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Egypt Map, Map of Egypt

Posted By on January 22, 2016

About Egypt Map :- The culturally rich Arab Republic of Egypt is among the most populous countries in Africa. Egypt covers an area of about 390,000 sq miles and the nation is one of the most significant in terms of ancient history and as a tourist destination. The Map of Egypt is an excellent guide to understanding the major tourist attractions of this ancient country – the Abu Simbel Sun Festival, the Aswan Dam, the Pharaonic Wedding of Luxor, the Open-air Museum, the Abu WlHaggagMoulidtheArchetectural Monuments and Namma Bay near Sharm Al Shaikh, the Opera House, Art Festival, and Egyptian Museum of Cairo, and Wafaa Al Nil, Abu Al Abbas, and Al Mursi Mosque of Alexandria. Most of Egypt is covered by the deserts the White Desert, the Black Desert, the Western Desert, the Eastern Desert, and the Libyan Desert. The Nile runs from south to north leaving a very fertile valley where most major cities of the country have sprung up. These cities include Aswan, Luxor, Quena, Sohag, Asyut, Al Faiyum, Giza, Cairo, Tanta, Alexandria, Port Said, Dumyat, and Damanhur.

In the 3rd century BC, Egypt became ruled by the Hellenistic Ptolemaic Kingdom, which was ruled by Cleopatra VII before her suicide. The country was Christianized in the 1st century, with the arrival of the Byzantine Empire, leading to the formation of the Coptic Church. However, by the 7th century, the Arabs arrived in Egypt during the Islamic Conquest, bringing Sunni Islam. They ruled Egypt until the Ottomans conquered it in 1517. Muhammad Ali Pasha came to rule the Ottoman province of Egypt in 1805, and he along with the successive rulers, made drastic changes to Ottoman Egypt, and moved the country toward independence.

With European influence, the Suez Canal was built in Egypt in 1869, and Britain bought the rights to the canal in 1875. The British and French were both heavily involved in Egyptian affairs, and the country became a British Protectorate in 1914. A major revolution occurred in 1919, after which the British government decided to declare Egyptian independence in 1922, though there was still heavy British influence and military presence until 1954. The revolution of 1952 led to the declaration of the Egyptian Republic the following year. However, in 1958, Egypt joined Syria to become the United Arab Republic, and was part of the United Arab States with North Yemen. The union ended with Syria’s succession in 1961.

Egypt was the focus of widespread revolts in January 2011, in protest of Mubarak’s rule. The Egyptian leader then fled the country and the military installed an interim government. After a constitutional referendum and a new election, the new president, Mohamed Morsi came to power. Various protests have persisted, and in 2013, a coup d’etat removed Morsi from government. A new constitution was put in place in early 2014.

Neighboring Countries Egypt borders Libya, Sudan, Egypt and the Gaza Strip, and is just across the Gulf of Aqaba from Jordan and Saudi Arabia.

Major Cities

The Nile River has three sources. The Blue Nile comes from Ethiopia’s Lake Tana and supplies the majority of the water to the Nile in Egypt. The White Nile flows from Uganda’s Lake Victoria, through Juba in South Sudan and Khartoum in Sudan. The Atbara River is the shortest of the sources, flowing from Ethiopia to Khartoum and into Sudan.

Points of Interest Egypt has many historic and cultural sites of interest, such as the Great Pyramids of Giza and the Sphinx, the last of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World still standing. Nearby in Cairo, the Hanging Church, Cairo Tower, the Al-Azhar Mosque, and the showcase of Egyptian history and present at Pharaonic Village can be found. Alexandria, the next largest city, sits along the Mediterranean and houses many historical sites, like Citadel of Qaitbay, Pompey’s Pillar, and the Roman Theater, alongside beaches and a modern city. Luxor features temples and royal tombs, the Valley of the Kings (or Biban el-Moluk), an archaeological site that is home to the Tomb of Tutankhamun, and the Tomb of Ramesses VI, as well as several other royals.

Other sites include Memphis, with its museum and statue of Ramses II, the monastery of St. Katherine, the oasis of Siwa, and the resorts of Taba Heights and Sharm el-Sheikh.

Transportation The main airport in Egypt is Cairo International Airport, which offers service around the world, followed by Luxor International, which offers service primarily from Europe. Smaller airports are located in Alexandria, Aswan, and Sharm el-Sheikh. There are ferries to Egypt from across the Gulf of Aqaba, with service to Nuweiba, Saudi Arabia, and Jordan, and ferries to Venice across the Mediterranean. Long-distance buses travel from Jerusalem and Tel Aviv to destinations in Egypt. Buses are also a good way of getting around the country. While driving a car in Egypt is possible and fairly inexpensive with subsidized fuel, the conditions can be dangerous with bad roads and loose laws. Trains run frequently between Cairo and Alexandria, as well as from Cairo to Luxor and Aswan. Taxis are great for getting around cities, though scams are common.

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Egypt Map, Map of Egypt

Urban Dictionary: Gaza

Posted By on January 22, 2016

A Big Ciry in Palestine on the border with Egypt.

Israel has attacked Gaza And killed 1000 kid.

Cockney rhyming slang: Gaza Strip=Lip

2. He gave me Gaza so I thumped him one.

the livest area of the upper township metropolitan area in which warfare has been present for the past eighteen years. from the ‘last snowball of the millenium war,’ to the epic ‘wallball scuffle,’ gaza is a dangerous place to be at all times. its boundaries presently extend from berwyn drive northward to ocean avenue.

‘theres a party in gaza tonight.’ ‘where at?’ ‘9 seasound.’

the area-in-limbo between northern upper township (palmora & beesleys point) and southern upper township (seaville/petersburg), new jersey. though borders often fluctuate, the best estimation of the gaza strip defines it as the area between butter and hope corson roads. both factions of the township have been grappling for control of the district for the better part of a decade.

‘we need to run through gaza to scoop zenon & them.’

Wow, Mackenzie sure is a gaza genius. Holy Shit, I got gazed by the CAL Scrim teams old school.

can be used interchanegeably for sexual conduct or for military conduct.

Question: Did you use protectoin? Answer: No, I just went the gaza.

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Urban Dictionary: Gaza

Gaza – Definition and Meaning, Bible Dictionary

Posted By on January 22, 2016

GAZA

ga’-za (`azzah, “strong”; Septuagint Gaza; Arabic Ghazzeh):

One of the five chief towns of Philistia and probably the oldest, situated near the coast in lat. 31 degrees 30′ and about 40 miles South of Jaffa. It is on a hill rising 60 to 200 ft. above the plain, with sand dunes between it and the sea, which is about 2 1/2 miles distant. The plain around is fertile and wells abound, and, being on the border of the desert between Syria and Egypt and lying in the track of caravans and armies passing from one to the other, it was in ancient times a place of importance. The earliest notices of it are found in the records of Egypt.

Thothmes III refers to it in the account of his expedition to Syria in 1479 BC, and it occurs again in the records of the expedition of Seti I in 1313 BC (Breasted, History of Egypt, 285, 409).

It occurs also in the early catalogue of cities and tribes inhabiting Canaan in the earliest times (Genesis 10:19). Joshua reached it in his conquests but did not take it (Joshua 10:41; 11:22).

Judah captured it (Judges 1:18) but did not hold it long, for we find it in the hands of the Philistines in the days of Samson, whose exploits have rendered it noteworthy (16:1-3,11,30). The hill to which he carried off the gate of the city was probably the one now called el-Muntar (“watch-tower”), which lies Southeast of the city and may be referred to in 2Kings 18:8, “from the tower of the watchmen to the fortified city,” Gaza, with the other chief towns, sent a trespass offering to Yahweh when the ark was returned (1Samuel 6:17).

Hezekiah defeated and pursued the Philistines to Gaza, but does not seem to have captured it. It was taken by Sargon in 720 BC, in his war with Egypt, since Khanun, the king of Gaza, joined the Egyptians and was captured at the battle of Raphia (Rawlinson, Ancient Monarchies, II, 142). It was probably destroyed (see Amos 1:7). It was certainly dismantled by Alexander the Great in 332, when it dared to resist him. It was then exceedingly strong, verifying its name, and was most bravely defended, so that it took Alexander two months to reduce it. He put to death all the men and sold the women and children as slaves (Grote, History of Greece, XI, 467). It was restored, however, and we learn that Jonathan forced it to submit to him (Josephus, Ant, XIII, v, 5; 1 Macc 11:62), and Alexander Janneus took it and massacred the inhabitants who escaped the horrors of the siege (Josephus, Ant, XIII, xiii, 3). Pompey restored the freedom of Gaza (ibid., XIV, iv, 4), and Gabinius rebuilt it in 57 BC (ibid., XIV, v, 3).

Gaza is mentioned only once in the New Testament (Acts 8:26), in the account of Philip and the eunuch. In the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD, it became a center of Greek commerce and culture, and pagan influence was strong, while the church rounded there was struggling for existence. Many martyrs there testified to the faith, until finally, under Theodosius, Christianity gained the supremacy (HGHL, 12th edition, 188). It fell into the hands of the Arabs in 634 AD, and became and has remained a Moslem city since the days of Saladin, who recovered it from the Crusaders in 1187, after the battle of Hattin. It is now a city of some 20,000 inhabitants, among whom are a few hundred Christians.

See also AZZAH.

H. Porter

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Gaza – Definition and Meaning, Bible Dictionary

ISRAEL’s Golan Heights Oil & NJ Genie Energy’s Cheney …

Posted By on January 22, 2016

ISRAEL’s Golan Heights Oil & NJ Genie Energy Ltd. owned by Dick Cheney, ex-CIA chief James Woolsey & Jacob Lord Rothschild. – “In 2013 Genie Energy “was granted exclusive oil and gas exploration rights to a 153-square mile radius in the southern part of the Golan Heights by the Netanyahu government,” the expert proceeded with the narrative.” – “Then, on October 8, 2015 Genie Energy’s Israeli subsidiary, Afek Oil & Gas announced that the company found a huge oil reservoir on the Golan Heights.

“We’ve found an oil stratum 350 meters thick in the southern Golan Heights. On average worldwide, strata are 20 to 30 meters thick, and this is 10 times as large as that, so we are talking about significant quantities,” Afek Oil & Gas chief geologist Yuval Bartov claimed in an interview to a local broadcaster as quoted by Engdahl.” (Link 1 below). ~~ Links: 1) Oct 28, 2015 Sputnik News http://sputniknews.com/middleeast/201… 2) Golan Heights – Wikipedia Images PUBLIC domain (Thumbnail image Golan Heights and Sea of Galilee view from Jordan by daniel Case). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Golan_H… 3) Music – Youtube Audio Library “Ambient Ambulance” https://www.youtube.com/audiolibrary/…

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ISRAEL’s Golan Heights Oil & NJ Genie Energy’s Cheney …

How About Israel – dailykos.com

Posted By on January 22, 2016

How About Israel?

HOW ABOUT ISRAEL?

On 6 December 2015, the Bernie Sanders campaign spelled out on Facebook his position on ISIS: ISIS will be destroyed with an international coalition in which Muslim troops on the ground are supported by the United States, United Kingdom, France, Russia and other leading powers. We must learn the lesson of Iraq. American troops should not be engaged in perpetual warfare in the Middle East.

Great. Muslim boots on the ground, the rest of the civilized world acting in support. Its about time someone pitched this idea. ISIS should worry.

Endless war is an abomination.

On 1 January 2015 Time Magazine reported that: The wars in Afghanistan and Iraq have cost the American taxpayer between $4 trillion and $6 trillion. This accounting includes long-term medical care and disability compensation for service members, veterans and families, as well as military replenishment and social and economic costs. According to the department of defense, there have been about 35,000 casualties; in addition, 320,000 American soldiers have had brain injuries.

To quote Bernie, Enough is Enough!

But neocons and neoliberals everywhere (including the New York Times) are beating the drums of war once again loudly and clearly (as they did before we invaded Iraq). They not only want American boots on the ground in Syria, they want our soldiers to attack Iran as well.

Who stands to gain?

In this regard there is no big secret to reveal. We have it from the horses mouth: The Intercept reported on 4 December 2015: Major defense contractors Raytheon, Oshkosh, and Lockheed Martin assuredinvestors at aCredit Suisse conference inWest Palm Beach this weekthat they stand to gain from the escalating conflicts in the Middle East. These investors are sipping martinis and toasting to the prospect of more wealth from the safety and decadence of luxurious hotel suites in upscale West Palm Beach, the home of two of the Koch brothers and 27 other billionaires, who fund superPACS that support perpetual war.

We dont need to get involved in another quagmire. Which is not to say that it is not important to destroy ISIS and Al Qaeda.

But we have to accept the fact that the greatest military force on the face of the earth cannot and should not go it alone. We have to accept the fact that the most powerful military force on earth cannot win in the Middle East without the leadership on the ground of the people in the region, the great majority of whom are not radical Jihadists.

Saudi Arabia is the fourth largest military spender in the world. According to Global Firepower it ranks 3rd in military strength in the region. It The other oil rich nations in the region, including United Arab Emigrates (ranked 5th in the region in military strength) and Kuwait (ranked 8th), should finance the war, as well as put troops on the ground.

Turkey (the other regional force there) could do more. Its military power (10th in the world) is greater than Australias, Egypts and Canadas. If all these nations joined forces on the ground (with the logistical, technical and air support of the rest of the civilized world including the United States, the European Union and Russia), how long could radical Jihadism stand? ISIS would be relegated to the trashcan of evil ideas along with Hitler.

But there is the elephant in the room Israel.

It boggles the imagination that Americas most important ally in the region has not put boots on the ground against ISIS. In a new ranking released by Business Insider, Israel has the most powerful military in the Middle East. It also ranked 1st in the region in military strength in the world by Global Firepower, which did not even include Israels nuclear capability at the time of the ranking.

Wouldnt it be in Israels self-interest to actively fight ISIS? Isnt it more likely that ISIS attack Israel than that Iran attack Israel? According to the Israeli Newspaper Haaretz, ISIS is sure to attack Israel. It is only a matter of time. No mention of any immanent attack by Iran on Israel.

If Israel put troops on the ground in the fight against ISIS, it would also help quell rumors that somehow, Israel and Saudi Arabia actually secretly support ISIS.

Isnt it time for the most powerful nation in the Middle East to stand up and be counted? Shouldnt Israel choose a side?

If Israel and our Muslim allies fail to pick up the gauntlet, we have no business being there.

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How About Israel – dailykos.com

Jewish culture – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Posted By on January 22, 2016

Jewish culture is the diverse international culture of the Jews. Since the formation of the Jewish nation in biblical times the international community of Jewish people has been considered a tribe or an ethnoreligious group rather than solely a religion. Judaism guides its adherents in both practice and belief, so that it has been called not only a religion, but an orthopraxy.[1] Not all individuals or all cultural phenomena can be classified as either “secular” or “religious”, a distinction native to Enlightenment thinking.[2]

Jewish culture in its etymological meaning retains the linkage to the land of origin, the people named for the Kingdom of Judah, study of Jewish texts, practice of community charity, and Jewish history. The term “secular Jewish culture” therefore refers to many aspects, including: Religion and World View, Literature, Media, and Cinema, Art and Architecture, Cuisine and Traditional Dress, attitudes to Gender, Marriage, and Family, Social Customs and Lifestyles, Music and Dance.[3] “Secular Judaism,” is a distinct phenomenon related to Jewish secularization – a historical process of divesting all of these elements of culture from their religious beliefs and practices.[4]

Secular Judaism, derived from the philosophy of Moses Mendelssohn,[5] arose out of the Haskalah, or Jewish Enlightenment, which was itself driven by the values of the Enlightenment. In recent years, the academic field of study, has encompassed Jewish Studies, History, Literature, Sociology, and Linguistics. Historian David Biale[6] has traced the roots of Jewish secularism back to the pre-modern era. He, and other scholars highlight the Dutch philosopher Baruch Spinoza, who was dubbed “the renegade Jew who gave us modernity” by scholar and novelist Rebecca Newberger Goldstein[7] in an intellectual biography of him. Today, the subject of Jewish secularization is taught, and researched, at many North American and Israeli universities, including Harvard, Tel Aviv University, UCLA, Temple University and City University of New York which have significant Jewish alumni. Additionally, many schools include the academic study of Judaism and Jewish culture in their curricula.

Throughout history, in eras and places as diverse as the ancient Hellenic world, in Europe before and after the Age of Enlightenment, in Al-Andalus, North Africa and the Middle East, in India and China, and in the contemporary United States and Israel, Jewish communities have seen the development of cultural phenomena that are characteristically Jewish without being at all specifically religious. Some factors in this come from within Judaism, others from the interaction of Jews with host populations in the Diasporas, and others from the inner social and cultural dynamics of the community, as opposed to religion itself. This phenomenon has led to considerably different Jewish cultures unique to their own communities.

There has not been a political unity of Jewish society since the united monarchy. Since then Israelite populations were always geographically dispersed (see Jewish diaspora), so that by the 19th century the Ashkenazi Jews were mainly in Eastern and Central Europe; the Sephardi Jews were largely spread among various communities in the Mediterranean region; Mizrahi Jews were primarily spread throughout Western Asia; and other populations of Jews were in Central Asia, Ethiopia, the Caucasus, and India. (See Jewish ethnic divisions.)

Although there was a high degree of communication and traffic between these communities many Sephardic exiles blended into the Ashkenazi communities in Central Europe following the Spanish Inquisition; many Ashkenazim migrated to the Ottoman Empire, giving rise to the characteristic Syrian-Jewish family name “Ashkenazi”; Iraqi-Jewish traders formed a distinct Jewish community in India; many of these populations were cut off to some degree from the surrounding cultures by ghettoization, by Muslim laws of dhimma, and traditional discouragement of contact with polytheistic populations.

Medieval Jewish communities in Eastern Europe continued to display distinct cultural traits over the centuries. Despite the universalist leanings of the Enlightenment (and its echo within Judaism in the Haskalah movement), many Yiddish-speaking Jews in Eastern Europe continued to see themselves as forming a distinct national group ” ‘am yehudi”, from the Biblical Hebrew but, adapting this idea to Enlightenment values, they assimilated the concept as that of an ethnic group whose identity did not depend on religion, which under Enlightenment thinking fell under a separate category.

Constantin Mciuc writes of “a differentiated but not isolated Jewish spirit” permeating the culture of Yiddish-speaking Jews.[8] This was only intensified as the rise of Romanticism amplified the sense of national identity across Europe generally. Thus, for example, members of the General Jewish Labour Bund in the late 19th and early 20th centuries were generally non-religious, and one of the historical leaders of the Bund was the child of converts to Christianity, though not a practicing or believing Christian himself.[citation needed]

The Haskalah combined with the Jewish Emancipation movement under way in Central and Western Europe to create an opportunity for Jews to enter secular society. At the same time, pogroms in Eastern Europe provoked a surge of migration, in large part to the United States, where some 2 million Jewish immigrants resettled between 1880 and 1920. By 1931, shortly before The Holocaust, 92% of the World’s Jewish population was Ashkenazi in origin. Secularism originated in Europe as series of movements that militated for a new, heretofore unheard-of concept called “secular Judaism”. For these reasons, much of what is thought of by English-speakers and, to a lesser extent, by non-English-speaking Europeans as “secular Jewish culture” is, in essence, the Jewish cultural movement that evolved in Central and Eastern Europe, and subsequently brought to North America by immigrants. During the 1940s, the Holocaust uprooted and destroyed most of the Jewish communities living in much of Europe. This, in combination with the creation of the State of Israel and the consequent Jewish exodus from Arab lands, resulted in a further geographic shift.

Defining secular culture among those who practice traditional Judaism is difficult, because the entire culture is, by definition, entwined with religious traditions: the idea of separate ethnic and religious identity is foreign to the Hebrew tradition of an ” ‘am yisrael”. (This is particularly true for Orthodox Judaism.) Gary Tobin, head of the Institute for Jewish and Community Research, said of traditional Jewish culture:

The dichotomy between religion and culture doesnt really exist. Every religious attribute is filled with culture; every cultural act filled with religiosity. Synagogues themselves are great centers of Jewish culture. After all, what is life really about? Food, relationships, enrichment So is Jewish life. So many of our traditions inherently contain aspects of culture. Look at the Passover Seder it’s essentially great theater. Jewish education and religiosity bereft of culture is not as interesting.[9]

Yaakov Malkin, Professor of Aesthetics and Rhetoric at Tel Aviv University and the founder and academic director of Meitar College for Judaism as Culture[10] in Jerusalem, writes:

Today very many secular Jews take part in Jewish cultural activities, such as celebrating Jewish holidays as historical and nature festivals, imbued with new content and form, or marking life-cycle events such as birth, bar/bat mitzvah, marriage, and mourning in a secular fashion. They come together to study topics pertaining to Jewish culture and its relation to other cultures, in havurot, cultural associations, and secular synagogues, and they participate in public and political action coordinated by secular Jewish movements, such as the former movement to free Soviet Jews, and movements to combat pogroms, discrimination, and religious coercion. Jewish secular humanistic education inculcates universal moral values through classic Jewish and world literature and through organizations for social change that aspire to ideals of justice and charity.[11]

In North America, the secular and cultural Jewish movements are divided into three umbrella organizations: the Society for Humanistic Judaism (SHJ), the Congress of Secular Jewish Organizations (CSJO), and Workmen’s Circle.

Jewish philosophy includes all philosophy carried out by Jews, or in relation to the religion of Judaism. The Jewish philosophy is extended over several main eras in Jewish history, including the ancient and biblical era, medieval era and modern era (see Haskalah). The ancient Jewish philosophy is expressed in the bible. According to Prof. Israel Efros the principles of the Jewish philosophy start in the bible, where the foundations of the Jewish monotheistic beliefs can be found, such as the belief in one god, the separation of god and the world and nature (as opposed to Pantheism) and the creation of the world. Other biblical writings that associated with philosophy are Psalms that contains invitations to admire the wisdom of God through his works; from this, some scholars suggest, Judaism harbors a Philosophical under-current[12] and Ecclesiastes that is often considered to be the only genuine philosophical work in the Hebrew Bible; its author seeks to understand the place of human beings in the world and life’s meaning.[13] Other writings related to philosophy can be found in the Deuterocanonical books such as Sirach and Book of Wisdom. During the Hellenistic era, Hellenistic Judaism aspired to combine Jewish religious tradition with elements of Greek culture and philosophy. The philosopher Philo used philosophical allegory to attempt to fuse and harmonize Greek philosophy with Jewish philosophy. His work attempts to combine Plato and Moses into one philosophical system.[14] He developed an allegoric approach of interpreting holy scriptures (the bible), in contrast to (old-fashioned) literally interpretation approaches. His allegorical exegesis was important for several Christian Church Fathers and some scholars hold that his concept of the Logos as God’s creative principle influenced early Christology. Other scholars, however, deny direct influence but say both Philo and Early Christianity borrow from a common source.[15]

Between the Ancient era and the Middle Ages most of the Jewish philosophy concentrated around the Rabbinic literature that is expressed in the Talmud and Midrash. In the 9th century Saadia Gaon wrote the text Emunoth ve-Deoth which is the first systematic presentation and philosophic foundation of the dogmas of Judaism. The Golden age of Jewish culture in Spain included many influential Jewish philosophers such as Moses ibn Ezra, Abraham ibn Ezra , Solomon ibn Gabirol, Yehuda Halevi, Isaac Abravanel, Nahmanides, Joseph Albo, Abraham ibn Daud, Nissim of Gerona, Bahya ibn Paquda, Abraham bar Hiyya, Joseph ibn Tzaddik, Hasdai Crescas and Isaac ben Moses Arama. The Most notable is Maimonides who is considered, beside the Jewish world, as a prominent philosopher and polymath in the Islamic and Western worlds. Outside of Spain, other philosophers are Natan’el al-Fayyumi, Elia del Medigo, Jedaiah ben Abraham Bedersi and Gersonides.

Philosophy by Jews in Modern era was expressed by philosophers, mainly in Europe, such as Baruch Spinoza founder of Spinozism, whose work included modern Rationalism and Biblical criticism and laying the groundwork for the 18th-century Enlightenment.[16] His work has earned him recognition as one of Western philosophy’s most important thinkers; Others are Isaac Orobio de Castro, Tzvi Ashkenazi, David Nieto, Isaac Cardoso, Jacob Abendana, Uriel da Costa, Francisco Sanches and Moses Almosnino. A new era began in the 18th century with the thought of Moses Mendelssohn. Mendelssohn has been described as the “‘third Moses,’ with whom begins a new era in Judaism,” just as new eras began with Moses the prophet and with Moses Maimonides.[17] Mendelssohn was a German Jewish philosopher to whose ideas the renaissance of European Jews, Haskalah (the Jewish Enlightenment) is indebted. He has been referred to as the father of Reform Judaism, though Reform spokesmen have been “resistant to claim him as their spiritual father”.[18] Mendelssohn came to be regarded as a leading cultural figure of his time by both Germans and Jews. The Jewish Enlightenment philosophy included Menachem Mendel Lefin, Salomon Maimon and Isaac Satanow. The next 19th century comprised both secular and religious philosophy and included philosophers such as Elijah Benamozegh, Hermann Cohen, Moses Hess, Samson Raphael Hirsch, Samuel Hirsch, Nachman Krochmal, Samuel David Luzzatto, Nachman of Breslov founder of Breslov and Karl Marx founder of Marxist worldview. The 20th century included the notable philosophers Jacques Derrida, Karl Popper, Hilary Putnam, Alfred Tarski, Ludwig Wittgenstein, A. J. Ayer, Isaiah Berlin and Henri Bergson.

A range of moral and political views is evident early in the history of Judaism, that serves to partially explain the diversity that is apparent among secular Jews who are often influenced by moral beliefs that can be found in Jewish scripture, and traditions. In recent centuries, secular Jews in Europe and the Americas have tended towards the liberal political left[citation needed], and played key roles in the birth of the 19th century’s labor movement and socialism. While Diaspora Jews have also been represented in the conservative side of the political spectrum, even politically conservative Jews have tended to support pluralism more consistently than many other elements of the political right. Some scholars[19] attribute this to the fact that Jews are not expected to proselytize, derived from Halakha. This lack of a universalizing religion is combined with the fact that most Jews live as minorities in diaspora countries, and that no central Jewish religious authority has existed since 363 CE.

In the Middle Ages, European laws prevented Jews from owning land and gave them powerful incentive to go into other professions that the indigenous Europeans were not willing to follow.[22] During the medieval period, there was a very strong social stigma against lending money and charging interest among the Christian majority. In most of Europe until the late 18th century, and in some places to an even later date, Jews were prohibited by Roman Catholic governments (and others) from owning land. On the other hand, the Church, because of a number of Bible verses (e.g., Leviticus 25:36) forbidding usury, declared that charging any interest was against the divine law, and this prevented any mercantile use of capital by pious Christians. As the Canon law did not apply to Jews, they were not liable to the ecclesiastical punishments which were placed upon usurers by the popes. Christian rulers gradually saw the advantage of having a class of men like the Jews who could supply capital for their use without being liable to excommunication, and so the money trade of western Europe by this means fell into the hands of the Jews.

However, in almost every instance where large amounts were acquired by Jews through banking transactions the property thus acquired fell either during their life or upon their death into the hands of the king. This happened to Aaron of Lincoln in England, Ezmel de Ablitas in Navarre, Heliot de Vesoul in Provence, Benveniste de Porta in Aragon, etc. It was often for this reason that kings supported the Jews, and even objected to them becoming Christians (because in that case they could not be forced to give up money won by usury). Thus, both in England and in France the kings demanded to be compensated for every Jew converted. This type of royal trickery was one factor in creating the stereotypical Jewish role of banker and/or merchant.

As a modern system of capital began to develop, loans became necessary for commerce and industry. Jews were able to gain a foothold in the new field of finance by providing these services: as non-Catholics, they were not bound by the ecclesiastical prohibition against “usury”; and in terms of Judaism itself, Hillel had long ago re-interpreted the Torah’s ban on charging interest, allowing interest when it’s needed to make a living.[citation needed]

The strong Jewish tradition of religious scholarship often left Jews well prepared for secular scholarship. In some times and places, this was countered by banning Jews from studying at universities, or admitted them only in limited numbers (see Jewish quota). Over the centuries, Jews have been poorly represented among land-holding classes, but far better represented in academia, professions, finance, commerce and many scientific fields. The strong representation of Jews in science and academia is evidenced by the fact that 193 persons known to be Jews or of Jewish ancestry have been awarded the Nobel Prize, accounting for 22% of all individual recipients worldwide between 1901 and 2014.[23] Of whom, 26% in physics,[24] 22% in chemistry[25] and 27% in Physiology or Medicine.[26] In the fields of mathematics and computer science, 31% of Turing Award recipients[27] and 27% of Fields Medal in mathematics[28] were or are Jewish.

The early Jewish activity in science can be found in the Hebrew bible where some of the books contain descriptions of the physical world. Biblical cosmology provides sporadic glimpses that may be stitched together to form a Biblical impression of the physical universe. There have been comparisons between the Bible, with passages such as from the Genesis creation narrative, and the astronomy of classical antiquity more generally.[29] The Old Testament also contains various cleansing rituals. One suggested ritual, for example, deals with the proper procedure for cleansing a leper (Leviticus 14:1-32 ). It is a fairly elaborate process, which is to be performed after a leper was already healed of leprosy (Leviticus 14:3 ), involving extensive cleansing and personal hygiene, but also includes sacrificing a bird and lambs with the addition of using their blood to symbolize that the afflicted has been cleansed.

The Torah proscribes Intercropping (Lev. 19:19, Deut 22:9), a practice often associated with sustainable agriculture and organic farming in modern agricultural science.[30][31] The Mosaic code has provisions concerning the conservation of natural resources, such as trees (Deuteronomy 20:19-20 ) and birds (Deuteronomy 22:6-7 ).

During Medieval era astronomy was a primary field among Jewish scholars and was widely-studied and practiced.[35] Prominent astronomers included Abraham Zacuto who published in 1478 his Hebrew book Ha-hibbur ha-gadol[36] where he wrote about the solar system, charting the positions of the Sun, Moon and five planets.[36] His work served Portugal’s explorering journeys and was used by Vasco da Gama and also by Christopher Columbus. The lunar crater Zagut is named after Zacuto’s name. The mathematician and astronomer Abraham bar Hiyya Ha-Nasi authored the first European book to include the full solution to the quadratic equation x2 – ax + b = 0,[37] and influenced the work of Leonardo Fibonacci. Bar Hiyya proved by geometro-mechanical method of indivisibles the following equation for any circle: S = LxR/2, where S is the surface area, L is the circumference length and R is radius.[38]

Garcia de Orta, Portuguese Renaissance Jewish physician, was a pioneer of Tropical medicine. He published his work Colquios dos simples e drogas da India in 1563, which deals with a series of substances, many of them unknown or the subject of confusion and misinformation in Europe at this period. He was the first European to describe Asiatic tropical diseases, notably cholera; he performed an autopsy on a cholera victim, the first recorded autopsy in India. Bonet de Lattes known chiefly as the inventor of an astronomical ring-dial by means of which solar and stellar altitudes can be measured and the time determined with great precision by night as well as by day. Other related personalities are Abraham ibn Ezra, whose the Moon crater Abenezra named after, David Gans, Judah ibn Verga, Mashallah ibn Athari an astronomer, The crater Messala on the Moon is named after him.

Albert Einstein was a German-born theoretical physicist and is considered as one of the most prominent scientists in history, often regarded as the “father of modern physics”. His revolutionary work on the relativity theory transformed theoretical physics and astronomy during the 20th century. When first published, relativity superseded a 200-year-old theory of mechanics created primarily by Isaac Newton.[39][40][41] In the field of physics, relativity improved the science of elementary particles and their fundamental interactions, along with ushering in the nuclear age. With relativity, cosmology and astrophysics predicted extraordinary astronomical phenomena such as neutron stars, black holes, and gravitational waves.[39][40][41] Einstein formulated the well-known Massenergy equivalence, E = mc2, and explained the photoelectric effect. His work also effected and influenced a large variety of fields of physics including the Big Bang theory (Einstein’s General relativity influenced Georges Lematre), Quantum mechanics and nuclear energy.

The Manhattan Project was a research and development project that produced the first atomic bombs during World War II and many Jewish scientist had a significant role in the project.[42] The theoretical physicist Robert Oppenheimer, often considered as the “father of the atomic bomb”, was chosen to direct the Manhattan Project at Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1942. The physicist Le Szilrd, that conceived the nuclear chain reaction; Edward Teller, “the father of the hydrogen bomb” and Stanislaw Ulam; Eugene Wigner contributed to theory of Atomic nucleus and Elementary particle; Hans Bethe whose work included Stellar nucleosynthesis and was head of the Theoretical Division at the secret Los Alamos laboratory; Richard Feynman, Niels Bohr, Victor Weisskopf and Joseph Rotblat.

The mathematician and physicist Alexander Friedmann pioneered the theory that universe was expanding governed by a set of equations he developed now known as the Friedmann equations. Arno Allan Penzias, the physicist and radio astronomer co-discoverer of the cosmic microwave background radiation, which helped establish the Big Bang theory, the scientists Robert Herman and Ralph Alpher had also worked on that field. In quantum mechanics Jewish role was significant as well and many of most influential figures and pioneers of the theory were Jewish: Niels Bohr and his work on the atom structure, Max Born (Schrdinger equation), Wolfgang Pauli, Richard Feynman (Quantum chromodynamics), Fritz London work on London dispersion force and London equations, Walter Heitler and Julian Schwinger work on Quantum electrodynamics, Asher Peres a pioneer in Quantum information, David Bohm (Quantum potential).

Sigmund Freud, known as the father of psychoanalysis, is one of the most influential scientists of the 20th century. In creating psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst,[43] Freud developed therapeutic techniques such as the use of free association and discovered transference, establishing its central role in the analytic process. Freuds redefinition of sexuality to include its infantile forms led him to formulate the Oedipus complex as the central tenet of psychoanalytical theory. His analysis of dreams as wish-fulfillments provided him with models for the clinical analysis of symptom formation and the mechanisms of repression as well as for elaboration of his theory of the unconscious as an agency disruptive of conscious states of mind.[44] Freud postulated the existence of libido, an energy with which mental processes and structures are invested and which generates erotic attachments, and a death drive, the source of repetition, hate, aggression and neurotic guilt.[45]

John von Neumann, a mathematician and physicist, made major contributions to a number of fields,[48] including foundations of mathematics, functional analysis, ergodic theory, geometry, topology, numerical analysis, quantum mechanics, hydrodynamics and game theory.[49] In made also a major work with computing and the development of the computer, he suggested and described a computer architecture called Von Neumann architecture and worked on linear programming, self-replicating machines, stochastic computing), and statistics. Emmy Noether was an influential mathematician known for her groundbreaking contributions to abstract algebra and theoretical physics. Described by many prominent scientists as the most important woman in the history of mathematics,[50][51] she revolutionized the theories of rings, fields, and algebras. In physics, Noether’s theorem explains the fundamental connection between symmetry and conservation laws.[52]

More remarkable contributors include Heinrich Hertz and Steven Weinberg in Electromagnetism; Carl Sagan, his contributions were central to the discovery of the high surface temperatures of Venus and known for his contributions to the scientific research of extraterrestrial life; Edward Witten (M-theory); Vitaly Ginzburg and Lev Landau (GinzburgLandau theory); Yakir Aharonov (AharonovBohm effect); Boris Podolsky and Nathan Rosen (EPR paradox);Moshe Carmeli (Gauge theory). Rudolf Lipschitz (Lipschitz continuity); Paul Cohen (Continuum hypothesis, Axiom of choice); Laurent Schwartz (theory of distribution); Grigory Margulis (Lie group); Richard M. Karp (Theory of computation); Adi Shamir (RSA, cryptography); Judea Pearl (Artificial intelligence, Bayesian network); Max Newman (Colossus computer); Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi (Jacobi elliptic functions, Jacobian matrix and determinant, Jacobi symbol). Sidney Altman (Molecular biology, RNA); Melvin Calvin (Calvin Cycle); Otto Wallach (Alicyclic compound); Paul Berg (biochemistry of nucleic acids); Ada Yonath (Crystallography, structure of the ribosome); Dan Shechtman (Quasicrystal); Julius Axelrod and Bernard Katz (Neurotransmitter); Elie Metchnikoff (discovery of Macrophage); Selman Waksman (discovery of Streptomycin); Rosalind Franklin (DNA); Carl Djerassi (the pill); Stephen Jay Gould (Evolutionary biology); Baruch Samuel Blumberg (Hepatitis B virus); Jonas Salk and Albert Sabin (developers of the Polio vaccines); Paul Ehrlich (discovery of the Bloodbrain barrier); In fields such as psychology and neurology: Otto Rank, Viktor Frankl, Stanley Milgram and Solomon Asch; linguistics: Noam Chomsky, Franz Boas, Roman Jakobson, Edward Sapir, Joseph Greenberg; and sociology: Karl Marx, Theodor Adorno, Nathan Glazer, Erving Goffman, Georg Simmel.

Beside Scientific discoveries and researches, Jews have created significant and influential innovations in a large variety of fields such as the listed samples: Siegfried Marcus- automobile pioneer, inventor of the first car; Emile Berliner- developer of the disc record phonograph; Mikhail Gurevich- co-inventor of the MIG aircraft; Theodore Maiman- inventor of the laser; Robert Adler- inventor of the wireless remote control for televisions; Edwin H. Land – inventor of Land Camera; Bob Kahn- inventor of TCP and IP; Bram Cohen- creator of Bittorent; Sergei Brin and Larry Page- creators of Google; Laszlo Biro – Ballpoint pen; Simcha Blass- Drip irrigation; Lee Felsenstein – designer of Osborne 1; Zeev Suraski and Andi Gutmans co-creators of PHP and founders of Zend Technologies; Ralph H. Baer, “The Father of Video Games”.

In some places where there have been relatively high concentrations of Jews, distinct secular Jewish subcultures have arisen. For example, ethnic Jews formed an enormous proportion of the literary and artistic life of Vienna, Austria at the end of the 19th century, or of New York City 50 years later (and Los Angeles in the mid-late 20th century). Many of these creative Jews were not particularly religious people. In general, Jewish artistic culture in various periods reflected the culture in which they lived.

Literary and theatrical expressions of secular Jewish culture may be in specifically Jewish languages such as Hebrew, Yiddish or Ladino, or it may be in the language of the surrounding cultures, such as English or German. Secular literature and theater in Yiddish largely began in the 19th century and was in decline by the middle of the 20th century. The revival of Hebrew beyond its use in the liturgy is largely an early 20th-century phenomenon, and is closely associated with Zionism. Apart from the use of Hebrew in Israel, whether a Jewish community will speak a Jewish or non-Jewish language as its main vehicle of discourse is generally dependent on how isolated or assimilated that community is. For example, the Jews in the shtetls of Poland and the Lower East Side of New York during the early 20th century spoke Yiddish at most times, while assimilated Jews in 19th and early 20th-century Germany spoke German, and American-born Jews in the United States speak English.

Jewish authors have both created a unique Jewish literature and contributed to the national literature of many of the countries in which they live. Though not strictly secular, the Yiddish works of authors like Sholem Aleichem (whose collected works amounted to 28 volumes) and Isaac Bashevis Singer (winner of the 1978 Nobel Prize), form their own canon, focusing on the Jewish experience in both Eastern Europe, and in America. In the United States, Jewish writers like Philip Roth, Saul Bellow, and many others are considered among the greatest American authors, and incorporate a distinctly secular Jewish view into many of their works. The poetry of Allen Ginsberg often touches on Jewish themes (notably the early autobiographical works such as Howl and Kaddish). Other famous Jewish authors that made contributions to world literature include Heinrich Heine, German poet, Mordecai Richler, Canadian author, Isaac Babel, Russian author, Franz Kafka, of Prague, and Harry Mulisch, whose novel The Discovery of Heaven was revealed by a 2007 poll as the “Best Dutch Book Ever”.[54]

In Modern Judaism: An Oxford Guide, Yaakov Malkin, Professor of Aesthetics and Rhetoric at Tel Aviv University and the founder and academic director of Meitar College for Judaism as Culture in Jerusalem, writes:

Secular Jewish culture embraces literary works that have stood the test of time as sources of aesthetic pleasure and ideas shared by Jews and non-Jews, works that live on beyond the immediate socio-cultural context within which they were created. They include the writings of such Jewish authors as Sholem Aleichem, Itzik Manger, Isaac Bashevis Singer, Philip Roth, Saul Bellow, S.Y. Agnon, Isaac Babel, Martin Buber, Isaiah Berlin, Haim Nahman Bialik, Yehuda Amichai, Amos Oz, A.B. Yehoshua, and David Grossman. It boasts masterpieces that have had a considerable influence on all of western culture, Jewish culture included – works such as those of Heinrich Heine, Gustav Mahler, Leonard Bernstein, Marc Chagall, Jacob Epstein, Ben Shahn, Amedeo Modigliani, Franz Kafka, Max Reinhardt (Goldman), Ernst Lubitsch, and Woody Allen.[11]

Other notable contributors are Isaac Asimov author of the Foundation series and others such as I, robot, Nightfall and The Gods Themselves; Joseph Heller (Catch-22); R.L. Stine (Goosebumps series); J. D. Salinger (The Catcher in the Rye); Michael Chabon (The Amazing Adventures of Kavalier & Clay, The Yiddish Policemen’s Union); Marcel Proust (In Search of Lost Time); Arthur Miller (Death of a Salesman and The Crucible); Will Eisner (A Contract with God); Shel Silverstein (The Giving Tree); Arthur Koestler (Darkness at Noon, The Thirteenth Tribe); Saul Bellow (Herzog); The historical novel series The Accursed Kings by Maurice Druon is an inspiration for George R. R. Martin’s A Song of Ice and Fire novels.[55][56][57]

Another aspect of Jewish literature is the ethical, called Musar literature. Among recipient of Nobel Prize in Literature, 13% were or are Jewish.[58]

Hebrew poetry is expressed by various of poets in different eras of Jewish history. Biblical poetry is related to the poetry in biblical times as it expressed in the Hebrew bible and Jewish sacred texts. In medieval times the Jewish poetry was mainly expressed by piyyutim and several poets such as Yehuda Halevi, Samuel ibn Naghrillah, Solomon ibn Gabirol, Moses ibn Ezra, Abraham ibn Ezra and Dunash ben Labrat. Modern Hebrew poetry is mostly related to the era of and after the revival of the Hebrew language, pioneered by Moshe Chaim Luzzatto in the Haskalah era and succeeded by poets such as Hayim Nahman Bialik, Nathan Alterman and Shaul Tchernichovsky.

The Ukrainian Jew Abraham Goldfaden founded the first professional Yiddish-language theatre troupe in Iai, Romania in 1876. The next year, his troupe achieved enormous success in Bucharest. Within a decade, Goldfaden and others brought Yiddish theater to Ukraine, Russia, Poland, Germany, New York City, and other cities with significant Ashkenazic populations. Between 1890 and 1940, over a dozen Yiddish theatre groups existed in New York City alone, in the Yiddish Theater District, performing original plays, musicals, and Yiddish translations of theatrical works and opera. Perhaps the most famous of Yiddish-language plays is The Dybbuk (1919) by S. Ansky.

Yiddish theater in New York in the early 20th century rivalled English-language theater in quantity and often surpassed it in quality. A 1925 New York Times article remarks, “Yiddish theater is now a stable American institution and no longer dependent on immigration from Eastern Europe. People who can neither speak nor write Yiddish attend Yiddish stage performances and pay Broadway prices on Second Avenue.” This article also mentions other aspects of a New York Jewish cultural life “in full flower” at that time, among them the fact that the extensive New York Yiddish-language press of the time included seven daily newspapers.[59]

In fact, however, the next generation of American Jews spoke mainly English to the exclusion of Yiddish; they brought the artistic energy of Yiddish theater into the American theatrical mainstream, but usually in a less specifically Jewish form.

Yiddish theater, most notably Moscow State Jewish Theater directed by Solomon Mikhoels, also played a prominent role in the arts scene of the Soviet Union until Stalin’s 1948 reversal in government policy toward the Jews. (See Rootless cosmopolitan, Night of the Murdered Poets.)

Montreal’s Dora Wasserman Yiddish Theatre continues to thrive after 50 years of performance.

From their Emancipation to World War II, Jews were very active and sometimes even dominant in certain forms of European theatre, and after the Holocaust many Jews continued to that cultural form. For example, in pre-Nazi Germany, where Nietzsche asked “What good actor of today is not Jewish?”, acting, directing and writing positions were often filled by Jews. Both MacDonald and Jewish Tribal Review would generally be counted as anti-Semitic sources, but reasonably careful in their factual claims. “In Imperial Berlin, Jewish artists could be found in the forefront of the performing arts, from high drama to more popular forms like cabaret and revue, and eventually film. Jewish audiences patronized innovative theater, regardless of whether they approved of what they saw.”[60] The British historian Paul Johnson, commenting on Jewish contributions to European culture at the Fin de sicle, writes that

The area where Jewish influence was strongest was the theatre, especially in Berlin. Playwrights like Carl Sternheim, Arthur Schnitzler, Ernst Toller, Erwin Piscator, Walter Hasenclever, Ferenc Molnr and Carl Zuckmayer, and influential producers like Max Reinhardt, appeared at times to dominate the stage, which tended to be modishly left-wing, pro-republican, experimental and sexually daring. But it was certainly not revolutionary, and it was cosmopolitan rather than Jewish.[61]

Jews also made similar, if not as massive, contributions to theatre and drama in Austria, Britain, France, and Russia (in the national languages of those countries). Jews in Vienna, Paris and German cities found cabaret both a popular and effective means of expression, as German cabaret in the Weimar Republic “was mostly a Jewish art form”.[62] The involvement of Jews in Central European theatre was halted during the rise of the Nazis and the purging of Jews from cultural posts, though many emigrated to Western Europe or the United States and continued working there.

Yiddish theatre fed into the mainstream of American stage and film acting: the method acting of Konstantin Stanislavski found its way to America through Jacob Adler; Adler’s daughter Stella and son Luther were instrumental in the Group Theatre, two of whose three founders were also Jews. The list of Stella Adler’s and Group Theatre founder Lee Strasberg’s students, mostly Gentiles, reads like a Who’s Who of American acting: Marlon Brando, Jill Clayburgh, James Dean, Robert De Niro, Paul Newman, Jack Nicholson, Al Pacino, and Eva Marie Saint, to name just a few. Similarly, what Jewish composer John Kander calls an “interesting phenomenon that Broadway musical composers like Jerome Kern, George Gershwin and Marc Blitzstein are predominantly Jewish” comes from “the tradition established from New York’s Yiddish theater.”[63]

Not only have “Jewish composers and lyricists always dominated Broadway musicals”[64] in New York City, but they were instrumental in the creation and development of genre of musical theatre and earlier forms of theatrical entertainment, as well as contributing to non-musical theatre in the United States.

Brandeis University Professor Stephen J. Whitfield has commented that “More so than behind the screen, the talent behind the stage was for over half a century virtually the monopoly of one ethnic group. That is… [a] feature which locates Broadway at the center of Jewish culture”.[65]New York University Professor Laurence Maslon says that “There would be no American musical without Jews Their influence is corollary to the influence of black musicians on jazz; there were as many Jews involved in the form”.[66] Other writers, such as Jerome Caryn, have noted that musical theatre and other forms of American entertainment are uniquely indebted to the contributions of Jewish-Americans, since “there might not have been a modern Broadway without the “Asiatic horde” of comedians, gossip columnists, songwriters, and singers that grew out of the ghetto, whether it was on the Lower East Side, Harlem (a Jewish ghetto before it was a black one), Newark, or Washington, D.C..”[67] Likewise, in the analysis of Aaron Kula, director of The Klezmer Company,

the Jewish experience has always been best expressed by music, and Broadway has always been an integral part of the Jewish-American experience The difference is that one can expand the definition of “Jewish Broadway” to include an interdisciplinary roadway with a wide range of artistic activities packed onto one avenue–theatre, opera, symphony, ballet, publishing companies, choirs, synagogues and more. This vibrant landscape reflects the life, times and creative output of the Jewish-American artist.[68]

In the 19th and early 20th centuries the European operetta, a precursor the musical, often featured the work of Jewish composers such as Paul Abraham, Leo Ascher, Edmund Eysler, Leo Fall, Bruno Granichstaedten, Jacques Offenbach, Emmerich Kalman, Sigmund Romberg, Oscar Straus and Rudolf Friml; the latter four eventually moved to the United States and produced their works on the New York stage. One of the librettists for Bizet’s Carmen (not an operetta proper but rather a work of the earlier Opra comique form) was the Jewish Ludovic Halvy, niece of composer Fromental Halvy (Bizet himself was not Jewish but he married the elder Halevy’s daughter, many have suspected that he was the descendant of Jewish converts to Christianity, and others have noticed Jewish-sounding intervals in his music).[69] The Viennese librettist Victor Leon summarized the connection of Jewish composers and writers with the form of operetta: “The audience for operetta wants to laugh beneath tearsand that is exactly what Jews have been doing for the last two thousand years since the destruction of Jerusalem”.[70] Another factor in the evolution of musical theatre was vaudeville, and during the early 20th century the form was explored and expanded by Jewish comedians and actors such as Jack Benny, Fanny Brice, Eddie Cantor, The Marx Brothers, Anna Held, Al Jolson, Molly Picon, Sophie Tucker and Ed Wynn. During the period when Broadway was monopolized by revues and similar entertainments, Jewish producer Florenz Ziegfeld dominated the theatrical scene with his Follies.

By 1910 Jews (the vast majority of them immigrants from Eastern Europe) already composed a quarter of the population of New York City, and almost immediately Jewish artists and intellectuals began to show their influence on the cultural life of that city, and through time, the country as a whole. Likewise, while the modern musical can best be described as a fusion of operetta, earlier American entertainment and African-American culture and music, as well as Jewish culture and music, the actual authors of the first “book musicals” were the Jewish Jerome Kern, Oscar Hammerstein II, George and Ira Gershwin, George S. Kaufman and Morrie Ryskind. From that time until the 1980s a vast majority of successful musical theatre composers, lyricists, and book-writers were Jewish (a notable exception is the Protestant Cole Porter, who acknowledged that the reason he was so successful on Broadway was that he wrote what he called “Jewish music”).[71]Rodgers and Hammerstein, Frank Loesser, Lerner and Loewe, Stephen Sondheim, Leonard Bernstein, Stephen Schwartz, Kander and Ebb and dozens of others during the “Golden Age” of musical theatre were Jewish. Since the Tony Award for Best Original Score was instituted in 1947, approximately 70% of nominated scores and 60% of winning scores were by Jewish composers. Of successful British and French musical writers both in the West End and Broadway, Claude-Michel Schnberg and Lionel Bart are Jewish, among others.

One explanation of the affinity of Jewish composers and playwrights to the musical is that “traditional Jewish religious music was most often led by a single singer, a cantor while Christians emphasize choral singing.”[72] Many of these writers used the musical to explore issues relating to assimilation, the acceptance of the outsider in society, the racial situation in the United States, the overcoming of obstacles through perseverance, and other topics pertinent to Jewish Americans and Western Jews in general, often using subtle and disguised stories to get this point across.[73] For example, Kern, Rodgers, Hammerstein, the Gershwins, Harold Arlen and Yip Harburg wrote musicals and operas aiming to normalize societal toleration of minorities and urging racial harmony; these works included Show Boat, Porgy and Bess, Finian’s Rainbow, South Pacific and The King and I. Towards the end of Golden Age, writers also began to openly and overtly tackle Jewish subjects and issues, such as Fiddler on the Roof and Rags; Bart’s Blitz! also tackles relations between Jews and Gentiles. Jason Robert Brown and Alfred Uhry’s Parade is a sensitive exploration of both anti-Semitism and historical American racism. The original concept that became West Side Story was set in the Lower East Side during Easter-Passover celebrations; the rival gangs were to be Jewish and Italian Catholic.[74]

The ranks of prominent Jewish producers, directors, designers and performers include Boris Aronson, David Belasco, Joel Grey, the Minskoff family, Zero Mostel, Joseph Papp, Mandy Patinkin, the Nederlander family, Harold Prince, Max Reinhardt, Jerome Robbins, the Shubert family and Julie Taymor. Jewish playwrights have also contributed to non-musical drama and theatre, both Broadway and regional. Edna Ferber, Moss Hart, Lillian Hellman, Arthur Miller and Neil Simon are only some of the prominent Jewish playwrights in American theatrical history. Approximately 34% of the plays and musicals that have won the Pulitzer Prize for Drama were written and composed by Jewish Americans.[75]

The Association for Jewish Theater is a contemporary organization that includes both American and international theaters that focus on theater with Jewish content. It has also expanded to include Jewish playwrights.

The earliest known Hebrew language drama was written around 1550 by a Jewish-Italian writer from Mantua.[76] A few works were written by rabbis and Kabbalists in the 17th century Amsterdam, where Jews were relatively free from persecution and had both flourishing religious and secular Jewish cultures.[77] All of these early Hebrew plays were about Biblical or mystical subjects, often in the form of Talmudic parables. During the post-Emancipation period in 19th-century Europe, many Jews translated great European plays such as those by Shakespeare, Molire and Schiller, giving the characters Jewish names and transplanting the plot and setting to within a Jewish context.

Modern Hebrew theatre and drama, however, began with the development of Modern Hebrew in Europe (the first Hebrew theatrical professional performance was in Moscow in 1918)[78] and was “closely linked with the Jewish national renaissance movement of the twentieth century. The historical awareness and the sense of primacy which accompanied the Hebrew theatre in its early years dictated the course of its artistic and aesthetic development”.[79] These traditions were soon transplanted to Israel. Playwrights such as Natan Alterman, Hayyim Nahman Bialik, Leah Goldberg, Ephraim Kishon, Hanoch Levin, Aharon Megged, Moshe Shamir, Avraham Shlonsky, Yehoshua Sobol and A. B. Yehoshua have written Hebrew-language plays. Themes that are obviously common in these works are the Holocaust, the Arab-Israeli conflict, the meaning of Jewishness, and contemporary secular-religious tensions within Jewish Israel. The most well-known Hebrew theatre company and Israel’s national theatre is the Habima (meaning “the stage” in Hebrew), which was formed in 1913 in Lithuania, and re-established in 1917 in Russia; another prominent Israeli theatre company is the Cameri Theatre, which is “Israel’s first and leading repertory theatre”.[80]

In the era when Yiddish theatre was still a major force in the world of theatre, over 100 films were made in Yiddish. Many are now lost. Prominent films included Shulamith (1931), the first Yiddish musical on film His Wife’s Lover (1931), A Daughter of Her People (1932), the anti-Nazi film The Wandering Jew (1933), The Yiddish King Lear (1934), Shir Hashirim (1935), the biggest Yiddish film hit of all time Yidl Mitn Fidl (1936), Where Is My Child? (1937), Green Fields (1937), Dybuk (1937), The Singing Blacksmith (1938), Tevya (1939), Mirele Efros (1939), Lang ist der Weg (1948), and God, Man and Devil (1950).

The roster of Jewish entrepreneurs in the English-language American film industry is legendary: Samuel Goldwyn, Louis B. Mayer, the Warner Brothers, David O. Selznick, Marcus Loew, and Adolph Zukor, Fox to name just a few, and continuing into recent times with such industry giants as super-agent Michael Ovitz, Michael Eisner, Lew Wasserman, Jeffrey Katzenberg, Steven Spielberg, and David Geffen. However, few of these brought a specifically Jewish sensibility either to the art of film or, with the sometime exception of Spielberg, to their choice of subject matter. The historian Eric Hobsbawm described the situation as follows:[81]

It would be … pointless to look for consciously Jewish elements in the songs of Irving Berlin or the Hollywood movies of the era of the great studios, all of which were run by immigrant Jews: their object, in which they succeeded, was precisely to make songs or films which found a specific expression for 100 per cent Americanness.

A more specifically Jewish sensibility can be seen in the films of the Marx Brothers, Mel Brooks, or Woody Allen; other examples of specifically Jewish films from the Hollywood film industry are the Barbra Streisand vehicle Yentl (1983), or John Frankenheimer’s The Fixer (1968).

The first radio chains, the Radio Corporation of America and the Columbia Broadcasting System, were created by the Jewish-American David Sarnoff and William S. Paley, respectively. These Jewish innovators were also among the first producers of televisions, both black-and-white and color.[82] Among the Jewish immigrant communities of America there was also a thriving Yiddish language radio, with its “golden age” from the 1930s to the 1950s.

Although there is little specifically Jewish television in the United States (National Jewish Television, largely religious, broadcasts only three hours a week), Jews have been involved in American television from its earliest days. From Sid Caesar and Milton Berle to Joan Rivers, Gilda Radner, and Andy Kaufman to Billy Crystal to Jerry Seinfeld, Jewish stand-up comedians have been icons of American television. Other Jews that held a prominent role in early radio and television were Eddie Cantor, Al Jolson, Jack Benny, Walter Winchell and David Susskind. More figures are Larry King, Michael Savage and Howard Stern. In the analysis of Paul Johnson, “The Broadway musical, radio and TV were all examples of a fundamental principle in Jewish diaspora history: Jews opening up a completely new field in business and culture, a tabula rasa on which to set their mark, before other interests had a chance to take possession, erect guild or professional fortifications and deny them entry.”[83]

One of the first televised situation comedies, The Goldbergs was set in a specifically Jewish milieu in the Bronx. While the overt Jewish milieu of The Goldbergs was unusual for an American television series, there were a few other examples, such as Brooklyn Bridge (19911993) and Bridget Loves Bernie. Jews have also played an enormous role among the creators and writers of television comedies: Woody Allen, Mel Brooks, Selma Diamond, Larry Gelbart, Carl Reiner, and Neil Simon all wrote for Sid Caesar; Reiner’s son Rob Reiner worked with Norman Lear on All in the Family (which often engaged anti-semitism and other issues of prejudice); Larry David and Jerry Seinfeld created the hit sitcom Seinfeld, Lorne Michaels, Al Franken, Rosie Shuster, and Alan Zweibel of Saturday Night Live breathed new life into the variety show in the 1970s.

More recently, American Jews have been instrumental to “novelistic” television series such as The Wire and The Sopranos. Variously acclaimed as one of the greatest television series of all time, The Wire was created by David Simon. Simon also served as executive producer, head writer, and show runner. Matthew Weiner produced the fifth and sixth seasons of The Sopranos and later created Mad Men. More remarkable contributors are David Benioff and D. B. Weiss, creators of Game of Thrones TV series; Ron Leavitt co-creator of Married… with Children; Damon Lindelof and J. J. Abrams, co-creators of Lost; David Crane and Marta Kauffman, creators of Friends; Tim Kring creator of Heroes; Sydney Newman co-creator of Doctor Who; Darren Star, creator Sex and the City and Melrose Place; Aaron Spelling co-creator of Beverly Hills, 90210; Chuck Lorre, co-creator of The Big Bang Theory and Two and a Half Men; Gideon Raff, creator of Prisoners of War which Homeland is based on; Aaron Ruben and Sheldon Leonard co-creators of The Andy Griffith Show; Don Hewitt creator of 60 Minutes; Garry Shandling, co-creator of The Larry Sanders Show; Ed. Weinberger, co-creator of The Cosby Show; David Milch, creator of Deadwood; Steven Levitan, co-creator of Modern Family; Dick Wolf, creator of Law & Order; David Shore, creator House; Max Mutchnick and David Kohan creators of Will & Grace. There is also a significant role of Jews in acting by actors such as Sarah Jessica Parker, William Shatner, Leonard Nimoy, Mila Kunis, Zac Efron, Hank Azaria, David Duchovny, Fred Savage, Zach Braff, Noah Wyle, Adam Brody, Katey Sagal, Sarah Michelle Gellar, Alyson Hannigan, Michelle Trachtenberg, David Schwimmer, Lisa Kudrow and Mayim Bialik.

Jewish musical contributions also tend to reflect the cultures of the countries in which Jews live, the most notable examples being classical and popular music in the United States and Europe. (See: Jews in Classical Music and Jews in Mainstream and Jazz). Some music, however, is unique to particular Jewish communities, such as Israeli music, Israeli Folk music, Klezmer, Sephardic and Ladino music, and Mizrahi music.

Deriving from Biblical traditions, Jewish dance has long been used by Jews as a medium for the expression of joy and other communal emotions. Each Jewish diasporic community developed its own dance traditions for wedding celebrations and other distinguished events. For Ashkenazi Jews in Eastern Europe, for example, dances, whose names corresponded to the different forms of klezmer music that were played, were an obvious staple of the wedding ceremony of the shtetl. Jewish dances both were influenced by surrounding Gentile traditions and Jewish sources preserved over time. “Nevertheless the Jews practiced a corporeal expressive language that was highly differentiated from that of the non-Jewish peoples of their neighborhood, mainly through motions of the hands and arms, with more intricate legwork by the younger men.”[84] In general, however, in most religiously traditional communities, members of the opposite sex dancing together or dancing at times other than at these events was frowned upon.

Jewish humor is the long tradition of humor in Judaism dating back to the Torah and the Midrash, but generally refers to the more recent stream of verbal, frequently self-deprecating and often anecdotal humor originating in Eastern Europe. Jewish humor took root in the United States over the last hundred years, beginning with vaudeville, and continuing through radio, stand-up, film, and television. A significant number of American comedians have been or are Jewish.[citation needed]

Compared to music or theater, there is less of a specifically Jewish tradition in the visual arts. The most likely and accepted reason is that, as has been previously shown with Jewish music and literature, before Emancipation Jewish culture was dominated by the religious tradition of aniconism. As most Rabbinical authorities believed that the Second Commandment prohibited much visual art that would qualify as “graven images”, Jewish artists were relatively rare until they lived in assimilated European communities beginning in the late 18th century.[85][86] It should be noted however, that despite fears by early religious communities of art being used for idolatrous purposes, Jewish sacred art is recorded in the Tanakh and extends throughout Jewish Antiquity and the Middle Ages.[87] The Tabernacle and the two Temples in Jerusalem form the first known examples of “Jewish art”. During the first centuries of the Common Era, Jewish religious art also was created in regions surrounding the Mediterranean such as Syria and Greece, including frescoes on the walls of synagogues, of which the Dura Europas Synagogue is the only survivor[88] as well as the Jewish catacombs in Rome.[89][90]

A Jewish tradition of illuminated manuscripts in at least Late Antiquity has left no survivors, but can be deduced from borrowings in Early Medieval Christian art. A number of luxury pieces of gold glass from the later Roman period have Jewish motifs. Several Hellenistic-style floor mosaics have also been excavated in synagogues from Late Antiquity in Israel and Palestine, especially of the signs of the Zodiac, which was apparently acceptable in a low-status position on the floor. Some, such as that at Naaran, show evidence of a reaction against images of living creatures around 600 CE. The decoration of sarcophagi and walls at the cave cemetery at Beit She’arim shows a mixture of Jewish and Hellenistic motifs. However, for a period of several centuries between about 700 and 1100 CE there are scarely any survivals of identifiably Jewish art.

Middle Age Rabbinical and Kabbalistic literature also contain textual and graphic art, most famously illuminated haggadahs such as the Sarajevo Haggadah, and other manuscripts like the Nuremberg Mahzor. Some of these were illustrated by Jewish artists and some by Christians; equally some Jewish artists and craftsmen in various media worked on Christian commissions.[92] Johnson again summarizes this sudden change from a limited participation by Jews in visual art (as in many other arts) to a large movement by them into this branch of European cultural life:

Again, the arrival of the Jewish artist was a strange phenomenon. It is true that, over the centuries, there had been many animals (though few humans) depicted in Jewish art: lions on Torah curtains, owls on Judaic coins, animals on the Capernaum capitals, birds on the rim of the fountain-basis in the 5th century Naro synagogue in Tunis; there were carved animals, too, on timber synagogues in eastern Europe – indeed the Jewish wood-carver was the prototype of the modern Jewish plastic artist. A book of Yiddish folk-ornament, printed at Vitebsk in 1920, was similar to Chagall’s own bestiary. But the resistance of pious Jews to portraying the living human image was still strong at the beginning of the 20th century.[93]

There were few Jewish secular artists in Europe prior to the Emancipation that spread throughout Europe with the Napoleonic conquests. There were exceptions, and Salomon Adler was a prominent portrait painter in 18th century Milan. The delay in participation in the visual arts parallels the lack of Jewish participation in European classical music until the nineteenth century, and which was progressively overcome with the rise of Modernism in the 20th century. There were many Jewish artists in the 19th century, but Jewish artistic activity boomed during the end of World War I. The Jewish artistic Renaissance has its roots in the 1901 Fifth Zionist Congress, which included an art exhibition featuring Jewish artists E.M. Lilien and Hermann Struck. The exhibition helped legitimize art as an expression of Jewish culture.[94] According to Nadine Nieszawer, “Until 1905, Jews were always plunged into their books but from the first Russian Revolution, they became emancipated, committed themselves in politics and became artists. A real Jewish cultural rebirth”.[95] Individual Jews figured in the modern artistic movements of Europe With the exception of those living in isolated Jewish communities, most Jews listed here as contributing to secular Jewish culture also participated in the cultures of the peoples they lived with and nations they lived in. In most cases, however, the work and lives of these people did not exist in two distinct cultural spheres but rather in one that incorporated elements of both.

During the early 20th century Jews figured particularly prominently in the Montparnasse movement, and after World War II among the abstract expressionists: Alexander Bogen, Helen Frankenthaler, Adolph Gottlieb, Philip Guston, Al Held, Lee Krasner, Barnett Newman, Milton Resnick, Jack Tworkov, Mark Rothko, and Louis Schanker as well as among Contemporary artists, Modernists and Postmodernists.[96] Many Russian Jews were prominent in the art of scenic design, particularly the aforementioned Chagall and Aronson, as well as the revolutionary Lon Bakst, who like the other two also painted. One Mexican Jewish artist was Pedro Friedeberg; historians disagree as to whether Frida Kahlo’s father was Jewish or Lutheran. Gustav Klimt was not Jewish, but nearly all of his patrons and several of his models were. Among major artists Chagall may be the most specifically Jewish in his themes. But as art fades into graphic design, Jewish names and themes become more prominent: Leonard Baskin, Al Hirschfeld, Ben Shahn, Art Spiegelman and Saul Steinberg.

Jews have also played a very important role in medias other than painting; in photography some notable figures are Andr Kertsz, Robert Frank, Helmut Newton, Garry Winogrand, Cindy Sherman, Steve Lehman,[97] and Adi Nes; in installation art and street art some notable figures are Sigalit Landau,[98]Dede,[99] and Michal Rovner.

Graphic art, as expressed in the art of comics, has been a key field for Jewish artists as well. In the Golden and Silver ages of American comic books, the Jewish role was overwhelming and large number of the medium’s foremost creators have been Jewish.[100]

Max Gaines was a pioneering figure in the creation of the modern comic book when in 1935 he published the first one called Famous Funnies.[101] In 1939 he founded, with Jack Liebowitz and Harry Donenfeld, All-American Publications (the AA Group).[102] The publication is known for the creation of several superheroes such as the original Atom, Flash, Green Lantern, Hawkman, and Wonder Woman. Donenfeld and Liebowitz were also the owners of National Allied Publications which distributed Detective Comics and Action Comics. That company was also a precursor of DC Comics.

In 1939 the pulp magazine publisher Martin Goodman formed Timely Publications,[103] a company to be known, since the 1960s, as Marvel Comics. At Marvel, Artists such as Stan Lee, Jack Kirby,[104]Larry Lieber and Joe Simon created a large variety of characters and cultural icons including Spider-Man, Hulk, Captain America, Iron Man, Thor, Daredevil, and the teams Fantastic Four, Avengers, X-Men (including many of its characters) and S.H.I.E.L.D.. Stan Lee attributed the Jewish role in comics to the Jewish culture.[105]

At DC Comics Jewish role was significant as well; the character of Superman, which was created by the Jewish artists Joe Shuster and Jerry Siegel,[100] is partly based on the biblical figure of Samson.[106] It was also suggested the Superman is partly influenced by Moses,[107][108] and other Jewish elements. More at DC Comics are Bob Kane, Bill Finger and Martin Nodell, creators of Green Lantern, Batman[100] and many related characters as Robin, The Joker, Riddler, Scarecrow and Catwoman; Gil Kane, co-creator of Atom and Iron Fist. Many of those involved in the later ages of comics are also Jewish, such as Julius Schwartz, Joe Kubert, Jenette Kahn, Len Wein, Peter David, Neil Gaiman, Chris Claremont and Brian Michael Bendis. There is also a large amount of Jewish characters among comics superheroes such as Magneto, Quicksilver, Kitty Pryde, The thing, Sasquatch, Sabra, Ragman, Legion and Moon Knight, of whom were and are influenced by events in Jewish history and elements of Jewish life.[109]

In 1944 Max Gaines founded EC Comics.[110] The company is known for specializing in horror fiction, crime fiction, satire, military fiction and science fiction from the 1940s through the mid-1950s, notably the Tales from the Crypt series, The Haunt of Fear, The Vault of Horror, Crime SuspenStories and Shock SuspenStories. Jewish artists that are associated with the publisher include Al Feldstein, Dave Berg, and Jack Kamen.

Will Eisner was an American cartoonist and was known as one of the earliest cartoonists to work in the American comic book industry. He is the creator of the Spirit comics series and the graphic novel A Contract with God.[111] The Eisner Award was named in his honor, and is given to recognize achievements each year in the comics medium.

In 1952, William Gaines and Harvey Kurtzman founded Mad, an American humor magazine. It was widely imitated and influential, affecting satirical media as well as the cultural landscape of the 20th century, with editor Al Feldstein increasing readership to more than two million during its 1970s circulation peak.[112] Other known cartoonists are Lee Falk creator of The Phantom and Mandrake the Magician; The Hebrew comics of Michael Netzer creator of Uri-On and Uri Fink creator of Zbeng!; William Steig, creator of Shrek!; Daniel Clowes, creator of Eightball; Art Spiegelman creator of graphic novel Maus and Raw (with Franoise Mouly).

In Animation, Jewish animators role is expressed by many: Genndy Tartakovsky is the creator of several animation TV series such as Dexter’s Laboratory and Samurai Jack;[113]Matt Stone co-creator of South Park; David Hilberman who helped animate Bambi and Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs; Friz Freleng, Loony Tunes; Ralph Bakshi, Fritz the Cat, Mighty Mouse: The New Adventures, Wizards, The Lord of the Rings, Heavy Traffic, Coonskin, Hey Good Lookin’, Fire and Ice, and Cool World;[114]Alex Hirsch, creator of Gravity Falls; Dave Fleischer and Lou Fleischer, founders of Fleischer Studios; Max Fleischer, animation of Betty Boop, Popeye and Superman. Several companies producing animation were founded by Jews, such as DreamWorks, which its products include Shrek, Madagascar, Kung Fu Panda and The Prince of Egypt; Warner Bros., which its animation division is known for cartoons such as Loony Tunes, Tiny Toon Adventures, Animaniacs, Pinky and the Brain and Freakazoid! .

Jewish cooking combines the food of many cultures in which Jews have settled, including Middle Eastern, Mediterranean, Spanish, German and Eastern European styles of cooking, all influenced by the need for food to be kosher. Thus, “Jewish” foods like bagels, hummus, stuffed cabbage, and blintzes all come from various other cultures. The amalgam of these foods, plus uniquely Jewish contributions like tzimmis, cholent, gefilte fish and matzah balls, make up Jewish cuisine.

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Jewish culture – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Judaism Origins, Judaism History, Judaism Beliefs – Patheos

Posted By on January 22, 2016

Formed c. 2000 B.C.E. Origin Canaan Followers 14,000,000 Deity God (monotheistic) Sacred Texts Torah, Tanakh (Hebrew scriptures), Talmud Headquarters None

Judaism is a religious tradition with origins dating back nearly four thousand years, rooted in the ancient near eastern region of Canaan (which is now Israel and Palestinian territories). Originating as the beliefs and practices of the people known as “Israel,” classical, or rabbinic, Judaism did not emerge until the 1st century C.E. Judaism traces its heritage to the covenant God made with Abraham and his lineage that God would make them a sacred people and give them a holy land. The primary figures of Israelite culture include the patriarchs Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and the prophet Moses, who received God’s law at Mt. Sinai. Judaism is a tradition grounded in the religious, ethical, and social laws as they are articulated in the Torah the first five books of the Hebrew Bible. Jews refer to the Bible as the Tanakh, an acronym for the texts of the Torah, Prophets, and Writings. Other sacred texts include the Talmud and Midrash, the rabbinic, legal, and narrative interpretations of the Torah. The contemporary branches of Judaism differ in their interpretations and applications of these texts. The four main movements within Judaism today are Orthodox, Conservative, Reform, and Reconstructionist, respectively ranging from traditional to liberal to religiously progressive in their application of Torah. While diverse in their views, Jews continue to be unified on the basis of their common connection to a set of sacred narratives expressing their relationship with God as a holy people. Judaism tends to emphasize practice over belief. Jewish worship is centered in synagogues, which completely replaced the Second Temple after its destruction in 70 C.E. Jewish religious leaders are called rabbis, who oversee the many rituals and ceremonies essential to Jewish religious practice.

Quick Fact Details:

Quick Fact Sources include http://www.adherents.com, http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion, The Oxford Handbook of Global Religions (2006), The Encyclopedia of Religion (2005), the Religious Movements Page at the University of Virginia, The Cambridge Illustrated History of Religions (2002), and the Encyclopedia of World Religions (1999).

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Judaism Origins, Judaism History, Judaism Beliefs – Patheos

Leo Frank Lynching Photos: The Leo Frank Lynch Party …

Posted By on January 22, 2016

The Abduction Site: Milledgeville Prison

On August 16, 1915, nearly two months after the June 21, 1915, commutation, Leo M. Frank was abducted from prison by a group of men from the State of Georgias highest social, legal, and political strata. They anointed themselves as the Knights of Mary Phagan. After droving Frank 175 miles to Cobb County at the edge of Marietta, they lynched him near an intersection at Sheriff William Freys Gin. A mature oak tree helped fulfill the most perfectly executed slow strangulation lynching of Leo M. Frank, just after the crisp dawn dew kissed a glorious rising sun on the horizon, bathing golden sunshine on Tuesday morning, August 17, 1915. This event would lead to the rebirth of the Ku Klux Klan on Thanksgiving Midnight 1915 at Stone Mountain where they burned a cross. The Anti-Defamation League, whose leaders aggressively push their racist anti-Gentile agenda on the individual countries of Western Civilization, was galvanized by their patron martyrs lynching that fateful day.

The noose was the favorite murder apparatus of choice, utilized by vigilante lynch mobs against criminals, for picture-framing their terror, and as a result, the image of the noose hanging by itself became the ultimate warning symbol for not only deterring crime, but eliciting fear in law-abiding citizens to not step out of line.

Grotesque, Uncivilized, and Extrajudicial Justice: The History of Vigilante Lynching

Introduction to a Lynching Unlike Any Other Lynching in U.S. history, Fulfilled on August 17, 1915, 7:17 a.m. at Sheriff William J. Freys Gin in Marietta, Cobb County, Georgia

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Within the context of more than 4,000 extrajudicial lynchings occurring across the United States throughout its complex history, the average textbook lynch mob was typically formed at a moments notice by an agglomeration of local men, often whipped up into a fevered pitch of rage over an incident or behavior requiring widespread swift extinguishment. The vigilante mob usually formed to mete out justice over some kind of a violent crime, like robbery, rape, assault, or murder. If a Negro committed the crime, the punishment would sometimes be escalated to highest levels of savagery. Some of the incidents many Negroes were lynched for were not always violent, like a Negro whistling or flirting with a white girl or wild talking (jibber jabbering).

The typical lynch party as described above was unlike the highly irregular lynch party formed to deliver vigilante-style justice to Leo Frank.

One of the Highest Level Lynch Parties in Georgia History

The High-Level Elite Lynch Party (HELP) was a rare event in Southern history. HELP was carefully organized over a much longer time periods of weeks and months, instead of the typical lynch party whipped up at a moments notice. Participants of the Elite Lynch Party were prominent men with an intelligence factor one to two standard deviations above average, usually successful members and leaders in the greater community, from politicians, lawyers, judges, businessmen, and even an ex-governor, to skilled tradesmen, like expert electricians and mechanics. These skilled and educated men all played critical and specific roles in the commando-style Operation Leo Frank.HELP was highly motivated, unlike the idle lynch party spectators acting as cheerleaders and mob-rage fluffers.

The Knights of Mary Phagan and the Second Incarnation of the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) 1915

The High-Level Elite Lynching Party, who abducted Leo M. Frank in one of the most audacious prison breaks in U.S. history, anointed themselves as the Knights of Mary Phagan. The Elite Lynching Party formed because the outgoing Governor John Marshal Slaton broke his oath to uphold the Constitution of the United States of America and the Honor for the State of Georgia, commuting the sentence of his own law client Leo M. Frank from death to life in prison. The commutation was considered a gross conflict of interest by the elite of Georgian citizenry and the public at large because at the time of the Leo Frank clemency hearings, held during the Spring of 1915, Governor John M. Slaton, had prior been made a full senior legal partner and part owner of the law firm that had represented Leo M. Frank at his (July 28 to August 26, 1913) capital murder trial and many of his appeals (1913 to 1915). The firm was called Rosser, Brandon, Slaton and Phillips, and according to affidavits in the 1,800 page Georgia Supreme Court Case File on Leo Frank, Governor John M. Slaton had been associated with the bribery and criminal witness tampering against National Pencil Factory employees who had testified against Leo Frank. The Leo Frank Georgia Supreme Court Records were finally released to the public on April 26, 2013, at the Internet Archive.

The Law Firm of Luther Zeigler Rosser, Morris Brandon (Jewish), John Marshal Slaton, and Benjamin Phillips (Jewish) was merged and officially born July 13, 1913, becoming Rosser, Brandon, Slaton and Phillips.

Many people were of the opinion that because Governor John M. Slaton was a senior law partner and part owner of the law firm representing Leo Frank at his murder trial and appeals, that it disqualified Governor John M. Slaton from being able to render a clemency decision on the sentencing of Leo Frank after the trial. Moreover, what sent the population of Georgia into a fever pitch over the Leo Frank affair was that in the twenty-nine-page commutation order released to the public by John M. Slaton, where he stated he was not disturbing the verdict of the jury, but sustaining the trial judge, jury, and two years of appellate decisions by every level of the United States legal system. It was as if the governor was acknowledging Franks guilt and rebuked the false accusations of anti-Semitism, while saving the life of his client for a heinous crime of sexual violence and strangulation.

Most people interpreted Governor Slatons clemency decision, reading between the lines, that the governor was affirming Leo Franks guilt, as every appellate tribunal had done from 1913 to 1915, and later from 1982 to 1986, when the Georgia Board of Pardons and Paroles refused to disturb the verdict of the jury.

Meet Judge Lynch

The Lynch Party was known as Judge Lynch in early 20th and 19th century Southern parlance. Historically for conservatives, lynching was the unofficial wing within the system of checks and balances in a society that required swift justice for rapists. For progressives, lynching was the unlawful assembly of outraged local men coming into a critical mass for administering unlawful and extrajudicial vigilante justice, often at a moments notice and alcohol fueled, thus adding levels to the savagery of it.

The opinion of lynching has changed over the decades and generations of U.S. history. In the 17th through the early 20th century, lynching was considered more acceptable as a swift form of justice, where dissenters against lynching were more likely in the quiet minority.

Many people today in polite civilized society find it cruel and unusual punishment, while others still consider it to be the best form of retribution. Then, there is everyone else in between who takes a different perspective on it depending on the circumstances. However, the real and indisputable problem with lynching is that sometimes the wrong person was lynched.

The progressive visionary and prescient governor Hugh M. Dorsey used his political power and politesse to help put an end to this ancient and savage form of mob injustice, retiring Judge Lynch from his tree house bench. In modern times, except during times of revolution, lynching is very rare.

How would the 1915 lynching have been different had Leo Frank been a Negro instead of a white man?

Had Leo Frank been black instead of white, his bland, generic lynching might have been conducted differently and on a much crueler level.

The Lynching Reserved for Negroes

A very special kind of lynching was always reserved for the most heinous of black rapists vs. white ones. Lets pretend Leo Frank was African-American. For a hypothetical Negro Leo Frank rapist caught by a white lynch mob, first, he would have received a righteous Southern beating until temporary unconsciousness with some of the major bones broken or fractured. Once awakened again into consciousness with a rope around his neck, utilizing rusty farm tools, the Negro Leo Frank would have received genital amputation surgery with no anesthesia, instead of being allowed to keep his family jewels as a white man. It was a very messy process.

After the surgery below the belt, the hypothetical Negro Leo Frank, made into a eunuch, would be quickly lynched before he could bleed out. Not to be confused with hanging, the lynching means being strangled in midair with a noose hoisted over a tree branch. Before the suspended body of the hypothetical Negro Leo Frank could pass out from the blood loss and strangulation from the noose, he would have been riddled with bullets after a makeshift bonfire under him were set aflame. That was how Negro rapists of white women were dealt with one hundred years ago, and the remains of that terror were left behind as a powerful symbolic image for the Negro population to discover and explore mentally. From such a gruesome scene, shock waves reverberated long after the event and acted as the most powerful and effective deterrent for keeping interracial rape to a minimum. In modern times, there are more than 30,000 reported black on white interracial rapes, and with only a fraction of the victims reporting the incidents, the real numbers are in the six figures.

Leo Frank the White Man

Leo Frank being a prominent white man tended to ensure that he kept his genitals and also he did not have his body defiled with gunshots and a campfire. It also meant that after Leo was cleaned up and embalmed at P. J. Bloomfields in Atlanta on Tuesday morning, August 17, 1915, he could be appropriately shipped to Brooklyn without stinking up the transport cabins during the hot, sticky two-day train ride for a weeping Lucille Selig traveling from Atlanta up North to Pennsylvania Station, Manhattan. Together Leo and Lucille left terminal station in Atlanta, Georgia on August 17, 1915, to Penn Station in Manhattan, arriving on August 19, at 6:20 a.m., and meeting with the Frank family (New York Times, August, 1915).

The Cruel Missing Ingredient to Cruel Historical Lynching

Sodomy in its broad definition was a crime punishable by death back in early 20th century Georgia. Hypothetically only adding modern (20th and 21st century) prison gang rape, as an addition to the historical lynch mob process against the alleged rapists caught, as a stage before the genital amputation surgery, would have been crueler back in 1915.

The bottom line, lynching in all of its forms, for any reason, then or now, is absolutely savage and inhuman to the core of human existence. Today, the new form of lynching is the unlawful punishment meted out for convicted criminals in the United States, especially for rapists, which is often sexual assault, rape, and sodomy in prison. Today, however, more than 200,000 nonviolent convict inmates in the United States a year are sexually assaulted in prison (SPR.org, 2011). How are we a less savage society one hundred years after the lynching of Leo Max Frank?

Gang Rape for Rapists in 2013 vs. Lynching for Rapists in 1913

The deterrent against rape in modern times applies nearly exclusively to whites, not blacks or Hispanics. In most U.S. prisons that are overcrowded and overpopulated with gangs of the black and Hispanic variety, the result is that whites are significantly outnumbered and marginalized, even if they have their own gangs. Even white gangs and individual white gang members have less power in prisons than the more numerous black and Hispanic gangs that dwarf them in membership. Today, blacks or Hispanics who rape white women and are later caught and convicted are not necessarily raped in prison. Sometimes, they are taken in as heroes by the black and Hispanic gangs who often see their violent actions as the revolutionary trampling of white society and heritage. Today in modern times, mostly white convicted criminals, of all offenses major or minor, are often repeatedly beaten and gang raped in U.S. prisons. The website http://www.SPR.org indicates that interracial prison rape is 99% black on white.

Regardless of the crime even if rape is subjecting someone to gang rape not just as cruel as subjecting someone to unlawful lynching? How far in terms of becoming a more civilized society have we really come one hundred years after the lynching of Leo Frank in 1915? That we allowed more than 200,000 of our nations prisoners a year to be raped, sodomized, or sexually assaulted is an indication our society has descended far below the society we had one hundred years ago.

Inhuman Lynching vs. State-Sponsored Murder by Hanging: Is There a Difference?

People often confuse unlawful lynching with lawful hanging. Lynching involves a slow strangulation execution similar to hanging, but without the neck being broken in the process (as it is in a hanging).

Hanging vs. Lynching

Hanging is the kind of official judicial execution prescribed in a bureaucratic fashion, where the staged principals (Noosee) neck is snugly fitted with a specially created adjustable knotted loop made from a 3/4 inch manilla rope. The sliding loop is called a noose, and is typically fashioned at the end of a long slack rope attached to a fixed device at the other end.

When the mounted Noosee on a high stage falls through a swinging-hinged trapdoor, the down falling body accelerates based on the physics of body weight and the distance to the ground. The carefully measured slack rope eventually shifts from a loose state to taut, the neck breaks because of cervical vertebrae disconnection against the accelerating and descending body coming to an abrupt jerking stop when the slack rope becomes fully tight.

Lynching vs. Hanging

Lynching was more about strangling someone in midair against their own body weight, which often involved a dance, as the victim kicked, twisted, and jerked, before becoming unconscious from the lack of oxygen to the brain. In a hanging, the neck was broken, and the individual went into shock as the brain could no longer communicate with the rest of the body. Death was usually swift, but in a lynching the individual died in a much slower struggle as a result of oxygen deprivation causing brain damage. Leo Frank died of brain damage.

Lynching was about unlawful acts of extrajudicial murder through a hanging strangulation, by ensuring the rope length was not slack enough to cause vertebrae disconnection, thereby taking longer to kill the principal in rare cases up to thirty minutes. Both lynching and hanging are equally cruel, one slightly more than the other by a matter of minutes. In a truly civilized society, capital punishment would be replaced with life in prison without parole.

Is 1913 Lynching More of a Deterrent than Gang Rape in 2013 for Rapists?

In the years prior to the early 20th century, historically speaking, lynching effectively deterred rape and kept its numbers checked to a minimum, despite being inhumane.

Rape

Occurring every year in the United States of America and its territories, in modern times, the number of reported and unreported rapes is estimated to exceed 30,000 and 100,000, respectively. One cannot help but wonder how those rape statistics would change if ongoing convicted rapists, having exhausted all their appeals, were publicly hanged on the 17th day of August every year. Take that referendum to the voters and cash it.

Photograph archived at the Library of Congress. Leo Frank was lynched at 7:17 a.m., August 17, 1915. This photo was taken later that morning after word had gotten out to the public about what happened and numerous people flocked to Freys Gin running on foot, peddling on bike, galloping on horse, and rolling in Model-Ts, creating a critical mass of spectators.

The August 17, 1915, Lynching Location of Leo M. Frank: Cobb County, Georgia

Multifunctional, zoomable, and modern aerial map of the approximate location of the Leo Frank lynching on August 17, 1915: http://www.wikimapia.org/#lat=33.9506291&lon=-84.5168781&z=19&l=0&m=b

The August 20, 1915, Final Burial Location of an Embalmed Leo M. Frank: Glendale, Queens, NYC

Multifunctional, zoomable, and modern aerial maps of the approximate location of the Leo M. Frank burial site, interred on August 20, 1915: http://toolserver.org/~geohack/geohack.php?pagename=Leo_Frank&params=40.694_N_-73.882_E_

Reflections of One Hundred Years on the Lynching of Leo M. Frank, August 17, 1915: at 7:17 a.m.

The Jewish Hollywood Freak Show Version

For the Jews, Leo Frank Revisionists, and Leo Frank Partisans (known collectively as Frankites), who keep churning out lies, dishonest propaganda, and rewriting history in an effort to quench their collective and insatiable Jewish egomania, PRESENTS: The melodramatic, Hollywood, and dramatized version of the Leo Frank lynch party invitation. The invitation should be read out loud by a big fat booger-eating hillbilly farmer in manure-stained overalls, with rotting, blackened, and missing teeth, a pitch fork in one hand, and a torch in the other, saying something like this (please use an exaggerated and very slow Southern accent and drawl while speaking out loud):

Hear Yee, hear Yee. You iz invited to the anti-Jooish Leo Frank lynch party. Come August 16th and 17th, dusk to dawn! Dont be late or you will be left behind. Pre-party meet up at high noon August 16, secret location point in Marietta to be announced later. Tailgate party leaving for Milledgeville Prison leaves at high noon. Good ole boy round up in Milledgeville. Kickoff at 10:00 p.m. at the gates of the Milledgeville Prison. After the abduction of the de-horned Jew, there will be a moonlight Model-T tailgate party to the final destination near Marietta at the Fork of Freys Gin. Final party preparations at sunrise, 7:00 a.m., is the main event, so BE THERE or BE SQUARE. No cussing. No alcohol. This is a dry party after all, though we will be serving moonshine and Coca-Cola at the after party. Proper dress is required. Please bring your clean white sheets and robes. Special after party location at Stone Mountain with bonfire and cross burning to be announced before we leave Freys Gin. We still need torches, rope, small table, and peanut butter. Please RSVP to both Tom Watson and Hugh Dorsey.

The Southern Perspective

For Southerners, the August 17, 1915, lynching of Leo Frank was not a Jewish Hollywood freak show, nor was it about what Elaine Marie Alphin claims were Southern opinions about innocent Jewish blood being more worthy than guilty negro blood to pay for a dead girl. Despite more than one hundred years of Jewish propaganda flat out lying to the public by misrepresenting the truth, with books, dramatized works, and treatments like the Jewish fictionalized docudrama, People vs Leo Frank, 2009, the Jewish propaganda miniseries, Murder of Mary Phagan, 1987, and the Jewish Broadway musical, Parade, which all paint the picture of the Leo Frank trial and lynching to be a vast anti-Jewish conspiracy and the ultimate bamboozling of the entire United States Legal System by a semi-literate bumbling Negro janitor named Jim Conley.

For Southerners and the elite men who carried out the judge and jurys collective thirteen-man unanimous verdict guilty as charged, with no recommendation of mercy, signed and delivered properly fulfilled, the lynching was a painfully somber and terribly depressing event that reminded the party of fathers of an unchangeable truth about the unnecessary and tragic loss of a child. Its irreversible.

The lynching of Leo Max Frank was no Jewsmedia booger-eating hillbilly affair by a mob of drunken revelers and redneck yahoos whipped up on a moments notice into an alcohol-fueled frenzy of outrage and revenge. It was, instead, an extrajudicial execution done with the slow careful planning and cold calculating bureaucratic manners of the most powerful, educated, and prominent men in the State of Georgia.

At 7:10 a.m. on August 17, 1915, Leo Frank was hoisted onto a small table by four men, two on either side of him to ensure he was steady. One of the lynchers, a former state judge, read aloud a statement for all the lynch party members present to hear.

First, the judge read the verdict of the jury, originally delivered on August 25, 1913, which included no recommendation of mercy, and then he read the death sentence prescribing hanging ordered by the Judge Leonard Strickland Roan (deceased), which was originally delivered August 26, 1913. Finally, he read the short and abridged versions of the decisions from the higher appeals courts (1913 to 1915).

Because many of the lynchers were fathers with young sons and daughters, even with the lynching of Leo Frank fulfilled to serve the verdict and death sentence sustained by the entire United States Legal System, they knew with Leos flawless execution, Mary Phagan could never be brought back, a little girl lost in the spring of her life. There was something very unsatisfying about the whole event, despite the perceived illusion of legitimacy.

Leo Frank and Racial Awakening to the Jewish Question

For many people, black and white alike, the Leo Frank case was a powerful racial awakening about the fanatical tribalism historically and genetically innate in Jews, because the lynching wasnt actually about bigotry, prejudice, media frenzies, or anti-Semitism. Those pejoratives were then and are today false accusations. The slanders come from members of the cultural terrorist religion of Judaism, the historical enemies of Gentile Western Civilization, forever living dysfunctionally and antagonistically within Gentile nations, and doing so in a parasite-host or virus-host paradigm.

For those who identify with being racially awake European-Americans, Christians, or Southerners, the lynching was really about delivering justice to a frustrated and violent sexual predator, a man whose wealthy and powerful tribal and racial kinsmen enabled him to nearly escape the verdict of the judge, jury, and majority decisions of every level of the United States Legal System.

Rosser, Brandon, Slaton, and Phillips

Always conveniently omitted by Leo Frank partisans is the fact Governor John M. Slaton was part owner of the law firm providing Frank a legal defense dream team. Also conveniently omitted, Slaton commuted his own law clients death sentence to life in prison. The commutation made many people who were never anti-Semitic think differently about Jews when they discovered how much money was raised nationally by Jews in defense of Leo Frank. That Jews would pay a governor to commute the death sentence of a child rapist revealed how much innate hate Jews had for non-Jews. Never in the history of the human race has any group of people invested more time, money, and energy in trying to free a man who pounded in the face of a little thirteen-year-old girl with his fists, before savagely raping and strangling her.

For many other people who considered Jews to be white, it was an awakening that perhaps Jews are different and not really white, even though they look white. It revealed to others that Jews are the most tribal, ethnocentric, and racially conscious group of people in the world, even to the extreme of defending a child rapist and convicted murderer who essentially made an incriminating statement at his own trial on August 18, 1913 (see the Leo Frank Murder Incriminating Statement, August 18, 1913).

For anti-Semites, the former Governor John M. Slaton was a man who sold out the people of Georgia and the Constitution of the United States of America for thirty shekels of Jewish silver.

What REALLY Happened on Confederate Memorial Day within the National Pencil Company at 12:02 p.m., Saturday, April 26, 1913?

In the shuttered and virtually empty National Pencil Factory on Confederate Memorial Day, Saturday, April 26, 1913, Mary Phagan tripped into the building lobby on the ground floor at noon and climbed the fourteen-foot stairway that had a platform part of the way up, and upon her arrival on the second floor, she walked toward the inner office of Leo Frank. She called out to collect her pay and asked Leo if the Metal had arrived yet. Marys question was referring to the brass that came in sheets that were processed into small eraser holders, which were wrapped around and partially hanging off the ends of individual final production pencils, before she inserted erasers into their empty casing using her knurling machine. She had toiled upon this machine for nearly eleven hours a day for the last thirteen months prior to her murder.

Even though Leo Frank knew the answer was, No, not yet, to the question Mary Phagan had posed to him, he instead tricked and inveigled her, immediately coaxing her to go with him to the metal room by saying, I dont know, (Harry Scott, BOE, August, 1913), to see if Mary would have her job back on Monday morning, April 28, 1913.

In the Metal Room

Using the little thirteen-year-old Irish girls job as a species of sexual coercion, there inside the metal room, the two of them completely alone, with the metal room door securely locked behind them, Leo Frank tested Mary as he had more girls than we will ever know. Leo Frank made his aggressive sexual advance unmistakeable, but this time it was unlike his more cautious lascivious pedophile pestering reported by nineteen fellow preteen and teenaged girl NPCo employees at the July 28 to August 26, 1913, murder trial.

Scorned, Frustrated, and Spurned

Now securely entrapped in the metal room at 12:03 p.m. on April 26, 1913, the thirteen-year-old Mary Phagan flat out refused for the final time the sexual propositions of the creepy bug-eyed bespectacled Jewish whoremonger with urine-brown stained teeth, telling him to take his filthy hands off her, but this time there was nowhere to run or hide from the spurned and embittered superintendent in the locked metal room. It was rape with no escape.

The little thirteen-year-old girl who had spurned the sexual advances of her boss for so long was about to get a little lesson from an infatuated, resentful, unsated, and frustrated little man who had grown tired of the little girls rejection.

A Heart-Pounding Moment of Terror

The situation took a wrong turn in these heart-pounding moments because the 411 and 120 lbs. Mary Phagan (Kean, 1987) was trapped (Brief of Evidence, Bolt Lock, States Exhibit A, 1913). Leo Frank, at 58 (Leo Frank passport application, 1908) nearly nine inches taller than her and 150 lbs. of solid lean muscle from years of college tennis and basketball (Cornell Yearbooks, 1902 to 1906), could now have his way with her and turn her out in that tantalizingly violent, ancient, and brutal way millions of young boys and girls of every race, religion, and creed throughout human history, in every corner of the world, have been so disturbingly turned out with such extreme cruelty. This scene was perhaps not necessarily so uncommon in early 20th century Atlanta as one is naturally repulsed to think. Many Jewish and Gentile Southern historians noted the brothels were often filled with former mill and factory girls not all of them voluntarily. Sometimes it required a little violence.

Detailed historical descriptions of the process of how white slavers converted young white girls into prostitutes had somewhat similar descriptions over the centuries. A girl was typically locked in a room, beaten unmercifully, and gang raped turned out. The rest was easy after that: lock her in a room while paying clients took their turns one after the other using the girl. After such a rough start for many of these girls, turning tricks became a normal way for these girls to make money, though most became STD infected and lived short lives due to the lifestyle of whiskey, drugs, cigarettes, and medical complications. It is nearly impossible for us in a civilized country as the United States to fathom such cruelty that went on in every major city of our nations past. However, this kind of sexual violence still goes on unabated to this day in second and third world countries.

Cherished Southern State Holiday

On that old Southern Confederate Memorial Day, April 26, 1913, given the implications of what happened in the metal room, the most extreme measures would be taken to ensure Mary Phagan could tell no one, for obvious reasons. Leo Frank was a high-profile member of the Jewish community, married into a prominent family, Bnai Brith president since 1912, and general superintendent of the NPCo from 1908 to 1913 with more than one hundred employees. When all things are considered, he really had no choice but to kill her, given the scandal and embarrassment if she lived to tell her parents and police what had happened to her, not to mention the fact that violent rapists were usually castrated with rusty farm tools without using anesthesia before they were lynched, followed by being riddled with bullets before being cut down and burned on a makeshift campfire. There was no mistaking these suppositions in a time when white men were fearless about exacting just punishment for violent pedophile murderers, not like the bitchass feminine coward white men today asexualized by a relentless civilization-murdering Jewsmedia run by the racially conscious members of the cultural terrorist ethno-religion of Judaism.

Saturday, April 26, 1913, 12:03 p.m., Leo Frank Exploded in a Flash of Anger inside the Metal Room

Frustrated by her countless rejections and in a sexually savage and grisly release, like a bucket of rocks falling from the sky, Leo Franks fists delivered a most cruelly violent and sadistic face pounding, slamming the back of little Mary Phagans head against the handle of the bench lathe, entangling it with a bloody tress of Phagans hair, which Robert P. Barret found the following Monday morning on April 28, 1913, and described at the coroners inquest (Coroners Inquest, May, 1913).

After Frank pounded Phagans eye black and blue and slammed her against the lathe handle, she fell unconscious on the floor. Leo Frank yanked up her dress, ripped open her underwear to the seam, delivered an especially degrading and sadistic rape, followed by a fist flexing garoting, as Leo Frank suffocated Mary Phagan. At the same time, Leo Frank reached his own psychosexual religious exultation and epiphany without ejaculating.

It wasnt enough what Leo Frank had done to her; the soul-disfiguring moment was that after having his personal pet Negro Jim Conley dump her out of the elevator in the basement, Leo Frank ordered the Step-and-Fetch-it (gone with the wind) to drag her from the entry of the basement elevator shaft all the way to the cellar furnace in the rear of the factory with the intimation of cremating her in the oven and destroying the evidence. The Pet Negro Jim Conley refused to stuff her in the oven chamber after he dragged her in front of it. Police later noted it would have been a difficult fit.

Leo Franks Orders, Defile the Corpse Beyond Recognition

At the behest of Leo M. Frank, Mary Phagan was dragged by her arms, face down, across the hard dirt floor of the basement from the elevator shaft to the cellar oven staging area 150 feet away. Her face was grated over the hard dirt floor and cinders, yet defense and prosecution doctors noted NO BLOOD came from the cuts, gashes, and slashes on her face from the dragging, proving she likely did not die in the basement. After dumping Phagan on a sawdust mound, Jim Conley reverently crossed her hands over her breast. It was another behavior clue that modern criminologists would describe as indicating Jim Conley likely did not kill the girl.

Forensic Evidence Reviewed One Hundred Years Later

Dragging Mary Phagans 411 and 120 lbs. body by the arms face down caused her once pretty face to grate over the hard dirt floor. It thus led her dead face to be pocked, cut, and scratched from the hard cinders, and because the scratches on her face didnt bleed, the physicians who gave Mary Phagan an autopsy believed she had been killed earlier and likely on a different floor. The fact her face did not bleed at all from the dragging scratches became part of the indisputable evidence she was likely not killed in the basement. This forensic evidence went hand in hand with the evidence the police discovered when they first went down to the basement April 27, 1913, and noticed drag marks starting from the entry of the basement elevator doorway. Without Jim Conley knowing about the evidence of the drag marks, his final affidavit corroborated what the police already knew.

The Ultimate Plot Within Plot Thickens

Once Leo Max Frank and his roustabout Jim Conley were back up in Leo Franks second-floor office lighting sulfur matches, smoking fags, and ruminating, Leo Frank formulated one of the most outrageously botched intrigues in history, with Jim Conley attempting to scapegoat the bludgeoning, rape, and strangulation of Mary Phagan on an innocent and honest dark old Negro, the night watchman (night witch) named Newt Lee. An old night watchman security guard who had yet to arrive at the factory, but was due there at 4:00 p.m., instead of his usual 5:00 p.m.

One allegation by the factory sweeper Jim Conley is during their late noon conversation after the body of Mary Phagan was dumped in the basement and before Leo Frank left the factory at 1:20 p.m. for dinner (lunch), Leo Frank looked up at the ceiling and said to Jim Conley, Why should I hang? I know wealthy people in Brooklyn.

The Scapegoat: Newt Lee

Thus Leo Frank plotted to get the hard-working night security guard, the innocent Negro Newt Lee indicted, convicted, and lynched, after Frank himself had bludgeoned, raped, and strangled the little girl to brain-damaged death. It was a most shocking fabrication of evidence formulated by Leo Frank to draw suspicion on Lee. It would require murder notes written in someones handwriting other than himself. Leo knew Jim Conley could write, and Leo would ask him to affirm what he already knew, You can write, Jim.

For anti-Semites, the Plot was another case of a Jew committing a crime and trying to blame it on the Goyim. The pattern reminds Christians of the Jews plotting to blame their instigated crucifixion of the Jewish rebel named Jesus Christ on the Romans.

How Low Can You Go? Death Row

Only the best Hollywood writers high on crack, LSD, meth, schrooms, and the finest eugenically bred California Kush could dream up a murder case as twisted, bizarre, perverted, far out, wacky, freaky, creepy, and unusual as this one, especially given the principle, a clean cut Ivy League educated Jew from Brooklyn serving as Bnai Brith president and superintendent of a very successful manufacturing plant, the National Pencil Factory. Many people simply cannot believe Leo Frank would murder because he was clean cut and well educated.

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Leo Frank Lynching Photos: The Leo Frank Lynch Party …

Holocaust Project Gallery Gallery Judy Chicago

Posted By on January 22, 2016

Entry Wall, Holocaust Project, featuring stained glass Logo Judy Chicago and Donald Woodman, 1992, Stained glass, 42 in. x 48.5 in. x 8 in. (106.68 cm x 123.19 cm x 20.32 cm), Fabricated by Michael Caudle, Bob Gomez, Flo Perkins, and Donald Woodman, Photo Donald Woodman,

Logo from theHolocaust Project Judy Chicago and Donald Woodman, 1992,Stained glass, 42 in. x 48.5 in. x 8 in.,Fabricated by Michael Caudle, Bob Gomez, Flo Perkins, and Donald Woodman,Photo Donald Woodman

Judy Chicago spray paints The Fall cartoonPhoto Donald Woodman

Cartoon for The Fall from the Holocaust Project Judy Chicago, 1987,Sprayed acrylic and oil on canvas, 54 in. x 216 in. (137.16 cm x 548.64 cm),Collection: ACA Galleries, New York, NY,Photo Donald Woodman

Cartoon for The Fall from the Holocaust Project – DetailJudy Chicago, 1987,Sprayed acrylic and oil on canvas, 54 in. x 216 in.,Photo Donald Woodman

Cartoon forThe FallfromtheHolocaust Project -DetailJudy Chicago, 1987,Sprayed acrylic and oil on canvas, 54 in. x 216 in.,Photo Donald Woodman

The Fall from the Holocaust Project Judy Chicago, 1993,Modified Aubusson Tapestry, 46 x 18,Woven by Audrey Cowan,Collection: Audrey and Robert Cowan,Photo Donald Woodman

Banality of Evil/Struthof from the Holocaust ProjectJudy Chicago, with Donald Woodman, 1989,Sprayed Acrylic, Oil and Photography on Photo Linen,30 x 43 ,Photo Donald Woodman

Holocaust Project installation, Austin, TX

Bones of Treblinka from the Holocaust ProjectJudy Chicago, with Donald Woodman, 1988,Sprayed Acrylic, Oil and Photography on Photo Linen,48 x 50 ,Photo Donald Woodman

Wall of Indifference from the Holocaust ProjectJudy Chicago, 1989, sprayed acrylic, oil paint, Marshall photo oils and photography on photolinen, 43 1/4″ x 97 1/4″, Photo Donald Woodman

Wall of Indifference from the Holocaust Project-detailJudy Chicago, 1989, sprayed acrylic, oil paint, Marshall photo oils and photography on photolinen, Photo Donald Woodman

Four Questions from the Holocaust ProjectJudy Chicago, with Donald Woodman, 1993,Sprayed Acrylic, Oil, Marshall Photo Oils on Photolinen Mounted on Aluminum, 42 x 166 x 4,Photo Donald Woodman

Treblinka/Genocide from the Holocaust Project Judy Chicago, 1988,Sprayed acrylic, oil, and photography on photolinen, 42 x 88 installed: 3 panels, side panels 42 x 21 each, Center panel 42 x 42,Photo Donald Woodman

Im/Balance of Power from the Holocaust Project Judy Chicago and Donald Woodman, 1991,Sprayed acrylic, oil and photography on photolinen, 9 panels: 24″ x 30″ each, installed size: 6’5.25″ x 7′ 11.25″,Photo Donald Woodman

Arbeit Macht Frei / Work Makes Who Free? from the Holocaust Project Judy Chicago, with Donald Woodman, 1992,Sprayed Acrylic, Oil, Welded Metal, Wood, and Photography on Photo Linen and Canvas, 5 7 x 1111,Photo Donald Woodman

Lesbian Triangle from the Holocaust Project Judy Chicago and Donald Woodman, 1989,Sprayed acrylic, oil and photography on photolinen and canvas,Installed size: 5′ 8.5″ x 48.5″,Photo Donald Woodman

Rainbow Shabbat from the Holocaust Project, Installation view Judy Chicago, 1992,Stained glass,Fabricated by Bob Gomez, Hand painted by Dorothy Maddy from Judy Chicago’s cartoon, 54 in. x 192 in. (137.16 cm x 487.68 cm),Photo Donald Woodman

Rainbow Shabbat from the Holocaust Project Judy Chicago, 1992,Stained glass,Fabricated by Bob Gomez, Hand painted by Dorothy Maddy from Judy Chicago’s cartoon, 54 in. x 192 in. (137.16 cm x 487.68 cm),Photo Donald Woodman

Judy Chicago first became interested in the subject of the Holocaust in 1984. Perhaps it was a combination of her enquiry into some of the consequences of male power; her long-standing interest in issues of power and powerless; along with a growing interest in the ways in which being Jewish had shaped both her art and her life that drew her towards this dark subject.

Whatever the explanation, her subsequent marriage to photographer Donald Woodman and their joint realization that they were utterly ignorant about both their Jewish heritage and the subject of the Holocaust plunged the couple into an eight year attempt to understand the evil and cruelty that seem to live so closely under the surface of civilizations both past and present. The Holocaust Project traveled for ten years to both Jewish and non-Jewish institutions and selections from the project continue to be exhibited.

As Chicago wrote in the book that described the traveling exhibition:

The Holocaust Project is…structured as a journey into the darkness of the Holocaust and out into the light of hope. It is based on the journey – intellectual, physical, and emotional – that Donald and I took…The exhibition and the book are structured around our belief that…confronting and trying to understand the Holocaust, as painful as that might be, can lead to a greatly expanded understanding of the world in which we live. Our hope is that this will contribute to a firm individual and collective commitment to take up the vast project of transforming ourselves and nurturing our humanity, thereby creating a more peaceful, equitable world.

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Holocaust Project Gallery Gallery Judy Chicago

Witness to the Holocaust – Georgia Tech Library …

Posted By on January 22, 2016

The Fred Roberts Crawford Witness to the Holocaust Project Files,1978-1983 provide a significant contribution to Holocaust research. The Project documented the liberation of concentration camps in Europe at the end of World War II. The late Fred Roberts Crawford, Director of Emory University’s Center for Research in Social Change, founded and directed the project.

Dr. Crawford served as an Air Force pilot in World War II and was captured in Hungary after bailing out of his damaged plane. He was mistaken for a Jew and almost lynched on the spot, but a crucifix on his dogtag saved his life. While awaiting transfer to a prisoner of war camp, he witnessed Jewish inmates being tortured and executed.

Dr. Crawford was a prisoner of war in Stalag Luft III, a camp made famous in the movie, The Great Escape. He visited the newly liberated concentration camp Dachau shortly after his own release from Stalag Luft III. The difference in conditions and treatment for prisoners of war, protected by the Geneva Convention, compared to the cruel treatment inflicted on the inmates of Dachau impressed Dr. Crawford profoundly.

The Witness to the Holocaust Project began in 1978 largely to refute claims that the Holocaust never happened. The Project’s focus changed over time to include documentation and analysis of the long-term effects of the Holocaust.

The collection consists of 43 boxes (ca. 15 linear feet) of transcripts, documentation, photographs, audiotapes, films, and videotapes, housed in the Woodruff Library of Emory University. This web page highlights a selection of materials from that collection.

This web site was created by the Georgia Institute of Technology Library and Information Center, as part of the SAGE project -Selected Archives of Georgia Tech and Emory -a three-year grant-funded project to develop and demonstrate multimedia virtual library technology at two Universities using significant archival collections.

Please click here for a list of viewer software, and suggestions for exploring this site.

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Witness to the Holocaust – Georgia Tech Library …


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