex marriage with the Federal Marriage Amendment and praised its demise, calling it “discrimination.”[38] That same year the ADL warned that the debate over illegal immigration was drawing neo-nazis and anti-Semites into the ranks of the Minutemen Project.

In 1974 ADL national leaders Arnold Forster and Benjamin R. Epstein published a book called The New Anti-Semitism (New York, 1974), arguing that a new kind of anti-Semitism is on the rise. In 1982, ADL national leader Nathan Perlmutter and his wife, Ruth Ann Perlmutter, released a book entitled The Real Anti-Semitism in America (New York, 1982). In 2003, ADL’s national director Abraham Foxman published Never Again? The Threat of the New Anti-Semitism (San Francisco, 2003), where on page 4 he states: “We currently face as great a threat to the safety and security of the Jewish people as the one we faced in the 1930sif not a greater one.”[39]

In 2010, during a hearing for Florida House Bill 11 (Crimes Against Homeless Persons) which was to revise the list of offenses judged to be hate crimes in Florida by adding a person’s homeless status,[40] the League lobbied against the bill, which subsequently passed in the House by a vote of 80 to 28 and was sent to the Senate,[41] taking the position that adding more categories to the list would dilute the effectiveness of the law, which already includes race, religion, sexual orientation, disability, and age.[42]

The ADL supports Comprehensive and DREAM Act legislation that would provide conditional permanent residency to certain illegal aliens of good moral character who graduate from U.S. high schools, arrived in the United States as minors, and lived in the country continuously for at least five years prior to the bill’s enactment.[43]

On June 18, 2004 the ADL issued a news release[44] about the University of California Irvine (UCI) Muslim Students Union in which the student group had invited speakers to campus who made public declarations of support for Hamas, advocated suicide bombings and called for the destruction of Israel. For graduation, Muslim Students Union members chose to wear green (the traditional colour of Islam) graduation stoles bearing the Shahada, the Islamic declaration of faith. The ADL’s press release explained that the Shahada is a declaration of faith that has been closely identified with Palestinian terrorists, and said that suicide bombers connected to the Palestinian group Hamas wear green armbands and headbands inscribed with the Shahada as a symbol of their movement, and stated, “We are troubled that members of the (UCI) Muslim Students Union have chosen to display symbolism that is closely identified with Palestinian terrorist groups and that can be especially offensive to Jewish students.”

The ADL has publicly opposed anti-Islamic organizations like Stop Islamization of America and Stop Islamization of Europe and activists like Pamela Geller and David Yerushalmi, describing them as “anti-Muslim bigots.”[45]

In 1997, the National Center for Black-Jewish Relations of Dillard University, a historically black university in New Orleans awarded the director of the ADL, Abraham H. Foxman, with the first Annual Martin Luther King, Jr. Donald R. Mintz Freedom and Justice Award.

In 2004, the ADL became the lead partner in the Peace and Diversity Academy, a new New York City public high school with predominantly black and Hispanic students.

In celebration of Black History Month, the ADL created and distributed lesson plans to middle and high school teachers about Shirley Chisholm (1924-2005), the first black woman elected to the US Congress, and an important civil rights leader.

The ADL has also publicly charged certain African Americans with anti-Semitism:

ADL’s New England Regional Office has also established a faith-based initiative called “The Interfaith Youth Leadership Program,” better known as “Camp If,” or Camp Interfaith. Involving teenagers of the Christian, Jewish, and Islamic faiths, the camp brings the teens together for a week at camp where the teens bond and learn about each other’s cultures. The camp has emerged as a new attempt to foster good relations between younger members of the Abrahamic faiths.[59]

Since the 1930s the ADL has been gathering information and publishing reports on whatever it identifies as anti-Semitism, racism and prejudice, and on anti-Jewish, anti-Israel, racist, anti-democratic, violent, and extremist individuals and groups. As a result, the organization amassed what it once called a “famous storehouse of accurate, detailed, unassailable information on extremist individuals and organizations.”[60] Over the decades the ADL has assembled thousands of files.

One of its sources for the 1980s and 1990s was Roy Bullock, an intelligence gatherer for the South African apartheid regime,[61] a private collector of information. He amassed files on 10,000-12,000 individuals and 600 organizations[62] and provided them to the ADL as a secretly paid independent contractor for over 32 years. Bullock often wrote letters to various groups and forwarded copies of their replies to the ADL, clipped articles from newspapers and magazines, and maintained files on his computer. He also used less orthodox, and possibly illegal, methods such as combing through trash and tapping into White Aryan Resistance’s phone message system in order to find evidence of hate crimes. Some of the information he obtained and then passed on to the ADL came from confidential documents (including intelligence files on various Nazi groups and driver’s license records and other personal information on nearly 1,400 people) that were given to him by San Francisco police officer Tom Gerard.[63]

On April 8, 1993, police seized Bullock’s computer and raided the ADL offices in San Francisco and Los Angeles, California. A search of Bullock’s computer revealed that he had compiled files on 9,876 individuals and more than 950 groups across the political spectrum. Many of Bullock’s files concerned groups that did not fit the mold of extremist groups, hate groups, and organizations hostile to Jews or Israel that the ADL would usually be interested in. Along with files on the Ku Klux Klan, White Aryan Resistance, Islamic Jihad and the Jewish Defense League were data on the NAACP, the African National Congress (ANC), the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), the United Auto Workers, the AIDS activist group ACT UP, Mother Jones magazine, the TASS Soviet/Russian news agency, Greenpeace, Jews for Jesus and the National Lawyers Guild; there were also files on politicians including Democratic U.S. Representative Nancy Pelosi, former Republican U.S. Representative Pete McCloskey, and activist Lyndon LaRouche.[63][64] Bullock told investigators that many of those were his own private files, not information he was passing on to the ADL. An attorney for the ADL stated that “We knew nothing about the vast extent of the files. Those are not ADL’s files. That is all [Bullock’s] doing.”[65] As for its own records, the ADL indicated that just because it had a file on a group, that did not mean that the ADL opposed the group. The San Francisco district attorney at the time accused the ADL of conducting a national “spy network,” but dropped all accusations a few months later,[66] judging it to be a force for good. The ADL then offered the district attorney’s office a sum of $75,000 to fight bigotry, which was duly accepted.[61]

In the weeks following the raids, twelve civil rights groups led by the American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee and the National Lawyers Guild, filed a lawsuit demanding that the ADL release its surveillance information and end its investigations, as well as ordering it to pay punitive damages.[67] The plaintiffs’ attorney, former Representative McCloskey, claimed that the information the ADL gathered constituted an invasion of privacy. The ADL, while distancing itself from Bullock, countered that it is entitled like any researcher or journalist to research organizations and individuals. Richard Cohen, legal director of the Southern Poverty Law Center in Montgomery, Alabama, stated that like journalists, the ADL’s researchers “gather information however they can” and welcome disclosures from confidential sources, saying “they probably rely on their sources to draw the line” on how much can legally be divulged. Bullock admitted that he was overzealous, and that some of the ways in which he gathered information may have been illegal.[65]

The lawsuit was settled out of court in 1999. The ADL agreed to pay $175,000 for the court costs of the groups, two of them Jewish,[61] that sued it, promised that it would not seek information from sources it knew could not legally disclose such information, consented to remove sensitive information like criminal records or Social Security numbers from its files, and spent $25,000 in order to further relations between the Jewish, Arab and black communities. When the case was settled, Hussein Ibish, director of communications for the American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee (ADC), claimed that the ADL had gathered data “systematically in a program whose clear intent was to undermine civil rights and Arab-American organizations.” ADL national director Abraham Foxman called the ADC’s claims “absolutely untrue,” saying that “if it were true, they would have won their case” and noted that no court found the ADL guilty of any wrongdoing. The ADL released a statement saying that the settlement “explicitly recognizes ADL’s right to gather information in any lawful and constitutionally protected manner, which we have always done and will continue to do.”[66]John Mearsheimer and Stephen Walt argue that the organization, rather than defending Jews from bigotry, was targeting individuals critical of Israel or of U.S. support for Israel.[61]

A case which has been compared to the Bullock case was that of James Mitchell Rosenberg, aka Jim Anderson. Rosenberg/Anderson was an undercover operative of the ADL who acted as an agent provocateur, posing as a racist right-wing paramilitary extremist. He appeared in this role as part of a TV documentary entitled Armies of the Right which premiered in 1981. Rosenberg was arrested that same year in New York for carrying an unregistered firearm in public view. In 1984, ADL fact-finding director Irwin Suall identified Rosenberg as an ADL operative in a court deposition.[68]

In 2007, Abraham Foxman came under criticism for his stance on the Armenian Genocide. The ADL had previously described it as a “massacre” and an “atrocity,” but not as a “genocide.”[69] Foxman had earlier opposed calls for the U.S. Government to recognise it as a “genocide.”[70] “I don’t think congressional action will help reconcile the issue. The resolution takes a position; it comes to a judgment,” said Foxman in a statement issued to the Jewish Telegraphic Agency. “The Turks and Armenians need to revisit their past. The Jewish community shouldn’t be the arbiter of that history, nor should the U.S. Congress, and “a Congressional resolution on such matters is a counterproductive diversion and will not foster reconciliation between Turks and Armenians and may put at risk the Turkish Jewish community and the important multilateral relationship between Turkey, Israel and the United States.”

In early August 2007, complaints about the Anti-Defamation League’s refusal to acknowledge the Armenian Genocide led to the Watertown, Massachusetts unanimous town council decision to end its participation in the ADL’s “No Place for Hate” campaign. (Watertown is known for its Armenian population.) Also in August 2007, an editorial in The Boston Globe criticized the ADL by saying that “as an organization concerned about human rights, it ought to acknowledge the genocide against the Armenian people during World War I, and criticize Turkish attempts to repress the memory of this historical reality.”[71] Then on August 17, 2007, the ADL fired its regional New England director, Andrew H. Tarsy, for breaking ranks with the main organization and for saying that the ADL should recognize the genocide.[72] In an August 21, 2007 press release, the ADL changed its position and acknowledged the genocide but maintained its opposition to congressional resolutions aimed at recognizing it.[69] Foxman wrote, “the consequences of those actions,” by the Ottoman Empire against Armenians, “were indeed tantamount to genocide.”[73] The Turkish government condemned the league’s statement.[74] Andrew H. Tarsy was rehired by the league on August 27,[75] though he has since chosen to step down from his position.[76]

The ADL was criticized by many in the Armenian community including The Armenian Weekly newspaper, in which writer Michael Mensoian stated:

The belated backtracking of the Anti-Defamation League (ADL) in acknowledging the planned, systematic massacre of 1,500,000 Armenian men, women and children as “tantamount to genocide” is discouraging. Tantamount means something is equivalent. If it’s equivalent, why avoid using the term? For the ADL to justify its newly adopted statement because the word genocide did not exist at the time indicates a halfhearted attempt to placate Armenians while not offending Turkey. Historians use the term genocide simply because it is the proper term to describe the horrific events that the Ottoman Turkish government unleashed on the Armenian people.[77]

After Foxman’s capitulation, the New England ADL pressed the organization’s national leadership to support a congressional resolution acknowledging the genocide.[78] After hours of closed-door debate at the annual national meeting in New York, the proposal was ultimately withdrawn.[78] The organization issued a statement saying it would “take no further action on the issue of the Armenian genocide.” The ADL had earlier received direct pressure from the Turkish Foreign ministry.[79] Tarsy submitted his resignation on December 4.[78]

Since August, some human rights commissions in other Massachusetts communities decided to follow Watertown’s lead and withdraw from the ADL’s No Place for Hate anti-discrimination program.[78]

The famous linguist and left-wing commentator and activist Noam Chomsky has characterized the ADL as having lost entirely its focus on civil rights issues in order to become solely an advocate for Israeli policy; he holds that the ADL casts all left-wing opposition to Israeli interests as antisemitism.[80]

In 2006, the ADL, in addition to the American Jewish Committee, was criticized by academic Tony Judt for allegedly pressuring the Polish Consulate-General in New York to cancel a scheduled appearance by Judt at Network 20/20, a non-profit organization that rents space from the consulate. In an interview with the New York Sun, Foxman claimed that the group “had nothing to do with the cancellation,”[81] insisting that the ADL only called to ask if the event was being sponsored by the Polish government.[82] Polish Consul General Krzysztof Kasprzyk suggested in an interview with The Washington Post that calls by the ADL and the American Jewish Committee were “exercising a delicate pressure.”[83] In reference to the role of the ADL and the American Jewish Committee in organizing the cancellations, Judt told The Washington Post: “This is serious and frightening, and only in Americanot in Israelis this a problem. These are Jewish organizations that believe they should keep people who disagree with them on the Middle East away from anyone who might listen.”[83] The ADL denied the charges. According to Foxman, “I think they made the right decision… He’s taken the position that Israel shouldn’t exist. That puts him on our radar.”[83]

In 1994, the ADL became embroiled in a dispute between neighbors in Denver, Colorado. Upon the involvement of the ADL, the petty quarreling of next door neighbors, initially about garden plants and pets, quickly escalated into both civil and criminal court cases involving charges of anti-Semitism, and counter charges of defamation.

Candace and Mitchell Aronson, Jewish next door neighbors of William and Dorothy Quigley, used a Radio Shack police scanner to listen in on the cordless telephone conversations of Mr.& Mrs. Quigley. When the Aronsons heard the Quigleys discuss a campaign to drive them from the neighborhood with “Nazi scare tactics,” the Aronsons contacted the Denver office of the ADL. Upon the advice of the ADL, the Aronsons then recorded the Quigley’s private telephone conversations. The conversations included discussions of putting pictures of oven doors on the Aronsons’ home (a reference to the Holocaust), burning one of the Aronson children, and wishing that the Aronsons had been killed in a suicide bombing. (The Quigleys later indicated that these remarks were not anti-Semitic, and were only intended to be sick humor.)[84] Neither the Aronsons nor the ADL were aware that Congress had amended federal wiretap law which made it illegal to record conversations from a cordless telephone, to transcribe the material and to use the transcriptions for any purpose.

Not knowing about the new federal law, the Aronsons used the tapes as the basis for a federal civil lawsuit against the Quigleys in December 1994. A day later, Saul Rosenthal, Regional Director of the ADL, appeared at a news conference with the Aronsons in which he described their encounter with the Quigleys as “a vicious anti-Semitic campaign”, based solely on conversations he and associates had with the Aronsons. Later that day, Mr. Rosenthal expanded on his remarks in an interview on a Denver radio talk show.

Two days later, Jefferson County prosecutors used the tapes as the basis for filing criminal charges against the Quigleys.

The Quigleys became the target of scorn and ridicule. They received threats, and were forced to hire security guards for their home. A package of dog feces was mailed to their house. When they attended church, their priest openly chastised them in his sermon. The family was forced to shop in other towns, to avoid being recognized.[85] Mr. Quigley’s career with United Artists suffered serious damage.[86]

Upon investigation, and after assistant district attorney Steven Jensen heard on the tapes the context of Mrs. Quigley’s remarks, all charges but one, a misdemeanor traffic violation against Mr. Quigley, were dropped. The district attorney issued two letters of apology to the Quigleys, saying he found no evidence that either had engaged in “anti-Semitic conduct or harassment.”[87]

The Quigleys brought a lawsuit against the ADL, Rosenthal, the Aronsons, and two ADL volunteer attorneys. The two attorneys agreed to pay $350,000 to the Quigleys in settlement of their claims. The Quigley settlement with the Aronsons did not involve a cash payment. The Quigleys maintained their action against the ADL and Rosenthal, which was heard in federal court. A federal jury returned a verdict of $10 million in favor of the Quigleys. The ADL appealed.

According to an April 13, 2001 article in The Forward, upon hearing the appeal, a federal judge “lambasted the ADL for labeling a nasty neighborhood feud as an anti-Semitic event” and upheld most of Quigley’s $10 million lawsuit for defamation. According to a report in the Rocky Mountain News, with accrued interest, the judgment amounted to more than $12 million.[88]

In 1974, ADL national leaders Arnold Forster and Benjamin R. Epstein published a book called The New Anti-Semitism (New York, 1974), arguing that a new kind of anti-Semitism is on the rise. In 1982, ADL national leader Nathan Perlmutter and his wife, Ruth Ann Perlmutter, released a book entitled The Real Anti-Semitism in America (New York, 1982). In 2003, ADL’s national director Abraham Foxman published Never Again? The Threat of the New Anti-Semitism (San Francisco, 2003), where on page 4 he states: “We currently face as great a threat to the safety and security of the Jewish people as the one we faced in the 1930sif not a greater one.”[39]

Reviewing Forster and Epstein’s work in Commentary, Earl Raab, founding director of the Nathan Perlmutter Institute for Jewish Advocacy at Brandeis University, argued that a “new anti-Semitism” was indeed emerging in America, in the form of opposition to the collective rights of the Jewish people, but he criticized Forster and Epstein for conflating it with anti-Israel bias.[89] Allan Brownfeld writes that Forster and Epstein’s new definition of antisemitism trivialized the concept by turning it into “a form of political blackmail” and “a weapon with which to silence any criticism of either Israel or U.S. policy in the Middle East,”[90] while Edward S. Shapiro, in “A Time for Healing: American Jewry Since World War II,” has written that “Forster and Epstein implied that the new anti-Semitism was the inability of Gentiles to love Jews and Israel enough.”[91]

Norman Finkelstein argues that organizations such as the Anti-Defamation League have brought forward charges of new antisemitism at various intervals since the 1970s, “not to fight antisemitism but rather to exploit the historical suffering of Jews in order to immunize Israel against criticism”.[92]

ADL is an advocate for gun control legislation.[93] The ADL supported the District of Columbia before the US Supreme Court in District of Columbia v. Heller which argued that the city’s ban on the possession of handguns and any functional firearms, even for self-defense in the home is not prohibited by the Second Amendment.[94] The League urged the Court to ensure that states retain the ability to keep guns out of the hands of “violent bigots.”

Gun rights group Jews for the Preservation of Firearms Ownership (JPFO) has been highly critical of the Anti-Defamation League. In pamphlets such as “Why Does the ADL Support Nazi-Based Laws?”[95] and “JPFO Facts vs. ADL Lies,”[96] the JPFO has accused the ADL of undermining the welfare of the Jewish people by promoting gun control. In a 2007 handbill the JPFO accused ADL Director Abraham Foxman of knowingly supporting the “use of Nazi gun control laws in America.”[97] Foxman has written about the JPFO: “Anti-Semitism has a long and painful history, and the linkage to gun control is a tactic by Jews for the Preservation of Firearms Ownership to manipulate the fear of anti-Semitism toward their own end.”[98]

On July 28, 2010 the ADL issued a statement in which it expressed opposition to the Park51 Community Center, which sponsors planned to build near the World Trade Center site in New York. The ADL stated, “The controversy which has emerged regarding the building of a Community Center at this location is counterproductive to the healing process. Therefore, under these unique circumstances, we believe the City of New York would be better served if an alternative location could be found.”[99] The ADL denounced what it saw as bigoted attacks on the project. Foxman opined that some of those who oppose the mosque are “bigots,” and that the plan’s proponents may have every right to build the mosque at that location. Nevertheless, he said that building the mosque at that site would unnecessarily cause more pain for families of some victims of 9/11.[99][100][101][102]

This opposition to the Community Center led to criticism of the statement from various parties, including one ADL board member, the American Jewish Committee, the Jewish Community Relations Council of New York, Rabbi Irwin Kula, columnists Jeffrey Goldberg and Peter Beinart, the Interfaith Alliance,[103] and the Shalom Center.[104] In an interview with the New York Times Abe Foxman published a statement in reaction to criticism.[105] In protest of ADL’s stance, CNN host Fareed Zakaria returned the Hubert H. Humphrey First Amendment Freedoms Prize the ADL awarded him in 2005.[106] ADL chair Robert G. Sugarman responded to a critical New York Times editorial[107] writing, “we have publicly taken on those who criticized the mosque in ways that reflected anti-Muslim bigotry or used the controversy for that purpose” and stating that the ADL has combated Islamophobia.[108]

Mark Arax, a former LA Times writer and current Salon writer of Armenian descent, strongly criticized the role of the ADL in American Armenian Genocide denial. In 2007, he spoke with Abraham Foxman, who said: “Our focus is Israel. If helping Turkey helps Israel, then thats what were in the business of doing. Was it genocide? It was wartime. Things get messy. The Turks and Armenians need to revisit their past. The Jewish community shouldnt be the arbiter of that history. And I dont think the U.S. Congress should be the arbiter, either.”[109]

Arax later wrote on this: “I almost had to revisit his website to make sure that the ADL was still in the business of fighting not only anti-Semitism but “bigotry and extremism” and “securing justice and fair treatment to all.”” [109]

When Arax pointed out that the genocide had been documented as a fact by many prominent historians, and that Congress recognizes all sorts of peoples history, including resolutions commemorating the victims of the Holocaust, Foxman replied: “Youre not suggesting that an Armenian Genocide is the same as the Holocaust, are you?”[109]

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Anti-Defamation League – Wikipedia

History of Zionism – Wikipedia

Posted By on October 27, 2016

Zionism as an organized movement is generally considered to have been founded by Theodor Herzl in 1897. However, the history of Zionism began earlier and is related to Judaism and Jewish history. The Hovevei Zion, or the Lovers of Zion, were responsible for the creation of 20 new Jewish settlements in Palestine between 1870 and 1897.[1]

Before the Holocaust, the movement’s central aims were the creation of a Jewish national home and cultural centre in Palestine by facilitating Jewish migration. After the Holocaust, the movement focused on creation of a Jewish state (usually defined as a secular state with a Jewish majority), attaining its goal in 1948 with the creation of Israel.

Since the creation of Israel, the importance of the Zionist movement as an organization has declined, as the Israeli state has grown stronger.[2]

The Zionist movement continues to exist, working to support Israel, assist persecuted Jews and encourage Jewish emigration to Israel. While most Israeli political parties continue to define themselves as Zionist, modern Israeli political thought is no longer formulated within the Zionist movement.

The success of Zionism has meant that the percentage of the world’s Jewish population who live in Israel has steadily grown over the years and today 40% of the world’s Jews live in Israel. There is no other example in human history of a “nation” being reestablished after such a long period of existence as a diaspora.[citation needed]

The precedence for Jews to return to their ancestral homeland, motivated by strong divine intervention, first appears in the Torah, and thus later adopted in the Christian Old Testament. After Jacob and his sons had gone down to Egypt to escape a drought, they were enslaved and became a nation. Later, as commanded by God, Moses went before Pharaoh, demanded, “Let my people go!” and foretold severe consequences, if this was not done. Torah describes the story of the plagues and the Exodus from Egypt, which is estimated at about 1400 BCE, and the beginning of the journey of the Jewish People toward the Land of Israel. These are celebrated annually during Passover, and the Passover meal traditionally ends with the words “Next Year in Jerusalem.”

The theme of return to their traditional homeland came up again after the Babylonians conquered Judea in 641 BCE and the Judeans were exiled to Babylon. In the book of Psalms (Psalm 137), Jews lamented their exile while Prophets like Ezekiel foresaw their return. The Bible recounts how, in 538 BCE Cyrus the Great of Persia conquered Babylon and issued a proclamation granting the people of Judah their freedom. 50,000 Judeans, led by Zerubbabel returned. A second group of 5000, led by Ezra and Nehemiah, returned to Judea in 456 BCE.

In 1160 David Alroy led a Jewish uprising in Kurdistan that aimed to reconquer the promised land. In 1648 Sabbatai Zevi from modern Turkey claimed he would lead the Jews back to Palestine. In 1868 Judah ben Shalom led a large movement of Yemenite Jews to Palestine. A dispatch from the British Consulate in Jerusalem in 1839 reported that “the Jews of Algiers and its dependencies, are numerous in Palestine….” There was also significant migration from Central Asia (Bukharan Jews).

In addition to Messianic movements, the population of the Holy Land was slowly bolstered by Jews fleeing Christian persecution especially after the Reconquista of Al-Andalus (the Muslim name of the Iberian Peninsula). Safed became an important center of Kabbalah. Jerusalem, Hebron and Tiberias also had significant Jewish populations.

Among Jews in the Diaspora Eretz Israel was revered in a religious sense. They thought of a return to it in a future messianic age.[3] Return remained a recurring theme among generations, particularly in Passover and Yom Kippur prayers, which traditionally concluded with “Next year in Jerusalem”, and in the thrice-daily Amidah (Standing prayer).[4]

Jewish daily prayers include many references to “your people Israel”, “your return to Jerusalem” and associate salvation with a restored presence in the Land of Israel, the Land of Zion and Jerusalem (usually accompanied by a Messiah); for example the prayer Uva Letzion (Isaiah 59:20): “And a redeemer shall come to Zion…”[citation needed]Aliyah (immigration to Israel) has always been considered a praiseworthy act for Jews according to Jewish law and some Rabbis consider it one of the core 613 commandments in Judaism.[5] From the Middle Ages and onwards, some famous rabbis (and often their followers) immigrated to the Land of Israel. These included Nahmanides, Yechiel of Paris with several hundred of his students, Joseph ben Ephraim Karo, Menachem Mendel of Vitebsk and 300 of his followers, and over 500 disciples (and their families) of the Vilna Gaon known as Perushim, among others.

Persecution of Jews played a key role in preserving Jewish identity and keeping Jewish communities transient, it would later provide a key role in inspiring Zionists to reject European forms of identity.

Jews in Catholic states were banned from owning land and from pursuing a variety of professions. From the 13th century Jews were required to wear identifying clothes such as special hats or stars on their clothing. This form of persecution originated in tenth century Baghdad and was copied by Christian rulers. Constant expulsions and insecurity led Jews to adopt artisan professions that were easily transferable between locations (such as furniture making or tailoring).

Persecution in Spain and Portugal led large number of Jews there to convert to Christianity, however many continued to secretly practice Jewish rituals. The Church responded by creating the Inquisition in 1478 and by expelling all remaining Jews in 1492. In 1542 the inquisition expanded to include the Papal States. Inquisitors could arbitrarily torture suspects and many victims were burnt alive.

In 1516 the Republic of Venice decreed that Jews would only be allowed to reside in a walled-in area of town called the ghetto. Ghetto residents had to pay a daily poll tax and could only stay a limited amount of time. In 1555 the Pope decreed that Jews in Rome were to face similar restrictions. The requirement for Jews to live in Ghettos spread across Europe and Ghettos were frequently highly overcrowded and heavily taxed. They also provided a convenient target for mobs (pogrom). Jews were expelled from England in 1290. A ban remained in force that was only lifted when Oliver Cromwell overthrew the monarchy in 1649 (see Resettlement of the Jews in England).

Persecution of Jews began to decline following Napoleon’s conquest of Europe after the French Revolution although the short lived Nazi Empire resurrected most practices. In 1965 the Catholic Church formally excluded the idea of holding Jews collectively responsible for the death of Jesus.

The Age of Enlightenment in Europe led to an 18th- and 19th-century Jewish enlightenment movement in Europe, called the Haskalah. In 1791, the French Revolution led France to become the first country in Europe to grant Jews legal equality. Britain gave Jews equal rights in 1856, Germany in 1871. The spread of western liberal ideas among newly emancipated Jews created for the first time a class of secular Jews who absorbed the prevailing ideas of enlightenment, including rationalism, romanticism, and nationalism.

However, the formation of modern nations in Europe accompanied changes in the prejudices against Jews. What had previously been religious persecution now became a new phenomenon, Racial antisemitism and acquired a new name: antisemitism. Antisemites saw Jews as an alien religious, national and racial group and actively tried to prevent Jews from acquiring equal rights and citizenship. The Catholic press was at the forefront of these efforts and was quietly encouraged by the Vatican, which saw its own decline in status as linked to the equality granted to Jews.[6] By the late 19th century, the more extreme nationalist movements in Europe often promoted physical violence against Jews who they regarded as interlopers and exploiters threatening the well-being of their nations.

Jews in Eastern Europe faced constant pogroms and persecution in Tzarist Russia. From 1791 they were only allowed to live in the Pale of Settlement. In response to the Jewish drive for integration and modern education (Haskalah) and the movement for emancipation, the Tzars imposed tight quotas on schools, universities and cities to prevent entry by Jews. From 1827 to 1917 Russian Jewish boys were required to serve 25 years in the Russian army, starting at the age of 12. The intention was to forcibly destroy their ethnic identity, however the move severely radicalized Russia’s Jews and familiarized them with nationalism and socialism.[7]

The tsar’s chief adviser Konstantin Pobedonostsev, was reported as saying that one-third of Russia’s Jews was expected to emigrate, one-third to accept baptism, and one-third to starve.[8]

Famous incidents includes the 1913 Menahem Mendel Beilis trial (Blood libel against Jews) and the 1903 Kishinev pogrom.

Between 1880 and 1928, two million Jews left Russia; most emigrated to the United States, a minority chose Palestine.

Proto-Zionists include the (Lithuanian) Vilna Gaon, (Russian) Rabbi Menachem Mendel of Vitebsk, (Bosnian) Rabbi Judah Alkalai[9] (German) Rabbi Zvi Hirsch Kalischer, and (British) Sir Moses Montefiore.[10] Other advocates of Jewish independence include (American) Mordecai Manuel Noah, (Russian) Leon Pinsker and (German) Moses Hess.

In 1862 Moses Hess, a former associate of Karl Marx and Frederich Engels, wrote Rome and Jerusalem. The Last National Question calling for the Jews to create a socialist state in Palestine as a means of settling the Jewish question. Also in 1862, German Orthodox Rabbi Kalischer published his tractate Derishat Zion, arguing that the salvation of the Jews, promised by the Prophets, can come about only by self-help.[11] In 1882, after the Odessa pogrom, Judah Leib Pinsker published the pamphlet Auto-Emancipation (self-emancipation), arguing that Jews could only be truly free in their own country and analyzing the persistent tendency of Europeans to regard Jews as aliens:

“Since the Jew is nowhere at home, nowhere regarded as a native, he remains an alien everywhere. That he himself and his ancestors as well are born in the country does not alter this fact in the least… to the living the Jew is a corpse, to the native a foreigner, to the homesteader a vagrant, to the proprietary a beggar, to the poor an exploiter and a millionaire, to the patriot a man without a country, for all a hated rival.”[12]

Pinsker established the Hibbat Zion movement to actively promote Jewish settlement in Palestine. In 1890, the “Society for the Support of Jewish Farmers and Artisans in Syria and Eretz Israel” (better known as the Odessa Committee) was officially registered as a charitable organization in the Russian Empire, and by 1897, it counted over 4,000 members.

Ideas of the restoration of the Jews in the Land of Israel entered British public discourse in the early 19th century, at about the same time as the British Protestant Revival.[13]

Not all such attitudes were favorable towards the Jews; they were shaped in part by a variety of Protestant beliefs,[14] or by a streak of philo-Semitism among the classically educated British elite,[15] or by hopes to extend the Empire. (See The Great Game)

At the urging of Lord Shaftesbury, Britain established a consulate in Jerusalem in 1838, the first diplomatic appointment in the city. In 1839, the Church of Scotland sent Andrew Bonar and Robert Murray M’Cheyne to report on the condition of the Jews there. The report was widely published[16] and was followed by Memorandum to Protestant Monarchs of Europe for the restoration of the Jews to Palestine. In August 1840, The Times reported that the British government was considering Jewish restoration.[13] Correspondence in 184142 between Moses Montefiore, the President of the Board of Deputies of British Jews and Charles Henry Churchill, the British consul in Damascus, is seen as the first recorded plan proposed for political Zionism.[17][18]

Lord Lindsay wrote in 1847: “The soil of Palestine still enjoys her sabbaths, and only waits for the return of her banished children, and the application of industry, commensurate with her agricultural capabilities, to burst once more into universal luxuriance, and be all that she ever was in the days of Solomon.”[19]

In 1851, correspondence between Lord Stanley, whose father became British Prime Minister the following year, and Benjamin Disraeli, who became Chancellor of the Exchequer alongside him, records Disraeli’s proto-Zionist views: “He then unfolded a plan of restoring the nation to Palestinesaid the country was admirably suited for themthe financiers all over Europe might helpthe Porte is weakthe Turks/holders of property could be bought outthis, he said, was the object of his life….” Coningsby was merely a feelermy views were not fully developed at that timesince then all I have written has been for one purpose. The man who should restore the Hebrew race to their country would be the Messiahthe real saviour of prophecy!” He did not add formally that he aspired to play this part, but it was evidently implied. He thought very highly of the capabilities of the country, and hinted that his chief object in acquiring power here would be to promote the return”.[20][21] 26 years later, Disraeli wrote in his article entitled “The Jewish Question is the Oriental Quest” (1877) that within fifty years, a nation of one million Jews would reside in Palestine under the guidance of the British.

Sir Moses Montefiore visited the Land of Israel seven times and fostered its development.[15]

In 1842, Joseph Smith, founder of the Latter Day Saints movement, sent a representative, Orson Hyde, to dedicate the land of Israel for the return of the Jews.[22] Protestant theologian William Eugene Blackstone submitted a petition to the US president in 1891; the Blackstone Memorial called for the return of Palestine to the Jews.

In the late 1870s, Jewish philanthropists such as the Montefiores and the Rothschilds responded to the persecution of Jews in Eastern Europe by sponsoring agricultural settlements for Russian Jews in Palestine. The Jews who migrated in this period are known as the First Aliyah.[23]Aliyah is a Hebrew word meaning “ascent”, referring to the act of spiritually “ascending” to the Holy Land and a basic tenet of Zionism.

The movement of Jews to Palestine was opposed by the Haredi communities who lived in the Four Holy Cities, since they were very poor and lived off charitable donations from Europe, which they feared would be used by the newcomers. However, from 1800 there was a movement of Sephardi businessmen from North Africa and the Balkans to Jaffa and the growing community there perceived modernity and Aliyah as the key to salvation. Unlike the Haredi communities, the Jaffa community did not maintain separate Ashkenazi and Sephardi institutions and functioned as a single unified community.

Founded in 1878, Rosh Pinna and Petah Tikva were the first modern Jewish settlements.

In 18811882 the Tzar sponsored a huge wave of pogroms in the Russian Empire and a massive wave of Jews began leaving, mainly for America. So many Russian Jews arrived in Jaffa that the town ran out of accommodation and the local Jews began forming communities outside the Jaffa city walls. However the migrants faced difficulty finding work (the new settlements mainly needed farmers and builders) and 70% ultimately left, mostly moving on to America. One of the migrants in this period, Eliezer Ben-Yehuda set about modernizing Hebrew so that it could be used as a national language.

Rishon LeZion was founded on 31 July 1882 by a group of ten members of Hovevei Zion from Kharkov (today’s Ukraine). In 1887 Neve Tzedek was built just outside Jaffa. Over 50 Jewish settlements were established in this period.

In 1890, Palestine, which was part of the Ottoman Empire, was inhabited by about half a million people, mostly Muslim and Christian Arabs, but also some dozens of thousands Jews.

In 1883, Nathan Birnbaum, 19 years old, founded Kadimah, the first Jewish student association in Vienna and printed Pinsker’s pamphlet Auto-Emancipation.

The Dreyfus Affair, which erupted in France in 1894, profoundly shocked emancipated Jews. The depth of antisemitism in the first country to grant Jews equal rights led many to question their future prospects among Christians. Among those who witnessed the Affair was an Austro-Hungarian Jewish journalist, Theodor Herzl. Herzl was born in Budapest and lived in Vienna (Jews were only allowed to live in Vienna from 1848), who published his pamphlet Der Judenstaat (“The Jewish State”) in 1896 and Altneuland (“The Old New Land”)[24] in 1902. He described the Affair as a personal turning point, Herzl argued that the creation of a Jewish state would enable the Jews to join the family of nations and escape antisemitism.[25]

Herzl infused political Zionism with a new and practical urgency. He brought the World Zionist Organization into being and, together with Nathan Birnbaum, planned its First Congress at Basel in 1897.[26]

During the First Zionist Congress, the following agreement, commonly known as the Basel Program, was reached:

Zionism seeks to establish a home for the Jewish people in Palestine secured under public law. The Congress contemplates the following means to the attainment of this end:

“Under public law” is generally understood to mean seeking legal permission from the Ottoman rulers for Jewish migration. In this text the word “home” was substituted for “state” and “public law” for “international law” so as not to alarm the Ottoman Sultan.[28]

For the first four years, the World Zionist Organization (WZO) met every year, then, up to the Second World War, they gathered every second year. Since the creation of Israel, the Congress has met every four years.

Congress delegates were elected by the membership. Members were required to pay dues known as a “shekel”, At the congress, delegates elected a 30-man executive council, which in turn elected the movement’s leader. The movement was democratic and women had the right to vote, which was still absent in Great Britain in 1914.

The WZO’s initial strategy was to obtain permission from the Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid II to allow systematic Jewish settlement in Palestine. The support of the German Emperor, Wilhelm II, was sought, but unsuccessfully. Instead, the WZO pursued a strategy of building a homeland through persistent small-scale immigration and the founding of such bodies as the Jewish National Fund (1901a charity that bought land for Jewish settlement) and the Anglo-Palestine Bank (1903provided loans for Jewish businesses and farmers).

Herzl’s strategy relied on winning support from foreign rulers, in particular the Ottoman Sultan. He also made efforts to cultivate Orthodox rabbinical support. Rabbinical support depended on the Zionist movement making no challenges to existing Jewish tradition. However, an opposition movement arose that emphasized the need for a revolution in Jewish thought. While Herzl believed that the Jews needed to return to their historic homeland as a refuge from antisemitism, the opposition, led by Ahad Ha’am, believed that the Jews must revive and foster a Jewish national culture and, in particular strove to revive the Hebrew language. Many also adopted Hebraized surnames. The opposition became known as Cultural Zionists. Important Cultural Zionists include Ahad Ha’am, Chaim Weizmann, Nahum Sokolow and Menachem Ussishkin.

In 1903, the British Colonial Secretary, Joseph Chamberlain, suggested the British Uganda Programme, land for a Jewish state in “Uganda” (in today’s Uasin Gishu District, Eldoret, Kenya). Herzl initially rejected the idea, preferring Palestine, but after the April 1903 Kishinev pogrom, Herzl introduced a controversial proposal to the Sixth Zionist Congress to investigate the offer as a temporary measure for Russian Jews in danger. Despite its emergency and temporary nature, the proposal proved very divisive, and widespread opposition to the plan was fueled by a walkout led by the Russian Jewish delegation to the Congress. Nevertheless, a committee was established to investigate the possibility, which was eventually dismissed in the Seventh Zionist Congress in 1905. After that, Palestine became the sole focus of Zionist aspirations.

Israel Zangwill left the main Zionist movement over this decision and founded the Jewish Territorialist Organization (ITO). The territorialists were willing to establish a Jewish homeland anywhere, but failed to attract significant support and were dissolved in 1925.

In 1903, following the Kishinev Pogrom, a variety of Russian antisemities, including the Black Hundreds and the Tsarist Secret Police, began combining earlier works alleging a Jewish plot to take control of the world into new formats.[29] One particular version of these allegations, “The Protocols of the Elders of Zion” (subtitle “Protocols extracted from the secret archives of the central chancery of Zion”), arranged by Sergei Nilus, achieved global notability. In 1903, the editor claimed that the protocols revealed the menace of Zionism:

….which has the goal of uniting all the Jews of the whole world in one uniona union that is more closely knit and more dangerous than the Jesuits.[30]

The book contains fictional minutes of an imaginary meeting in which alleged Jewish leaders plotted to take over the world. Nilus later claimed they were presented to the elders by Herzl (the “Prince of Exile”) at the first Zionist congress. A Polish edition claimed they were taken from Herzl’s flat in Austria and a 1920 German version renamed them “The Zionist Protocols”.[31]

By 1904, cultural Zionism was accepted by most Zionists and a schism was beginning to develop between the Zionist movement and Orthodox Judaism. In 1904, Herzl died unexpectedly at the age of 44 and the leadership was taken over by David Wolffsohn, who led the movement until 1911. During this period, the movement was based in Berlin (Germany’s Jews were the most assimilated) and made little progress, failing to win support among the Young Turks after the collapse of the Ottoman Regime. From 1911 to 1921, the movement was led by Dr. Otto Warburg.

Under Herzl’s leadership, Zionism relied on Orthodox Jews for religious support, with the main party being the orthodox Mizrachi. However, as the cultural and socialist Zionists increasingly broke with tradition and used language contrary to the outlook of most religious Jewish communities, many orthodox religious organizations began opposing Zionism. Their opposition was based on its secularism and on the grounds that only the Messiah could re-establish Jewish rule in Israel.[32] Therefore, most Orthodox Jews maintained the traditional Jewish belief that while the Land of Israel was given to the ancient Israelites by God, and the right of the Jews to that land was permanent and inalienable, the Messiah must appear before the land could return to Jewish control.

While Zionism aroused Ashkenazi orthodox antagonism in Europe (probably due to Modernist European antagonism to organized religion), and also in the United States, it aroused no such antagonism in the Islamic world.[citation needed]

Prior to the Holocaust, Reform Judaism rejected Zionism as inconsistent with the requirements of Jewish citizenship in the diaspora.[33] The opposition of Reform Judaism was expressed in the Pittsburgh Platform, adopted by the Central Conference of American Rabbis in 1885: “We consider ourselves no longer a nation but a religious community, and therefore expect neither a return to Palestine, nor a sacrificial worship under the administration of the sons of Aaron, nor the restoration of any of the laws concerning the Jewish state.”[34]

Widespread pogroms accompanied the 1905 Russian Revolution, inspired by the Pro-Tzarist Black Hundreds. In Odessa, Leon Trotsky provided arms so the Zionists could protect the Jewish community and this prevented a pogrom. Zionist leader Jabotinsky eventually led the Jewish resistance in Odessa. During his subsequent trial Trotsky produced evidence that the Police had organized the effort to create a pogrom in Odessa.[35]

The vicious pogroms led to a wave of immigrants to Palestine. This new wave expanded the Revival of the Hebrew language. In 1909 a group of 65 Zionists laid the foundations for a modern city in Palestine. The city was named after the Hebrew title of Herzl’s book “The Old New Land” – Tel-Aviv.

Tel Aviv had a modern “scientific” school, the Herzliya Hebrew High School, the first such school to teach only in Hebrew. All the cities affairs were conducted in Hebrew.

In Jerusalem, foundations were laid for a Jewish University (the Hebrew University), one that would teach only in Hebrew and that the Zionists hoped would help them prove their usefulness to the Turks (this did not come to fruition until 1918). In Haifa, the cornerstone was laid for a Jewish Technical school, the Technion Israel Institute of Technology.

Jewish migrants and organizations began making large land purchases, in particular buying malarial swamps (of which there were many) and draining them to produce highly fertile land.[36]

In 1909 a socialist commune was given some land near the Sea of Galilee, forming the first Kibbutz, Degania. There were nine members, two of them women. One of the women was a former Narodnik who had volunteered as a nurse during the Balkan Wars and witnessed maltreatment of Jews by Russian troops.[37][38] Her son, the second child to be born on the Kibbutz, was General Moshe Dayan, who commanded Israeli troops in the 1956 war then was Minister of Defence during the Six Day War.

In Eastern Europe the General Jewish Labour Bund called for Jewish autonomy within Eastern Europe and promoted Yiddish as the Jewish national language. Like Zionism, the Bund was founded in 1897 and it was one of the largest socialist movements in Europe, however it did not grow as fast as Zionism. The Bund campaigned for Jewish autonomy and recognition of Jewish (non-territorial) national rights within a post-socialist Russia. Initially the Bund included Zionist Socialist parties but over time the leadership came to oppose Zionism and Orthodox Judaism. The socialist movement recognized various national groups, but the Jews were not one of them. The socialist movement was generally unwilling to combat worker anti-Semitism and often failed to publicly condemn pogroms. [39]

Socialist Zionists believed that the Jews’ centuries of being oppressed in anti-Semitic societies had reduced Jews to a meek, despairing existence that invited further antisemitism. They argued that Jews should redeem themselves by becoming farmers, workers, and soldiers in a country of their own. Socialist Zionists rejected religion as perpetuating a “Diaspora mentality” among the Jewish people and established rural communes in Israel called “Kibbutzim”. Major theoreticians of Socialist Zionism included Moses Hess, Nachman Syrkin, Ber Borochov and A. D. Gordon, and leading figures in the movement included David Ben-Gurion and Berl Katznelson. Socialist Zionists rejected Yiddish as a language of exile, embracing Hebrew as the language that was common to all Jewish communities and which originated in Israel.

Gordon believed that the Jews lacked a “normal” class structure and that the various classes that constitute a nation had to be created artificially. Socialist Zionists therefore set about becoming Jewish peasants and proletarians and focused on settling land and working on it. According to Gordon “the land of Israel is bought with labour: not with blood and not with fire.” He called on Jews to embrace a “religion of labour” as opposed to their existing religion. Socialist Zionism became a dominant force in Israel, however, it exacerbated the schism between Zionism and Orthodox Judaism.

Socialist Zionists formed youth movements that became influential organizations in their own right including Habonim Dror, Hashomer Hatzair, Machanot Halolim and HaNoar HaOved VeHaLomed. During British rule the lack of available immigration permits to Palestine led the youth movements to operate training programs in Europe, which prepared Jews for migration to Palestine. As a Socialist-Zionist immigrants arrived already speaking Hebrew, trained in agriculture and prepared for life in Palestine.

The Zionist movement never restricted female suffrage. Women were active in Zionist parties in many countries before women gained the franchise, and ran for office in Poland where Zionist and other Jewish parties won seats in parliament. In 1911, Zionist activist Hannah Meisel Shochat established Havat Ha’Almot (lit. “the girls’ farm”) to train Zionist women in farming so as to assist in the Zionist program of developing the land for mass settlement. The famous poet Rachel Bluwstein was one of the graduates. Zionist settlers were usually young and far from their families so a relatively permissive culture was able to develop. Within the Kibbutz movement child rearing was done communally thus freeing women to work (and fight) alongside the men. The second child to be born on a Kibbutz was Moshe Dayan and his mother was a former Narodnik who moved to Israel after being disgusted by the anti-Semitism she found among the peasants.

The Zionist Roza Pomerantz-Meltzer was the first woman elected to the Sejm, the Parliament of Poland. She was elected in 1919 as a member of a Zionist party.[40][41] In Mandatory Palestine women in Jewish towns could vote in elections before women won the right to vote in Britain.

The 1911 edition of the Jewish Encyclopedia noted the movement’s spread: “not only in the number of Jews affiliated with the Zionist organization and congress, but also in the fact that there is hardly a nook or corner of the Jewish world in which Zionistic societies are not to be found.”[42]

Support for Zionism was not a purely European and Ashkenazi phenomenon. In the Arab world, the first Zionist branches opened in Morocco only a few years after the Basel conference, and the movement became popular among Jews living within the Arab and Muslim world where Jews generally faced religious discrimination, prejudice and occasional violence. A number of the founders of the city of Tel Aviv were early Moroccan Jewish immigrants and Ottoman Salonika had a vigorous Zionist movement by 1908.[43]

Before 1917, Palestine’s Arab population mostly saw themselves as Ottoman subjects. They feared the objectives of the Zionist movement, but they assumed the movement would fail. After the Young Turk revolution in 1908, Arab Nationalism grew rapidly in the area and most Arab Nationalists regarded Zionism as a threat, although a minority perceived Zionism as providing a path to modernity.[44]

While Zionist leaders and advocates followed conditions in the land of Israel and travelled there regularly, their concern before 1917 was with the future of the small Jewish settlement. A Jewish state seemed highly unlikely at this point and realistic aspirations focussed on creating a new centre for Jewish life. The future of the land’s Arab inhabitants concerned them as little as the welfare of the Jews concerned Arab leaders.

The Jewish population of the USA increased about ten times between 1880 and 1920, with the immigration of poorer, more liberal and radical, “downtown”, Eastern European immigrants fleeing persecution. It was not until 1912, when the secular “people’s lawyer” Louis Brandeis became involved in Zionism, just before the First World War, that Zionism gained significant support.[45] By 1917, the American Provisional Executive Committee for General Zionist Affairs, which Brandeis chaired had increased American Zionist membership ten times to 200,000 members; “American Jewry thenceforth became the financial center for the world Zionist movement”.[46]

As in the US, England had experienced a rapid growth in their Jewish minority. About 150,000 Jews migrated there from Russia in the period 18811914.[47] With this immigration influx, pressure grew from British voters to halt it; added to the established knowledge in British society of Old Testament scripture, Zionism became an attractive solution for both Britain and the Empire.

In the search for support, Herzl, before his death, had made the most progress with the German Kaiser, joining him on his 1898 trip to Palestine.[48] At the outbreak of war in 1914, the offices of the Zionist Organization were located in Berlin and led by Otto Warburg, a German citizen. With different national sections of the movement supporting different sides in the war, Zionist policy was to maintain strict neutrality and “to demonstrate complete loyalty to Turkey”,[49] the German ally controlling Palestine. Following Turkey’s entry into World War I in August however, the Zionists were expelled from Tel Aviv and its environs.

Although 500,000 Russian Jews were serving in the Russian army, the Russian leadership regarded all Jews as their enemies and assumed that most were avoiding the draft. In 1914-1915 500,000 Jews were ordered to leave their homes in the Pale of Settlement, mostly with less than 24 hours notice. An estimated 100,000 died of starvation and exposure and their plight contributed to the disintegration of the Russian army.[50]

In the United States, still officially neutral, most Russian and German Jews supported the Germans, as did much of the largely anti-British Irish American community. Britain was anxious to win US support for its war effort, and winning over Jewish financial and popular support in the US was considered vital.[51] With Tsarist Russia on the Allied side, most Jews supported Germany and in much of Eastern Europe the advancing Germans were regarded as liberators by the Jews. Like the Germans and the Russians, the British assumed that most Jews were avoiding the draft, these beliefs were groundless, but the Polish Zionist, Ze’ev Jabotinsky was able to exploit it to promote a Jewish division in the British army. For the British, the Jewish Legion, was a means of recruiting Russian Jewish immigrants (who were mostly Zionists) to the British war effort. The legion was dominated by Zionist volunteers.

In January 1915, two months after the British declaration of war against the Ottomans, Zionist and British cabinet member Herbert Samuel presented a detailed memorandum entitled The Future of Palestine to the British Cabinet on the benefits of a British protectorate over Palestine to support Jewish immigration.

The most prominent Russian-Zionist migrant in Britain was chemist Chaim Weizmann. Weizmann developed a new process to produce Acetone, a critical ingredient in manufacturing explosives that Britain was unable to manufacture in sufficient quantity. In 1915, the British government fell as a result of its inability to manufacture enough artillery shells for the war effort. In the new Government, David Lloyd George became the minister responsible for armaments, and asked Weizmann to develop his process for mass production.

Lloyd George was an evangelical Christian and pro-Zionist. According to Lloyd George when he asked Weizmann about payment for his efforts to help Britain, Weizmann told him that he wanted no money, just the rights over Palestine.[52] Weizmann became a close associate of Lloyd George (Prime Minister from 1916) and the First Lord of the Admiralty (Foreign Secretary from 1916), Arthur Balfour.

In 1916 Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca (in Arabia), began an “Arab Revolt” hoping to create an Arab state in the Middle East. In the McMahonHussein Correspondence British representatives promised they would allow him to create such a state (the boundaries were vague). They also provided him with large sums of money to fund his revolt.

In February 1917 the Tsar was overthrown and Alexander Kerensky became Prime Minister of the Russian Empire. Jews were prominent in the new government and the British hoped that Jewish support would help keep Russia in the war. In June 1917 the British army, led by Edmund Allenby, invaded Palestine. The Jewish Legion participated in the invasion and Jabotinsky was awarded for bravery. Arab forces conquered Transjordan and later took over Damascus.

In August 1917, as the British cabinet discussed the Balfour Declaration,[53]Edwin Samuel Montagu, the only Jew in the British Cabinet and a staunch anti-Zionist, “was passionately opposed to the declaration on the grounds that (a) it was a capitulation to anti-Semitic bigotry, with its suggestion that Palestine was the natural destination of the Jews, and that (b) it would be a grave cause of alarm to the Muslim world”.[54] Additional references to the future rights of non-Jews in Palestine and the status of Jews worldwide, were thus inserted by the British cabinet, reflecting the opinion of the only Jew within it. As the draft was finalized, the term “state” was replaced with “home”, and comments were sought from Zionists abroad. Louis Brandeis, a member of the US Supreme Court, influenced the style of the text and changed the words “Jewish race” to “Jewish people”.[45]

On November 2, the British Foreign Secretary, Arthur Balfour, made his landmark Balfour Declaration of 1917, publicly expressing the government’s view in favour of “the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people”, and specifically noting that its establishment must not “prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country”.

On November 7, five days after the Balfour declaration, the Bolsheviks took over Russia. The Bolshevik seizure of power led to civil war in Russia and the collapse of the Western part of the Russian Empire. Poland, the Ukraine and the Lithuanian states became independent. The collapse of central authority led to an eruption of pogroms across Russia and all the new militias were happy to attack the defenceless Jews. The exception were the Bolsheviks, who (usually) took measures to stop their forces massacring Jews and this led to Jews siding with, and volunteering for the Bolshevik’s Red Army which came under the command of Trotsky, who was of Jewish origin.

Half the world’s Jews lived within the confines of the Russian Empire in 1917, and of these, a third lived in the Ukraine. Simon Petlyura became commander of the Ukrainian Nationalist forces and these forces, as did the anti-Bolshevik White Russian troops, took to systematically massacring Jews. Between 1918 and 1921, when the Bolsheviks assumed control of the Ukraine, over 50,000 Jews were killed, a further 100,000 were permanently maimed or died of wounds and 200,000 Jewish children became orphans.[55]Israel Zangwill wrote:

It is as Bolsheviks that the Jews of South Russia have been massacred by the armies of Petlyura, though the armies of Sokolow have massacred them as partisans of Petlyura, the armies of Makhno as bourgeois capitalists, the armies of Grigoriev as Communists, and the armies of Denikin at once as Bolsheviks, capitalists and Ukrainian nationalists.[56]

At the time of the Russian revolution, the Bund had 30,000 members in Russia, compared to 300,000 Zionist members of which about 10% were Marxist-Zionists.[57]Joseph Stalin was the first People’s Commissariat of Nationalities and in this role disbanded the Bund. Most of its members joined the Yevsektsia, a Jewish section of the Bolshevik organization created by Stalin which worked to end Jewish communal and religious life.[58]

Members of the Marxist Zionist movement, Poale Zion led by Ber Borochov, returned to Russia (from Palestine) and requested to form Jewish Brigades within the Red Army. Trotsky supported the request but opposition from the Yevsektsia led to the proposal’s failure.[59] Poale Zion continued to exist in the USSR until 1928. The future Israeli Prime Minister, David Ben-Gurion was a member of the Israeli branch of the movement.

In 1921, following a personal request to Stalin by the Soviet author Maxim Gorky, the Hebrew poets Bialik and Shaul Tchernichovsky were allowed to emigrate to Palestine.[60] Bialik became the Israeli national poet. Despite opposition from the Evsektsiya, Stalin also permitted funding of a Hebrew theatre troupe in Moscow, called Habima. Konstantin Stanislavski attended the first night and the group put on a historic play called The Dybbuk, which they were allowed to take on tour in Europe.[61] The tour terminated in Tel Aviv, and Habima never returned to Moscow, becoming instead the Israel National Theatre. The Revolution was accompanied by a brief flowering of Yiddish arts before being decimated by censorship and by 1950 a significant number of prominent Yiddish intellectuals had been sent to the Gulag.[62] A Soviet census found that 90% of Belorussian Jews and 76% of Ukrainian Jews gave Yiddish as their mother tongue.

Between 1922 and 1928, the Soviets embarked on a plan of moving Ukrainian Jews to agricultural communes, mainly in the Crimea, the plan was encouraged by donations from US Jewish charities trying to protect and help Jews and the a number of Zionist agricultural collectives were established in Crimea in preparation for Kibbutz life. Soviet leader Mikhail Kalinin considered creating a Jewish state in the Crimea which had a large Karaite population who had been exempt from Tsarist persecution (Karaites are Jews who reject the authority of the Talmud).[63]

In 1924 Stalin became the ruler of the USSR. In 1928 a Jewish Autonomous Oblast was created in the Russian Far East with Yiddish as an official language and Hebrew was outlawed: The only language to be outlawed in the USSR.[64] Few Jews were tempted by the Soviet Jewish Republic and as of 2002 Jews constitute only about 1.2% of its population.[65]

The Yevsektsiyas were disbanded in 1927 and many their leaders perished during the Great Purge. The Bund survived in independent Poland until the Second World War, when its membership was exterminated by the Nazis.

In late 1921, the 12th Zionist congress was held in Carlsbad, Czechoslovakia; it was the first congress to be held since 1913, because of World War I. Four hundred-fifty delegates attended, representing 780,000 fee paying Zionist members worldwide.[66] Weizmann was elected its president in recognition of his role in obtaining the Balfour Declaration. The conference passed a proposal for an “Arab-Jewish Entente”,[67] which called on Zionist leadership to “forge a true understanding with the Arab nation”.[66] Weizmann led the movement until 1931. From 1931 to 1935 the WZO was presided by Nahum Sokolow (who had also spent the first world war in Britain). Weizmann resumed presidency of the WZO in 1935 and led it until 1946.

After the defeat and dismantling of the Ottoman Empire by European colonial powers in 1918, the League of Nations endorsed the full text of the Balfour Declaration and established the British Mandate for Palestine (Full text:[68]).

In addition to accepting the Balfour Declaration policy statement, the League included that “[a]n appropriate Jewish agency shall be recognised as a public body for the purpose of advising and co-operating with the Administration of Palestine….” This inclusion paralleled a similar proposal made by the Zionist Organization during the Paris Peace Conference.[69]

The Zionist movement entered a new phase of activity. Its priorities were encouraging Jewish settlement in Palestine, building the institutional foundations of a Jewish state and raising funds for these purposes. The 1920s did see a steady growth in the Jewish population and the construction of state-like Jewish institutions, but also saw the emergence of Palestinian Arab nationalism and growing resistance to Jewish immigration.

The success of Zionism in getting international recognition for its project led to growth in the membership and development of new forms of Zionism. The period 19191923 saw migration by Jews escaping the civil war in Russia, the period 19241929 migration by Jews escaping antisemitic regimes in Poland and Hungary.

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Asian Pacific American Heritage Month – Wikipedia

Posted By on October 24, 2016

Asian Pacific American Heritage Month (APAHM), now officially proclaimed Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month,[1] takes place in May. It celebrates the culture, traditions, and history of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders in the United States.

In June 1977 Reps. Frank Horton of New York and Norman Y. Mineta of California introduced a United States House of Representatives resolution to proclaim the first ten days of May as Asian-Pacific Heritage Week.[2][3][4] A similar bill was introduced in the Senate a month later by Daniel Inouye and Spark Matsunaga.[2] “The month of May was chosen to commemorate the immigration of the first Japanese to the United States on May 7, 1843, and to mark the anniversary of the completion of the transcontinental railroad on May 10, 1869. The majority of the workers who laid the tracks were Chinese immigrants.”[2][5][6] President Jimmy Carter signed a joint resolution for the celebration on October 5, 1978.[2]

In 1990, George H.W. Bush signed a bill passed by Congress to extend Asian-American Heritage Week to a month;[7][8][9] May was officially designated as Asian-Pacific American Heritage Month two years later.[5][10][11][12] On May 1, 2009 President Obama issued a Presidential Proclamation which recalls the challenges faced by Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders and celebrates their great and significant contributions to our society.[13]

During APAHM, communities celebrate the achievements and contributions of Asian and Pacific Americans with community festivals, government-sponsored activities and educational activities for students.[14]

Northeast and East:

West Coast:

South and Southeast:


(federal) = federal holidays, (state) = state holidays, (religious) = religious holidays, (week) = weeklong holidays, (month) = monthlong holidays, (36) = Title 36 Observances and Ceremonies Bolded text indicates major holidays that are commonly celebrated by Americans, which often represent the major celebrations of the month.[1][2]

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Jewish Genealogy & Surname Family History | Trace Your …

Posted By on October 24, 2016

Tracing a Jewish genealogy may be a complex undertaking, since this is one of the oldest cultures in the history of the world! However, those who are fortunate enough to find their Jewish roots are sure to explore a rich tapestry of history and culture along the way. Jewish-Americans searching for their Jewish ancestry also have a wealth of information at their fingertips, with plenty of publications and websites devoted to this specific purpose.

Jewish-Americans are currently the largest population of this ethnic group in the world. Because there are so many Jews living in the United States today, their religion, culture and traditions have permeated the American culture, providing this country with a rich, eclectic melting pot of people and religion. Those searching for their Jewish ancestry are in an elite group, with famous Jewish-Americans like Zak Efron, Natalie Portman and Selma Blair lighting up the screen, and prominent politicians like Joe Lieberman and Barney Frank leading the way in Washington.

Jewish history is one of the oldest in the world, spanning more than 8,000 years. This ethnic group’s origins can be traced all the way back to early biblical times, as the Bible cites the Jewish population as descendants of Abraham and his son, Isaac. The first land belonging to the Jews was in Canaan, which was situated between the eastern banks of the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River. During the reign of King David, Jerusalem became the spiritual and national capital for the nation of Israel.

During the latter part of the 6th century, the nation of Israel was taken into captivity by Babylon, although they did eventually return to their home in Jerusalem a number of generations later. The nation was later conquered by the Romans and lived under Roman rule from 630 BCE to 324 CE. Once out from under Roman control, this nation was subject to more turbulent time during the Christian crusades and the Mamluk period, which lasted until the 16th century.

One of the darkest times in Jewish history took place during the middle of the 20th century, when Adolf Hitler launched a massive annihilation of this ethnic group. The tragic events of this period dramatically impacted the Jewish population, as well as the rest of the world. The State of Israel was established shortly after the war, although the nation continues to be in conflict with Palestine over the territory of the region to this day.

Despite a troubled and sometimes tragic history, the Jewish-Americans who migrated to this country have had a positive influence in the fields of science, culture and economy. Those searching for their Jewish roots will find that there are many bright and bold spots in Jewish history that have left their mark as distinctly as the devastating events that have occurred to this ethnic group over their very long history.

Start your free trial today to learn more about your ancestors using our powerful and intuitive search. Cancel any time, no strings attached.

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Zionism – Wikipedia

Posted By on October 20, 2016

Zionism (Hebrew: Tsiyyonut IPA:[tsijonut] after Zion) is a nationalist political movement of Jews and Jewish culture that supports the re-establishment of a Jewish homeland in the territory defined as the historic Land of Israel (roughly corresponding to Palestine, Canaan or the Holy Land).[2][3][4] Zionism emerged in the late 19th century in central and eastern Europe as a national revival movement, in reaction to anti-Semitic and exclusionary nationalist movements in Europe.[5][6] Soon after this, most leaders of the movement associated the main goal with creating the desired state in Palestine, then an area controlled by the Ottoman Empire.[7][8][9]

Until 1948, the primary goals of Zionism were the re-establishment of Jewish sovereignty in the Land of Israel, ingathering of the exiles, and liberation of Jews from the antisemitic discrimination and persecution that they experienced during their diaspora. Since the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, Zionism continues primarily to advocate on behalf of Israel and address threats to its continued existence and security.

A religious variety of Zionism supports Jews upholding their Jewish identity defined as adherence to religious Judaism, opposes the assimilation of Jews into other societies, and has advocated the return of Jews to Israel as a means for Jews to be a majority nation in their own state. A variety of Zionism, called cultural Zionism, founded and represented most prominently by Ahad Ha’am, fostered a secular vision of a Jewish “spiritual center” in Israel. Unlike Herzl, the founder of political Zionism, Ahad Ha’am strived for Israel to be “a Jewish state and not merely a state of Jews”.[10]

Advocates of Zionism view it as a national liberation movement for the repatriation of a persecuted people residing as minorities in a variety of nations to their ancestral homeland.[11][12][13]Critics of Zionism view it as a colonialist,[14]racist[15] and exceptionalist[16] ideology that led advocates to violence during Mandatory Palestine, followed by the forced exodus of Palestinians, and the subsequent denial of their human rights.[17][18][19][20]

The term “Zionism” is derived from the word Zion (Hebrew: , Tzi-yon), referring to Jerusalem. Throughout eastern Europe in the late 19th century, numerous grassroots groups were promoting the national resettlement of the Jews in their homeland, as well as the revitalization and cultivation of the Hebrew language. These groups were collectively called the “Lovers of Zion” and were seen to encounter a growing Jewish movement toward assimilation. The first use of the term is attributed to the Austrian Nathan Birnbaum, founder of a nationalist Jewish students’ movement Kadimah; he used the term in 1890 in his journal Selbstemanzipation (Self Emancipation).[21]

The common denominator among all Zionists is the claim to Eretz Israel as the national homeland of the Jews and as the legitimate focus for Jewish national self-determination.[22] It is based on historical ties and religious traditions linking the Jewish people to the Land of Israel.[23] Zionism does not have a uniform ideology, but has evolved in a dialogue among a plethora of ideologies: General Zionism, Religious Zionism, Labor Zionism, Revisionist Zionism, Green Zionism, etc.

After almost two millennia of the Jewish diaspora residing in varied countries without a national state, the Zionist movement was founded in the late 19th century by secular Jews, largely as a response by Ashkenazi Jews to rising antisemitism in Europe, exemplified by the Dreyfus affair in France and the anti-Jewish pogroms in the Russian Empire.[24] The political movement was formally established by the Austro-Hungarian journalist Theodor Herzl in 1897 following the publication of his book Der Judenstaat (The Jewish State).[25] At that time, the movement sought to encourage Jewish migration to Ottoman Palestine.

“I believe that a wondrous generation of Jews will spring into existence. The Maccabeans will rise again. Let me repeat once more my opening words: The Jews who wish for a State will have it. We shall live at last as free men on our own soil, and die peacefully in our own homes. The world will be freed by our liberty, enriched by our wealth, magnified by our greatness. And whatever we attempt there to accomplish for our own welfare, will react powerfully and beneficially for the good of humanity.”

Although initially one of several Jewish political movements offering alternative responses to assimilation and antisemitism, Zionism expanded rapidly. In its early stages, supporters considered setting up a Jewish state in the historic territory of Palestine. After World War II and the destruction of Jewish life in Central and Eastern Europe where these alternative movements were rooted, it became dominant in thinking about a Jewish national state.

Creating an alliance with Great Britain and securing support for some years for Jewish emigration to Palestine, Zionists also recruited among European Jews to immigrate there, especially in areas of the Russian Empire where anti-semitism was raging. The alliance with Britain was strained as the latter realized the implications of the Jewish movement for Arabs in Palestine but the Zionists persisted. The movement was eventually successful in establishing Israel on May 14, 1948 (5 Iyyar 5708 in the Hebrew calendar), as the homeland for the Jewish people. The proportion of the world’s Jews living in Israel has steadily grown since the movement emerged. By the early 21st century, more than 40% of the world’s Jews live in Israel, more than in any other country. These two outcomes represent the historical success of Zionism, and are unmatched by any other Jewish political movement in the past 2,000 years. In some academic studies, Zionism has been analyzed both within the larger context of diaspora politics and as an example of modern national liberation movements.[27]

Zionism also sought assimilation of Jews into the modern world. As a result of the diaspora, many of the Jewish people remained outsiders within their adopted countries and became detached from modern ideas. So-called “assimilationist” Jews desired complete integration into European society. They were willing to downplay their Jewish identity or even to abandon traditional views and opinions in an attempt at modernization and assimilation into the modern world. A less radical form of assimilation was called cultural synthesis.[citation needed] Those in favor of cultural synthesis desired continuity and only moderate evolution, and were concerned that Jews should not lose their identity as a people. “Cultural synthesists” emphasized both a need to maintain traditional Jewish values and faith, and a need to conform to a modernist society, for instance, in complying with work days and rules.[28]

In 1975, the United Nations General Assembly passed a resolution that designated Zionism as “a form of racism and racial discrimination”. The resolution was repealed in 1991 by replacing Resolution 3379 with United Nations General Assembly Resolution 46/86. Within the context of the ArabIsraeli conflict, Zionism is viewed by critics as a system that fosters apartheid and racism.[29] Opposition to Zionism in principle has also been charged as racist and as fostering the segregation of peoples that should seek peaceful coexistence.[30][31]

Zionism was established with the political goal of creating a Jewish state in order to create a nation where Jews could be the majority, rather than the minority they were in a variety of nations in the diaspora. Theodor Herzl, the ideological father of Zionism, considered Antisemitism as an eternal feature of all societies in which Jews lived as minorities, and that only a separation could allow Jews to escape eternal persecution. “Let them give us sovereignty over a piece of the Earth’s surface, just sufficient for the needs of our people, then we will do the rest!” he proclaimed exposing his plan.[32]:p.27 (29)

Herzl proposed two possible destinations to colonize, Argentina and Palestine. He preferred Argentina for its vast and sparsely populated territory and temperate climate, but conceded that Palestine would have greater attraction because of the historic ties of Jews with that area. [32] He also accepted to evaluate Joseph Chamberlain’s proposal for possible Jewish settlement in Great Britain’s East African colonies.[33]:pp.5556

Aliyah (migration, literally “ascent”) to the Land of Israel is a recurring theme in Jewish prayers. Rejection of life in the Diaspora is a central assumption in Zionism.[34] Supporters of Zionism believed that Jews in the Diaspora were prevented from their full growth in Jewish individual and national life.[citation needed]

Zionists generally preferred to speak Hebrew, a Semitic language that developed under conditions of freedom in ancient Judah, and worked to modernize and adapt it for everyday use. Zionists sometimes refused to speak Yiddish, a language they thought had developed in the context of European persecution. Once they moved to Israel, many Zionists refused to speak their (diasporic) mother tongues and adopted new, Hebrew names. Hebrew was preferred not only for ideological reasons, but also because it allowed all citizens of the new state to have a common language, thus furthering the political and cultural bonds among Zionists.[citation needed]

Major aspects of the Zionist idea are represented in the Israeli Declaration of Independence:

The Land of Israel was the birthplace of the Jewish people. Here their spiritual, religious and political identity was shaped. Here they first attained to statehood, created cultural values of national and universal significance and gave to the world the eternal Book of Books.

After being forcibly exiled from their land, the people kept faith with it throughout their Dispersion and never ceased to pray and hope for their return to it and for the restoration in it of their political freedom.

Impelled by this historic and traditional attachment, Jews strove in every successive generation to re-establish themselves in their ancient homeland. In recent decades they returned in their masses.[35]

Since the first centuries CE, most Jews have lived outside the Land of Israel (Eretz Israel, better known as Palestine), although there has been a constant minority presence of Jews. According to Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, Eretz Israel is a land promised to the Jews by God according to the Hebrew and Greek Bibles and the Quran, respectively.[37][38] The Diaspora began in 586 BCE during the Babylonian occupation of Israel. The Babylonians destroyed the First Temple, which was central to Jewish culture at the time. After the 1st century Great Revolt and the 2nd century Bar Kokhba revolt, the Roman Empire expelled the Jews from Judea, changing the name to Syria Palaestina. The Bar Kokhba revolt caused a spike in antisemitism and Jewish persecution. The ensuing exile from Judea greatly increased the percent of Jews who were dispersed throughout the Diaspora instead of living in their original home.[citation needed]

Zion is a hill near Jerusalem (now in the city), widely symbolizing the Land of Israel.[39]

In the middle of the 16th century, Joseph Nasi, with the support of the Ottoman Empire, tried to gather the Portuguese Jews, first to migrate to Cyprus, then owned by the Republic of Venice, and later to resettle in Tiberias. Finally, Nasi was forced by the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed IV to visit him. To the surprise of his followers, in the presence of the Sultan, Nasi converted to Islam.[40] Between the 4th and 19th centuries, Nasi’s was the only practical attempt to establish some sort of Jewish political center in Palestine.[41] In the 17th century Sabbatai Zevi (16261676) announced himself as the Messiah and gained many Jews to his side, forming a base in Salonika. He first tried to establish a settlement in Gaza, but moved later to Smyrna. After deposing the old rabbi Aaron Lapapa in the spring of 1666, the Jewish community of Avignon, France prepared to emigrate to the new kingdom. The readiness of the Jews of the time to believe the messianic claims of Sabbatai Zevi may be largely explained by the desperate state of Central European Jewry in the mid-17th century. The bloody pogroms of Bohdan Khmelnytsky had wiped out one-third of the Jewish population and destroyed many centers of Jewish learning and communal life.[42]

In the 19th century, a current in Judaism supporting a return to Zion grew in popularity,[43] particularly in Europe, where antisemitism and hostility toward Jews were growing. The idea of returning to Palestine was rejected by the conferences of rabbis held in that epoch. Individual efforts supported the emigration of groups of Jews to Palestine, pre-Zionist Aliyah, even before 1897, the year considered as the start of practical Zionism.[44]

The Reformed Jews rejected this idea of a return to Zion. The conference of rabbis, at Frankfurt am Main, July 1528, 1845, deleted from the ritual all prayers for a return to Zion and a restoration of a Jewish state. The Philadelphia Conference, 1869, followed the lead of the German rabbis and decreed that the Messianic hope of Israel is “the union of all the children of God in the confession of the unity of God”. The Pittsburgh Conference, 1885, reiterated this Messianic idea of reformed Judaism, expressing in a resolution that “we consider ourselves no longer a nation, but a religious community; and we therefore expect neither a return to Palestine, nor a sacrificial worship under the sons of Aaron, nor the restoration of any of the laws concerning a Jewish state”.[45]

Jewish settlements were established in the upper Mississippi region by W.D. Robinson in 1819. Others were developed near Jerusalem in 1850, by the American Consul Warder Cresson, a convert to Judaism. Cresson was tried and condemned for lunacy in a suit filed by his wife and son. They asserted that only a lunatic would convert to Judaism from Christianity. After a second trial, based on the centrality of American ‘freedom of faith’ issues and antisemitism, Cresson won the bitterly contested suit.[46] He emigrated to Ottoman Palestine and established an agricultural colony in the Valley of Rephaim of Jerusalem. He hoped to “prevent any attempts being made to take advantage of the necessities of our poor brethren… (that would)… FORCE them into a pretended conversion.”[47]

Moral but not practical efforts were made in Prague to organize a Jewish emigration, by Abraham Benisch and Moritz Steinschneider in 1835. In the United States, Mordecai Noah attempted to establish a Jewish refuge opposite Buffalo, New York on Grand Isle, 1825. These early Jewish nation building efforts of Cresson, Benisch, Steinschneider and Noah failed.[48][pageneeded][49]

Sir Moses Montefiore, famous for his intervention in favor of Jews around the world, including the attempt to rescue Edgardo Mortara, established a colony for Jews in Palestine. In 1854, his friend Judah Touro bequeathed money to fund Jewish residential settlement in Palestine. Montefiore was appointed executor of his will, and used the funds for a variety of projects, including building in 1860 the first Jewish residential settlement and almshouse outside of the old walled city of Jerusalemtoday known as Mishkenot Sha’ananim. Laurence Oliphant failed in a like attempt to bring to Palestine the Jewish proletariat of Poland, Lithuania, Romania, and the Turkish Empire (1879 and 1882).

The official beginning of the construction of the New Yishuv in Palestine is usually dated to the arrival of the Bilu group in 1882, who commenced the First Aliyah. In the following years, Jewish immigration to Palestine started in earnest. Most immigrants came from the Russian Empire, escaping the frequent pogroms and state-led persecution in what are now Ukraine and Poland. They founded a number of agricultural settlements with financial support from Jewish philanthropists in Western Europe. Additional Aliyahs followed the Russian Revolution and its eruption of violent pogroms, as well as the Nazi persecution of the 1930s. At the end of the 19th century, Jews were a small minority in Palestine.[citation needed]

In the 1890s, Theodor Herzl infused Zionism with a new ideology and practical urgency, leading to the First Zionist Congress at Basel in 1897, which created the World Zionist Organization (WZO).[50] Herzl’s aim was to initiate necessary preparatory steps for the development of a Jewish state. Herzl’s attempts to reach a political agreement with the Ottoman rulers of Palestine were unsuccessful and he sought the support of other governments. The WZO supported small-scale settlement in Palestine; it focused on strengthening Jewish feeling and consciousness and on building a worldwide federation.[citation needed]

The Russian Empire, with its long record of state-organized genocide and ethnic cleansing (“pogroms”), was widely regarded as the historic enemy of the Jewish people. The Zionist movement’s headquarters were located in Berlin, as many of its leaders were German Jews who spoke German. Given Russia’s anti-semitism, at the start of World War I, most Jews (and Zionists) supported Germany in its war with Russia.[citation needed]

Throughout the first decade of the Zionist movement, there were several instances where Zionist figures supported a Jewish state in places outside Palestine, such as Uganda and Argentina.[51] Even Theodor Herzl, the founder of political Zionism was initially content with any Jewish self-governed state.[52] However, other Zionists emphasized the memory, emotion and myth linking Jews to the Land of Israel.[53] Despite using Zion as the name of the movement (a name after the Jebusite fortress in Jerusalem, which became synonymous with Jerusalem), Palestine only became Herzl’s main focus after his Zionist manifesto ‘Judenstaat’ was published in 1896, but even then he was hesitant.[54]

In 1903, British Colonial Secretary Joseph Chamberlain offered Herzl 5,000 square miles in the Uganda Protectorate for Jewish settlement.[55] Called the Uganda Scheme, it was introduced the same year to the World Zionist Organization’s Congress at its sixth meeting, where a fierce debate ensued. Some groups felt that accepting the scheme would make it more difficult to establish a Jewish state in Palestine, the African land was described as an “ante-chamber to the Holy Land”. It was decided to send a commission to investigate the proposed land by 295 to 177 votes, with 132 abstaining. The following year, congress sent a delegation to inspect the plateau. A temperate climate due to its high elevation, was thought to be suitable for European settlement. However, the area was populated by a large number of Maasai, who did not seem to favour an influx of Europeans. Furthermore, the delegation found it to be filled with lions and other animals.

After Herzl died in 1904, the Congress decided on the fourth day of its seventh session in July 1905 to decline the British offer and, according to Adam Rovner, “direct all future settlement efforts solely to Palestine”.[55][56]Israel Zangwill’s Jewish Territorialist Organization aimed for a Jewish state anywhere, having been established in 1903 in response to the Uganda Scheme, was supported by a number of the Congress’s delegates. Following the vote, which had been proposed by Max Nordau, Zangwill charged Nordau that he will be charged before the bar of history, and his supporters blamed the Russian voting bloc of Menachem Ussishkin for the outcome of the vote.[56]

The subsequent departure of the JTO from the Zionist Organization had little impact.[55][57][58] The Zionist Socialist Workers Party was also an organization that favored the idea of a Jewish territorial autonomy outside of Palestine.[59]

As an alternative to Zionism, Soviet authorities established a Jewish Autonomous Oblast in 1934, which remains extant as the only autonomous oblast of Russia.[60]

Lobbying by Russian Jewish immigrant Chaim Weizmann together with fear that American Jews would encourage the USA to support Germany in the war against communist Russia, culminated in the British government’s Balfour Declaration of 1917.

It endorsed the creation of a Jewish homeland in Palestine, as follows:

His Majesty’s government view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavours to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country.[61]

In 1922, the League of Nations adopted the declaration, and granted to Britain the Palestine Mandate:

The Mandate will secure the establishment of the Jewish national home … and the development of self-governing institutions, and also safeguard the civil and religious rights of all the inhabitants of Palestine, irrespective of race and religion.[62]

Weizmann’s role in obtaining the Balfour Declaration led to his election as the Zionist movement’s leader. He remained in that role until 1948, and then was elected as the first President of Israel after the nation gained independence.

Jewish migration to Palestine and widespread Jewish land purchases from feudal[citation needed] landlords contributed to landlessness among Palestinian Arabs, fueling unrest. Riots erupted in Palestine in 1920, 1921 and 1929, in which both Jews and Arabs were killed.[63] Britain was responsible for the Palestinian mandate and, after the Balfour Declaration, it supported Jewish immigration in principle. But, in response to the violent events noted above, the Peel Commission published a report proposing new provisions and restrictions in Palestine.[citation needed]

In 1927, Ukrainian Jew Yitzhak Lamdan, wrote an epic poem titled Masada to reflect the plight of the Jews, calling for a “last stand”.[64] Upon the German adoption of the swastika, Theodore Newman Kaufman, bent on provoking a race war and eliminating his perception of “inbred Germanism”, published Germany Must Perish! Anti-German articles, such as the Daily Express calling for an “Anti-Nazi boycott”, in response to German antisemitism were published prior to Adolf Hitler’s rise, as well. This has lent to the conspiracy theory that Jews started the holocaust, although Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels was largely responsible for ignoring the patriotic Jew, and instead promoting anti-German materials as “evidence” that the Jews needed to be eradicated.

In 1933, Hitler came to power in Germany, and in 1935 the Nuremberg Laws made German Jews (and later Austrian and Czech Jews) stateless refugees. Similar rules were applied by the many Nazi allies in Europe. The subsequent growth in Jewish migration and the impact of Nazi propaganda aimed at the Arab world led to the 19361939 Arab revolt in Palestine. Britain established the Peel Commission to investigate the situation. The commission did not consider the situation of Jews in Europe, but called for a two-state solution and compulsory transfer of populations. Britain rejected this solution and instead implemented the White Paper of 1939. This planned to end Jewish immigration by 1944 and to allow no more than 75,000 additional Jewish migrants. This was disastrous to European Jews already being gravely discriminated against and in need of a place to seek refuge. The British maintained this policy until the end of the Mandate.[citation needed]

The growth of the Jewish community in Palestine and the devastation of European Jewish life sidelined the World Zionist Organization. The Jewish Agency for Palestine under the leadership of David Ben-Gurion increasingly dictated policy with support from American Zionists who provided funding and influence in Washington, D.C., including via the highly effective American Palestine Committee.[citation needed]

During World War II, as the horrors of the Holocaust became known, the Zionist leadership formulated the One Million Plan, a reduction from Ben-Gurion’s previous target of two million immigrants. Following the end of the war, a massive wave of stateless Jews, mainly Holocaust survivors, began migrating to Palestine in small boats in defiance of British rules. The Holocaust united much of the rest of world Jewry behind the Zionist project.[65] The British either imprisoned these Jews in Cyprus or sent them to the British-controlled Allied Occupation Zones in Germany. The British, having faced the 19361939 Arab revolt against mass Jewish immigration into Palestine, were now facing opposition by Zionist groups in Palestine for subsequent restrictions. In January 1946 the Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry was a joint British and American committee set up to examine the political, economic and social conditions in Palestine as they bore upon the problem of Jewish immigration and settlement and the well-being of the peoples living there; to consult representatives of Arabs and Jews, and to make other recommendations ‘as necessary’ for ad interim handling of these problems as well as for their eventual solution.[66] Ultimately the Committee’s plans were rejected by both Arabs and Jews; and Britain decided to refer the problem to the United Nations.[citation needed]

In 1947, the United Nations Special Committee on Palestine (UNSCOP) recommended that western Palestine should be partitioned into a Jewish state, an Arab state and a UN-controlled territory, Corpus separatum, around Jerusalem.[67] This partition plan was adopted on November 29, 1947 with UN GA Resolution 181, 33 votes in favor, 13 against, and 10 abstentions. The vote led to celebrations in the streets of Jewish cities.[68] However, the Palestinian Arabs and the Arab states rejected the UN decision, demanding a single state and removal of Jewish migrants, leading to the 1948 ArabIsraeli War.

On May 14, 1948, at the end of the British mandate, the Jewish Agency, led by David Ben-Gurion, declared the creation of the State of Israel, and the same day the armies of seven Arab countries invaded Israel. The conflict led to an exodus of about 711,000 Palestinian Arabs,[69] known in Arabic as al-Nakba (“the Catastrophe”). Later, a series of laws passed by the first Israeli government prevented Palestinians from returning to their homes, or claiming their property. They and many of their descendants remain refugees.[70][71] The flight and expulsion of the Palestinians has since been widely, and controversially, described as having involved ethnic cleansing.[72][73] According to a growing consensus between Israeli and Palestinian historians, expulsion and destruction of villages played a part in the origin of the Palestinian refugees.[74]Efraim Karsh, however, states that most of the Arabs who fled left of their own accord or were pressured to leave by their fellow Arabs, despite Israeli attempts to convince them to stay.[75][76]

Since the creation of the State of Israel, the World Zionist Organization has functioned mainly as an organization dedicated to assisting and encouraging Jews to migrate to Israel. It has provided political support for Israel in other countries but plays little role in internal Israeli politics. The movement’s major success since 1948 was in providing logistical support for migrating Jews and, most importantly, in assisting Soviet Jews in their struggle with the authorities over the right to leave the USSR and to practice their religion in freedom, and the exodus of 850,000 Jews from the Arab world, mostly to Israel. In 1944-45, Ben-Gurion described the One Million Plan to foreign officials as being the “primary goal and top priority of the Zionist movement.” The immigration restrictions of the British White Paper of 1939 meant that such a plan could not be put into large scale effect until the Israeli Declaration of Independence in May 1948. The new country’s immigration policy had some opposition within the new Israeli government, such as those who argued that there was “no justification for organizing large-scale emigration among Jews whose lives were not in danger, particularly when the desire and motivation were not their own” as well as those who argued that the absorption process caused “undue hardship”. However, the force of Ben-Gurion’s influence and insistence ensured that his immigration policy was carried out.

The multi-national, worldwide Zionist movement is structured on representative democratic principles. Congresses are held every four years (they were held every two years before the Second World War) and delegates to the congress are elected by the membership. Members are required to pay dues known as a shekel. At the congress, delegates elect a 30-man executive council, which in turn elects the movement’s leader. The movement was democratic from its inception and women had the right to vote.[83]

Until 1917, the World Zionist Organization pursued a strategy of building a Jewish National Home through persistent small-scale immigration and the founding of such bodies as the Jewish National Fund (1901 a charity that bought land for Jewish settlement) and the Anglo-Palestine Bank (1903 provided loans for Jewish businesses and farmers). In 1942, at the Biltmore Conference, the movement included for the first time an express objective of the establishment of a Jewish state in the Land of Israel.[84]

The 28th Zionist Congress, meeting in Jerusalem in 1968, adopted the five points of the “Jerusalem Program” as the aims of Zionism today. They are:[85]

Since the creation of modern Israel, the role of the movement has declined. It is now a peripheral factor in Israeli politics, though different perceptions of Zionism continue to play roles in Israeli and Jewish political discussion.[86]

Labor Zionism originated in Eastern Europe. Socialist Zionists believed that centuries of oppression in antisemitic societies had reduced Jews to a meek, vulnerable, despairing existence that invited further antisemitism, a view originally stipulated by Theodor Herzl. They argued that a revolution of the Jewish soul and society was necessary and achievable in part by Jews moving to Israel and becoming farmers, workers, and soldiers in a country of their own. Most socialist Zionists rejected the observance of traditional religious Judaism as perpetuating a “Diaspora mentality” among the Jewish people, and established rural communes in Israel called “kibbutzim”. The kibbutz began as a variation on a “national farm” scheme, a form of cooperative agriculture where the Jewish National Fund hired Jewish workers under trained supervision. The kibbutzim were a symbol of the Second Aliyah in that they put great emphasis on communalism and egalitarianism, representing to a certain extent Utopian socialism. Furthermore, they stressed self-sufficiency, which became an important aspect of Labor Zionism. Though socialist Zionism draws its inspiration and is philosophically founded on the fundamental values and spirituality of Judaism, its progressive expression of that Judaism has often fostered an antagonistic relationship with Orthodox Judaism.[citation needed]

Labor Zionism became the dominant force in the political and economic life of the Yishuv during the British Mandate of Palestine and was the dominant ideology of the political establishment in Israel until the 1977 election when the Israeli Labor Party was defeated. The Israeli Labor Party continues the tradition, although the most popular party in the kibbutzim is Meretz.[88] Labour Zionism’s main institution is the Histadrut (general organisation of labor unions), which began by providing strikebreakers against a Palestinian worker’s strike in 1920 and until 1970s was the largest employer in Israel after the Israeli government.[89]

General Zionism (or Liberal Zionism) was initially the dominant trend within the Zionist movement from the First Zionist Congress in 1897 until after the First World War. General Zionists identified with the liberal European middle class to which many Zionist leaders such as Herzl and Chaim Weizmann aspired. Liberal Zionism, although not associated with any single party in modern Israel, remains a strong trend in Israeli politics advocating free market principles, democracy and adherence to human rights. Kadima, the main centrist party during the 2000s that is now defunct, however, did identify with many of the fundamental policies of Liberal Zionist ideology, advocating among other things the need for Palestinian statehood in order to form a more democratic society in Israel, affirming the free market, and calling for equal rights for Arab citizens of Israel. In 2013, Ari Shavit suggested that the success of the then-new Yesh Atid party (representing secular, middle-class interests) embodied the success of “the new General Zionists.”[90]

Dror Zeigerman writes that the traditional positions of the General Zionists”liberal positions based on social justice, on law and order, on pluralism in matters of State and Religion, and on moderation and flexibility in the domain of foreign policy and security”are still favored by important circles and currents within certain active political parties.[91]

Philosopher Carlo Strenger describes a modern-day version of Liberal Zionism (supporting his vision of “Knowledge-Nation Israel”), rooted in the original ideology of Herzl and Ahad Ha’am, that stands in contrast to both the romantic nationalism of the right and the Netzah Yisrael of the ultra-Orthodox. It is marked by a concern for democratic values and human rights, freedom to criticize government policies without accusations of disloyalty, and rejection of excessive religious influence in public life. “Liberal Zionism celebrates the most authentic traits of the Jewish tradition: the willingness for incisive debate; the contrarian spirit of davka; the refusal to bow to authoritarianism.”[92][93] Liberal Zionists see that “Jewish history shows that Jews need and are entitled to a nation-state of their own. But they also think that this state must be a liberal democracy, which means that there must be strict equality before the law independent of religion, ethnicity or gender.”[94]

Revisionist Zionists, led by Ze’ev Jabotinsky, developed what became known as Nationalist Zionism, whose guiding principles were outlined in an essay The Iron Wall (1923) . In 1935 the Revisionists left the World Zionist Organization because it refused to state that the creation of a Jewish state was an objective of Zionism.

Jabotinsky believed that,

Zionism is a colonising adventure and it therefore stands or falls by the question of armed force. It is important to build, it is important to speak Hebrew, but, unfortunately, it is even more important to be able to shoot – or else I am through with playing at colonization.'[95][96]

and that

“Although the Jews originated in the East, they belonged to the West culturally, morally, and spiritually. Zionism was conceived by Jabotinsky not as the return of the Jews to their spiritual homeland but as an offshoot or implant of Western civilization in the East. This worldview translated into a geostrategic conception in which Zionism was to be permanently allied with European colonialism against all the Arabs in the eastern Mediterranean.”[97]

The revisionists advocated the formation of a Jewish Army in Palestine to force the Arab population to accept mass Jewish migration.

Supporters of Revisionist Zionism developed the Likud Party in Israel, which has dominated most governments since 1977. It advocates Israel’s maintaining control of the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, and takes a hard-line approach in the Israeli-Arab conflict. In 2005 the Likud split over the issue of creation of a Palestinian state in the occupied territories. Party members advocating peace talks helped form the Kadima Party.[citation needed]

Religious Zionism is an ideology that combines Zionism and observant Judaism. Before the establishment of the State of Israel, Religious Zionists were mainly observant Jews who supported Zionist efforts to build a Jewish state in the Land of Israel.

After the Six-Day War and the capture of the West Bank, a territory referred to in Jewish terms as Judea and Samaria, right-wing components of the Religious Zionist movement integrated nationalist revindication and evolved into Neo-Zionism. Their ideology revolves around three pillars: the Land of Israel, the People of Israel and the Torah of Israel.[98]

Green Zionism is a branch of Zionism primarily concerned with the environment of Israel. The only environmental Zionist party is the Green Zionist Alliance.[citation needed]

During the last quarter of the 20th century, classic nationalism in Israel declined. This led to the rise of two antagonistic movements: neo-Zionism and post-Zionism. Both movements mark the Israeli version of a worldwide phenomenon:

Neo-Zionism and post-Zionism share traits with “classical” Zionism but differ by accentuating antagonist and diametrically opposed poles already present in Zionism. “Neo Zionism accentuates the messianic and particularistic dimensions of Zionist nationalism, while post-Zionism accentuates its normalising and universalistic dimensions”.[100] Post-Zionism asserts that Israel should abandon the concept of a “state of the Jewish people” and strive to be a state of all its citizens,[101] or a binational state where Arabs and Jews live together while enjoying some type of autonomy.[citation needed]

Zionism is opposed by a wide variety of organizations and individuals. Among those opposing Zionism are some secular Jews,[102] some branches of Judaism (Satmar Hasidim and Neturei Karta), the former Soviet Union,[103] some African-Americans,[104] many in the Muslim world, and Palestinians. Reasons for opposing Zionism are varied, and include the perceptions of unfair land confiscation, expulsions of Palestinians, violence against Palestinians, and alleged racism. Arab states in particular strongly oppose Zionism, which they believe is responsible for the 1948 Palestinian exodus. The preamble of the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights, which has been ratified by 53 African countries as of 2014[update], includes an undertaking to eliminate Zionism together with other practices including colonialism, neo-colonialism, apartheid, “aggressive foreign military bases” and all forms of discrimination.[105][106]

Zionism had also been opposed by some Jews for other reasons even before the establishment of the state of Israel because “Zionism constitutes a danger, spiritual and physical, to the existence of our people.’.”.[107][pageneeded] The book also states “The booklet which we are publishing here, ‘Serufay. Ha Kivshbnim Maashimim’ (‘The Holocaust Victims Accuse’), serves as an attempt to show, by means of testimonies., documents and reports, how Zionism and its high-level organizations brought a catastrophe upon our people during the era of the Nazi holocaust.”[pageneeded]

The initial response of the Catholic Church seemed to be one of strong opposition to Zionism. Shortly after the 1897 Basel Conference, the semi-official Vatican periodical (edited by the Jesuits) Civilta Cattolica gave its biblical-theological judgement on political Zionism: “1827 years have passed since the prediction of Jesus of Nazareth was fulfilled… that [after the destruction of Jerusalem] the Jews would be led away to be slaves among all the nations and that they would remain in the dispersion [diaspora, galut] until the end of the world.” The Jews should not be permitted to return to Palestine with sovereignty: “According to the Sacred Scriptures, the Jewish people must always live dispersed and vagabondo [vagrant, wandering] among the other nations, so that they may render witness to Christ not only by the Scriptures… but by their very existence”.

Nonetheless, Theodore Herzl travelled to Rome in late January 1904, after the sixth Zionist Congress (August 1903) and six months before his death, looking for some kind of support. In January 22, Herzl first met the Secretary of State, Cardinal Rafael Merry del Val. According to Herzl’s private diary notes, the Cardinal agreed on the history of Israel being the same as the one of the Catholic Church, but asked beforehand for a conversion of Jews to Catholicism. Three days later, Herzl met Pope Pius X, who replied to his request of support for a Jewish return to Israel in the same terms, saying that “we are unable to favor this movement. We cannot prevent the Jews going to Jerusalem, but we could never sanction it… The Jews have not recognized our Lord, therefore we cannot recognize the Jewish people.” In 1922, the same periodical published a piece by its Viennese correspondent, “anti-Semitism is nothing but the absolutely necessary and natural reaction to the Jews’ arrogance…Catholic anti-Semitism – while never going beyond the moral law – adopts all necessary means to emancipate the Christian people from the abuse they suffer from their sworn enemy”.[108] This initial attitude changed over the next 50 years, until 1997, when at the Vatican symposium of that year, Pope John Paul II rejected the Christian roots of antisemitism, expressing that “…the wrong and unjust interpretations of the New Testament relating to the Jewish people and their supposed guilt [in Christ’s death] circulated for too long, engendering sentiments of hostility toward this people.”[109]

Zionism has been characterized as colonialism, and Zionism has been criticized for promoting unfair confiscation of land, involving the expulsion of, and causing violence towards, the Palestinians. The characterization of Zionism as colonialism has been described by, among others, Nur Masalha, Gershon Shafir, Michael Prior, Ilan Pappe, and Baruch Kimmerling.[14]

Others, such as Shlomo Avineri and Mitchell Bard, view Zionism not as colonialist movement, but as a national movement that is contending with the Palestinian one.[110]David Hoffman rejected the claim that Zionism is a ‘settler-colonial undertaking’ and instead characterized Zionism as a national program of affirmative action, adding that there is unbroken Jewish presence in Israel back to antiquity.[111]

Noam Chomsky, John P. Quigly, Nur Masalha, and Cheryl Rubenberg have criticized Zionism, saying it unfairly confiscates land and expels Palestinians.[112]

Edward Said and Michael Prior claim that the notion of expelling the Palestinians was an early component of Zionism, citing Herzl’s diary from 1895 which states “we shall endeavour to expel the poor population across the border unnoticed the process of expropriation and the removal of the poor must be carried out discreetly and circumspectly.”[113] This quotation has been critiqued by Efraim Karsh for misrepresenting Herzl’s purpose.[114] He describes it as “a feature of Palestinian propaganda”, writing that Herzl was referring to the voluntary resettlement of squatters living on land purchased by Jews, and that the full diary entry stated, “It goes without saying that we shall respectfully tolerate persons of other faiths and protect their property, their honor, and their freedom with the harshest means of coercion. This is another area in which we shall set the entire world a wonderful example Should there be many such immovable owners in individual areas [who would not sell their property to us], we shall simply leave them there and develop our commerce in the direction of other areas which belong to us.”[115][116]Derek Penslar says that Herzl may have been considering either South America or Palestine when he wrote the diary entry about expropriation.[117] According to Walter Lacquer, although many Zionists proposed transfer, it was never official Zionist policy and in 1918 Ben-Gurion “emphatically rejected” it.[118]

Ilan Pappe argued that Zionism results in ethnic cleansing.[119] This view diverges from other New Historians, such as Benny Morris, who accept the Palestinian exodus narrative but place it in the context of war, not ethnic cleansing.[120] When Benny Morris was asked about the Expulsion of Palestinians from Lydda and Ramle, he responded “There are circumstances in history that justify ethnic cleansing. I know that this term is completely negative in the discourse of the 21st century, but when the choice is between ethnic cleansing and genocide – the annihilation of your people – I prefer ethnic cleansing.”[121]

Saleh Abdel Jawad, Nur Masalha, Michael Prior, Ian Lustick, and John Rose have criticized Zionism for having been responsible for violence against Palestinians, such as the Deir Yassin massacre, Sabra and Shatila massacre, and Cave of the Patriarchs massacre.[122]

In 1938, Mahatma Gandhi rejected Zionism, saying that the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine is a religious act and therefore must not be performed by force, comparing it to the Partition of India into Hindu and Muslim countries. He wrote, “Palestine belongs to the Arabs in the same sense that England belongs to the English or France to the French. It is wrong and inhuman to impose the Jews on the Arabs… Surely it would be a crime against humanity to reduce the proud Arabs so that Palestine can be restored to the Jews partly or wholly as their national home… They can settle in Palestine only by the goodwill of the Arabs. They should seek to convert the Arab heart.”[123] Gandhi later told American journalist Louis Fischer in 1946 that “Jews have a good case in Palestine. If the Arabs have a claim to Palestine, the Jews have a prior claim”.[124]

David Ben-Gurion stated that “There will be no discrimination among citizens of the Jewish state on the basis of race, religion, sex, or class.”[125] Likewise, Vladimir Jabotinsky avowed “the minority will not be rendered defenseless…[the] aim of democracy is to guarantee that the minority too has influence on matters of state policy.”[126]

However, critics of Zionism consider it a colonialist[14] or racist[15] movement. According to historian Avi Shlaim, throughout its history up to present day, Zionism “is replete with manifestations of deep hostility and contempt towards the indigenous population.” Shlaim balances this by pointing out that there have always been individuals within the Zionist movement that have criticized such attitudes. He cites the example of Ahad Ha’am, who after visiting Palestine in 1891, published a series of articles criticizing the aggressive behaviour and political ethnocentrism of Zionist settlers. Ha’am wrote that the Zionists “behave towards the Arabs with hostility and cruelty, trespass unjustly upon their boundaries, beat them shamefully without reason and even brag about it, and nobody stands to check this contemptible and dangerous tendency” and that they believed that “the only language that the Arabs understand is that of force.”[127] Some criticisms of Zionism claim that Judaism’s notion of the “chosen people” is the source of racism in Zionism,[128] despite, according to Gustavo Perednik, that being a religious concept unrelated to Zionism.[129]

In December 1973, the UN passed a series of resolutions condemning South Africa and included a reference to an “unholy alliance between Portuguese colonialism, Apartheid and Zionism.”[130] At the time there was little cooperation between Israel and South Africa,[131] although the two countries would develop a close relationship during the 1970s.[132] Parallels have also been drawn between aspects of South Africa’s apartheid regime and certain Israeli policies toward the Palestinians, which are seen as manifestations of racism in Zionist thinking.[133][134][135]

In 1975 the UN General Assembly passed Resolution 3379, which said “Zionism is a form of racism and racial discrimination”. According to the resolution, “any doctrine of racial differentiation of superiority is scientifically false, morally condemnable, socially unjust, and dangerous.” The resolution named the occupied territory of Palestine, Zimbabwe, and South Africa as examples of racist regimes. Resolution 3379 was pioneered by the Soviet Union and passed with numerical support from Arab and African states amidst accusations that Israel was supportive of the apartheid regime in South Africa.[136] The resolution was robustly criticised by the US representative, Daniel Patrick Moynihan as an ‘obscenity’ and a ‘harm …done to the United Nations’.[137] ‘In 1991 the resolution was repealed with UN General Assembly Resolution 46/86,[138] after Israel declared that it would only participate in the Madrid Conference of 1991 if the resolution were revoked.[139]

The United States …does not acknowledge, it will not abide by, it will never acquiesce in this infamous act The lie is that Zionism is a form of racism. The overwhelmingly clear truth is that it is not.

Arab countries sought to associate Zionism with racism in connection with a 2001 UN conference on racism, which took place in Durban, South Africa,[140] which caused the United States and Israel to walk away from the conference as a response. The final text of the conference did not connect Zionism with racism. A human rights forum arranged in connection with the conference, on the other hand, did equate Zionism with racism and censured Israel for what it called “racist crimes, including acts of genocide and ethnic cleansing”.[141]

Supporters of Zionism, such as Chaim Herzog, argue that the movement is non-discriminatory and contains no racist aspects.[142]

Many Haredi Orthodox organizations oppose Zionism; they view Zionism as a secular movement. They reject nationalism as a doctrine and consider Judaism to be first and foremost a religion that is not dependent on a state. However, some Haredi movements (such as Shas since 2010) do openly affiliate with the Zionist movement.

Haredi rabbis do not consider Israel to be a halachic Jewish state because it has secular government. But they take responsibility for ensuring that Jews maintain religious ideals and, since most Israeli citizens are Jews, they pursue this agenda within Israel. Others reject any possibility of a Jewish state, since according to them a Jewish state is completely forbidden by Jewish religious law. In their view a Jewish state is considered an oxymoron.

Two Haredi parties run candidates in Israeli elections. They are sometimes associated with views that could be regarded as nationalist or Zionist. They prefer coalitions with more nationalist Zionist parties, probably because these are more interested in enhancing the Jewish nature of the Israeli state. The Sephardi-Orthodox party Shas rejected association with the Zionist movement; however, in 2010 it joined the World Zionist Organization. Its voters generally identify as Zionist, and Knesset members frequently pursue what others might consider a Zionist agenda. Shas has supported territorial compromise with the Arabs and Palestinians, but it generally opposes compromise over Jewish holy sites.

The non-Hasidic or ‘Lithuanian’ Haredi Ashkenazi world is represented by the Ashkenazi Agudat Israel/UTJ party. It has always avoided association with the Zionist movement and usually avoids voting on or discussing issues related to peace, because its members do not serve in the army. The party works to ensure that Israel and Israeli law are in tune with the halacha, on issues such as Shabbat rest. The rabbinical leaders of the so-called Litvishe world in current and past generations, such as Rabbi Elazar Menachem Shach and Rabbi Avigdor Miller, are strongly opposed to all forms of Zionism, religious and secular. But they allow members to participate in Israeli political life, including both passive and active participation in elections.

Many other Hasidic groups in Jerusalem, most famously the Satmar Hasidim, as well as the larger movement they are part of, the Edah HaChareidis, are strongly anti-Zionist. One of the best known Hasidic opponents of all forms of modern political Zionism was Hungarian rebbe and Talmudic scholar Joel Teitelbaum. In his view, the current State of Israel is contrariwise to Judaism, because it was founded by people who included some anti-religious personalities, and were in apparent violation of the traditional notion that Jews should wait for the Jewish Messiah.

Teitelbaum referred to core citations from classical Judaic sources in his arguments against modern Zionism; specifically a passage in the Talmud, in which Rabbi Yosi b’Rebbi Hanina explains (Kesubos 111a) that the Lord imposed “Three Oaths” on the nation of Israel: a) Israel should not return to the Land together, by force; b) Israel should not rebel against the other nations; and c) The nations should not subjugate Israel too harshly. According to Teitelbaum, the second oath is relevant concerning the subsequent wars fought between Israel and Arab nations.

Other opponent groups among the Edah HaChareidis were Dushinsky, Toldos Aharon, Toldos Avrohom Yitzchok, Spinka, and others. They number in the tens of thousands in Jerusalem, and hundreds of thousands worldwide.

The Neturei Karta, an Orthodox Haredi religious movement, strongly oppose Zionism, considering Israel a “racist regime”.[143] They are viewed as a cult on the “farthest fringes of Judaism” by most mainstream Jews;[144] the Jewish Virtual Library puts their numbers at 5,000,[145] but the Anti-Defamation League estimates that fewer than 100 members of the community actually take part in anti-Israel activism.[144] The movement equates Zionism to Nazism,[146] believes that Zionist ideology is contrary to the teachings of the Torah,[147] and also blames Zionism for increases in antisemitism.[148] Members of Neturei Karta have a long history of extremist statements and support for notable anti-Semites and Islamic extremists.[144]

The Chabad-Lubavitch Hasidic movement traditionally did not identify as Zionist, but has adopted a Zionist agenda since the late 20th century, opposing any territorial compromise in Israel.[citation needed]

Some critics of anti-Zionism have argued that opposition to Zionism can be hard to distinguish from antisemitism,[149][150][151][152][153] and that criticism of Israel may be used as an excuse to express viewpoints that might otherwise be considered antisemitic.[154][155]Martin Luther King Jr. condemned anti-Zionism as antisemitic.[156] Other scholars consider certain forms of opposition to Zionism to constitute antisemitism.[152] A number of scholars have argued that opposition to Zionism and/or the State of Israel’s policies at the more extreme fringes often overlaps with antisemitism.[152] In the Arab world, the words “Jew” and “Zionist” are often used interchangeably. To avoid accusations of antisemitism, the Palestine Liberation Organization has historically avoided using the word “Jewish” in favor using “Zionist,” though PLO officials have sometimes slipped.[157]

Some antisemites have alleged that Zionism was, or is, part of a Jewish plot to take control of the world.[158] One particular version of these allegations, “The Protocols of the Elders of Zion” (subtitle “Protocols extracted from the secret archives of the central chancery of Zion”) achieved global notability. The protocols are fictional minutes of an imaginary meeting by Jewish leaders of this plot. Analysis and proof of their fraudulent origin goes as far back as 1921.[159] A 1920 German version renamed them “The Zionist Protocols”.[160] The protocols were extensively used as propaganda by the Nazis and remain widely distributed in the Arab world. They are referred to in the 1988 Hamas charter.[161]

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