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Holocaust Denial Timeline – ushmm.org

Posted By on October 16, 2017

WHAT IS HOLOCAUST DENIAL? The Holocaust is one of the best documented events in history. Holocaust denial describes attempts to negate the established facts of the Nazi genocide of European Jewry. Common denial assertions are: that the murder of six million Jews during World War II never occurred; that the Nazis had no official policy or intention to exterminate the Jews; and that the poison gas chambers in Auschwitz-Birkenau death camp never existed.

A newer trend is the distortion of the facts of the Holocaust. Common distortions include, for example, assertions that: the figure of six million Jewish deaths is an exaggeration; deaths in the concentration camps were the results of disease or starvation but not policy; and that the diary of Anne Frank is a forgery.

Holocaust denial and distortion are generally motivated by hatred of Jews, and build on an accusation that the Holocaust was invented or exaggerated by Jews as part of a plot to advance Jewish interests. This view perpetuates long-standing antisemitic stereotypes by accusing Jews of conspiracy and world domination, hateful charges that were instrumental in laying the groundwork for the Holocaust.

The United States Constitution ensures freedom of speech. Therefore, in the United States denying the Holocaust or engaging in antisemitic hate speech is not illegal, except when there is an imminent threat of violence. Many other countries, particularly in Europe where the Holocaust occurred, have laws criminalizing Holocaust denial and hate speech.

The International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance (IHRA), a multinational organization with 31 members including the United States, has adopted a Working Definition of Holocaust Denial and Distortion.

This timeline lists some key events in the evolution of Holocaust denial.

19421944: To conceal the evidence of their annihilation of Europe’s Jews, Germans and their collaborators destroy evidence of mass graves at the Belzec, Sobibor, and Treblinka killing centers, and at thousands of sites of mass shooting operations throughout German-occupied Poland, the German-occupied Soviet Union, and Serbia, including Babi Yar, in an operation code named Aktion 1005.

1943: In a speech to SS Generals at Poznan, Heinrich Himmler, Reich Leader (Reichsfhrer) of the SS (Schutzstaffel; Protection Squadrons), remarks that the mass murder of the European Jews will be kept secret, never to be recorded.

1955: Willis Carto founds an influential, far right group based in Washington, DC, that eventually comes to be known as the Liberty Lobby. Led by Carto until its bankruptcy in 2001, the Liberty Lobby advocates a racially pure United States and blames Jews for problems facing the US and the world. The Liberty Lobby begins to publish Holocaust denial literature in 1969.

1959: American clergyman Gerald L. K. Smith’s antisemitic publication, Cross and the Flag, claims that six million Jews were not killed during the Holocaust but immigrated to the United States during World War II.

1964: Paul Rassinier, a French Communist who had been interned by the Nazis, publishes The Drama of European Jewry, in which he claims that gas chambers were an invention of a Zionist establishment.

196667: American historian Harry Elmer Barnes publishes articles in the Libertarian periodical Rampart Journal claiming that the Allies overstated the extent of Nazi atrocities in order to justify a war of aggression against the Axis powers.

1969: Noontide Press, a subsidiary of the Liberty Lobby, publishes a book entitled The Myth of the Six Million.

1973: Austin J. App, professor of English literature at LaSalle University in Philadelphia, publishes a pamphlet: The Six Million Swindle: Blackmailing the German People for Hard Marks with Fabricated Corpses. The pamphlet becomes a foundation for future claims by Holocaust deniers.

1976: Northwestern University engineering professor Arthur R. Butz publishes The Hoax of the Twentieth Century: The Case Against the Presumed Extermination of European Jewry. Butz was the first Holocaust denier to use the pretense of academic rigor to disguise his falsehoods. Northwestern responds by declaring Butz’s statements an embarrassment to the university.

1977: Ernst Zndel, a German citizen living in Canada, establishes Samisdat Publishers, which issues neo-Nazi literature that includes Holocaust denial. In 1985 the Canadian government prosecuted Zndel for distributing information he knew to be false.

1977: David Irving publishes Hitler’s War, arguing that Hitler neither ordered nor condoned the Nazi policy of the genocide of the European Jews. Irving distorts historical evidence and scholarly methods to lend legitimacy to his thesis.

1978: William David McCalden (also known as Lewis Brandon) and Willis Carto found the Institute for Historical Review (IHR) in California, which publishes material and sponsors conferences denying the Holocaust. The IHR masks its hateful, racist messages under the guise of valid academic inquiry.

1980: The IHR promises a $50,000 reward to anyone who can prove that Jews were gassed at Auschwitz. Survivor Mel Mermelstein submits an affidavit of his internment at Auschwitz and brings suit against the IHR when the institute refuses to pay. In October 1981, Superior Court judge Thomas T. Johnson uses “judicial notice,” which allows courts to recognize as fact matters that are common knowledge, to issue a ruling that the Holocaust was fact and that Jews were gassed at Auschwitz.

1981: A French court convicts literature professor Robert Faurisson of inciting hatred and discrimination for calling the Holocaust a historical lie.

1984: In a landmark case, a Canadian court convicts public school teacher James Keegstra of willfully promoting hatred against an identifiable group for espousing Holocaust denial and other antisemitic views to his social studies students.

1986: On July 8, the Israeli parliament passes a law criminalizing denial of the Holocaust.

1987: California-based Bradley Smith founds the Committee for Open Debate on the Holocaust. During the early 1990s, Smith’s organization places full-page advertisements or editorial pieces in more than a dozen American college newspapers under the headline The Holocaust Story: How Much is False? The Case for Open Debate. Smith’s campaign helps to blur the line between hate mongering and freedom of speech.

1987: Jean Marie Le Pen, leader of France’s far right National Front party, suggests that gas chambers were merely a detail of World War II. Le Pen runs for president in France in 1988 and comes in fourth.

1987: Moroccan-Swedish writer Ahmed Rami begins broadcasting on Radio Islam, based in Sweden. The station describes the Holocaust as a Zionist/Jewish claim. Radio Islam later posts The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, Mein Kampf, and other antisemitic texts on its website.

1988: At the request of Ernst Zndel, Fred Leuchter (a self-proclaimed specialist in execution methods) travels to the site of the Auschwitz killing center. He later issues the Leuchter Report : An Engineering Report on the Alleged Execution Gas Chambers at Auschwitz, Birkenau and Majdanek, Poland, which is cited by Holocaust deniers to cast doubt on the use of gas chambers for mass murder.

1989: David Duke, a white supremacist, wins a seat in the Louisiana State Legislature. Duke sells Holocaust denial literature from his legislative office.

1990: After Illinois becomes the first American state to mandate teaching about the Holocaust in public schools, parents Ingeborg and Safet Sarich publicly protest by pulling their 13-year-old daughter out of school. The Sariches also mail 6,000 letters to public officials, scholars, journalists, and Holocaust survivors attacking the historical record as rumors and exaggerations.

1990: The French government enacts the Gayssot Law which declares that questioning the scale or existence of crimes against humanity (as defined in the London Charter of 1945) is a criminal offense. This act marks the first European statute explicitly outlawing denial of the Holocaust.

1990: In the course of criminal proceedings brought against Fred Leuchter by the State of Massachusetts, it is revealed that Leuchter never actually earned an engineering degree or license. Leuchter admits that he has no training in biology, toxicology, or chemistry, all of which are crucial to the claims of the 1988 Leuchter Report, which is often cited to support claims made by Holocaust deniers.

1990: A Swedish court sentences Ahmed Rami to six months in jail for hate speech and revokes the broadcasting license of Radio Islam for one year.

1991: The American Historical Association, the oldest professional organization of historians, issues a statement: No serious historian questions that the Holocaust took place.

2000: A British court declares David Irving an active Holocaust denier. Irving had sued Emory University historian Deborah Lipstadt for libel following the publication of her 1993 book Denying the Holocaust The Growing Assault on Truth and Memory.

2000: The Czech Republic enacts a law criminalizing Holocaust denial. The law is reenacted in 2009.

2001: Slovakia criminalizes Holocaust denial.

2002: The Zayed Center for Coordination and Follow-Up, a think tank of the League of Arab States based in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), organizes a symposium on “Semitism.” At the symposium, the Holocaust is called a false fable. The government of the UAE closes the Zayed Center in August 2003 after external pressure about the Centers anti-American and antisemitic publications and lectures.

2002: Romania passes an Emergency Ordinance criminalizing Holocaust denial in response to a growing movement to publically rehabilitate General Ion Antonescu, a pro-Fascist dictator who oversaw the deaths of 280,000 Jews and 11,000 Roma during World War II.

2002: Swedish courts sentence neo-Nazi Fredrik Sandberg to six months in prison for re-publishing the Third Reich-era pamphlet, The Jewish Question.

2003: Wolfgang Froelich is arrested in Vienna and sentenced to three years in jail following his 2001 publication of a book entitled Die Gaskammaer Luege (The gas chamber lie). He is released after one year. In the years following, Froelich is re-arrested or has his sentences extended a number of times for continued instances of Holocaust denial, including in 2015 for writing to the Austrian chancellor claiming that the Holocaust could not have occurred.

2003: The Romanian government establishes an international commission on the Holocaust in Romania, headed by Elie Wiesel. It consists of 30 Romanian and foreign historians. The objective of the commission is to examine the history of the Holocaust in Romania to identify the facts that took place and to disseminate the research results in the country and abroad. The organization of the commission follows public statements made earlier in 2003 by then President Ion Iliescu who minimized the Holocaust in Romania, and by former Information Minister Vasile Dincu who denied the Holocaust in Romania.

2005: In a speech broadcast on live television on December 14, Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad calls the Holocaust a myth.

2005: The Japanese magazine Marco Polo features an article written by freelance author Masanori Nishioka entitled “There Were No Nazi Gas Chambers.” In the article, Nishioka claims that the Holocaust never happened and that the gas chambers at Auschwitz were created by the Polish Communist government after the war.

2006: Iran’s government sponsors a meeting of Holocaust deniers in Tehran cloaked as an academic conference called Review of the Holocaust: Global Vision. In the same year, Farid Mortazavi, graphics editor of the Iranian newspaper Hamshahri, announces a Holocaust cartoon contest with gold and cash prizes for the winners. There are nearly 1,200 submissions from over 60 countries, including cartoons denying or minimizing the Holocaust. Later in the year, the Saba Art and Cultural Institute in Tehran opens an exhibition, sponsored by Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, of a selection of 200 cartoons from the contest.

2007: On January 26, the United Nations adopts a resolution condemning denial of the Holocaust. The General Assembly declares that denial is tantamount to approval of genocide in all its forms.

2008: The European Union adopts a Framework Decision on combating racism and xenophobia (2008/913/JHA). It requires EU member states to punishthrough their criminal lawpublicly condoning, denying, or grossly trivializing instances of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes, including those committed by the Nazis, when such conduct is intended to incite violence or hatred against a specific religious, ethnic, or other group.

2009: English-born Catholic Bishop Richard Williamson denies the existence of gas chambers and minimizes the extent of killing during the Holocaust. The Vatican eventually calls on Williamson to retract his statements.

2009: David Duke, the former leader of the Ku Klux Klan, is arrested by Czech authorities for denying the Holocaust and inciting hate. He had been invited to speak at Charles University by the Nrodn odpor (National Resistance) group. The Czech government orders Duke to leave the country the following day. The State Prosecutors Office in Prague later dismisses the charges due to lack of evidence.

2010: Hungary criminalizes Holocaust denial.

2010: Bradley Smith places his first online Holocaust denial advertisement, which appears on the website of the University of Wisconsin’s Badger Herald in February. The Internetbecause of its ease of access and dissemination, seeming anonymity, and perceived authorityis now the chief conduit of Holocaust denial.

2010: The Dutch appeals court fines the Arab European League (AEL) 2,500 for publishing a cartoon on its website in 2006 that suggested the Holocaust was made up or exaggerated by Jews. According to the AEL, the organization published the cartoon to highlight double standards in free speech after a Danish newspaper published a cartoon of the Prophet Mohammad. The court also imposes a 2-year probation period on the AEL.

2010: Lithuania criminalizes Holocaust denial. Later in the same year, the Lithuanian magazine Veidas publishes an article entitled [The] Nuremberg War Crimes Tribunal – The Greatest Legal Farce in History by Petras Stankeras, a Lithuanian historian who also served in the Ministry of Interior of the Republic of Lithuania. In the article, Stankeras highlights the application of double standards towards the Nazis and criticizes the International Military Tribunal. He also describes the Holocaust as a legend lacking substantiation for the killing of six million Jews. After international pressure, Stankeras steps down from his post in the Ministry of the Interior. The Vilnius County Prosecutor’s Office initiates a pre-trial investigation of the article, but closes the investigation in February 2011 without pressing any charges against Stankeras.

2011: The vice chairman of Egypts Wafd Party tells the Washington Times in an interview that the September 11 terrorist attacks, the Holocaust, and Anne Franks diary are all historical fabrications. The Holocaust is a lie, says Ahmed Ezz El-Arab. He continues, the Jews under German occupation were 2.4 million. So if they were all exterminated, where does the remaining 3.6 million come from?

2012: Nikolaos Michaloliakos, the head of Greeces far-right Golden Dawn party, denies the existence of gas chambers in Nazi concentration camps during the Holocaust. There were no ovens, no gas chambers, its a lie, he states during an interview aired on television.

2012: Saudi cleric Salman al-Odeh tells Rotana Khalijiya TV that The Holocaust has a historical basis. Many stories about it are documented and well-founded. The problem lies, first of all, in the exaggeration of the Holocaust. It has been turned into a myth of tremendous proportions…. For thousands of years, the Jews were subject to persecution, deportation, killings, and accusations. Maybe much of this stemmed from their moral values, their treacherous nature, their schemes, and the ploys, which made other nations be wary of them.

2012: Corneliu Vadim Tudor, a Romanian member of the European Parliament and leader of the nationalist Greater Romania Party, denies the Holocaust on the talk show Romania a la Raport. Tudor states, In Romania there was never a Holocaust…. I will deny it till I die because I love my people.

2013: On Holocaust Remembrance Day, Fathi Shihab-Eddim, an aide to Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi, claims that the 6 million Jews who were killed by the Nazis actually relocated to the United States. U.S. intelligence agencies, in cooperation with their counterparts in Allied nations during World War II, created it [the Holocaust] to destroy the image of their opponents in Germany, and to justify war and massive destruction against military and civilian facilities of the Axis powers, and especially to hit Hiroshima and Nagasaki with the atomic bomb, states Shihab-Eddim.

2013: Gyorgy Nagy becomes the first Hungarian to be convicted of Holocaust denial. Nagy carried a sign during a 2011 demonstration in Budapest which read the Holocaust never happened in Hebrew. The Court sentences him to 18 months in prison and probation. Part of his sentence is also to visit either Budapests Holocaust memorial museum, Auschwitz, or Yad Vashem.

2014: Udo Voigt, the former leader of Germanys National Democratic Party (NDP) is appointed to the European Parliaments Civil Liberties, Justice, and Home Affairs Committee. While leader of the NDP, which espouses Neo-Nazi views, Voigt had praised Adolf Hitler and claimed that far fewer than six million Jews were murdered in the Holocaust. He was convicted of incitement of the people.

2014: In his official 2014 Nowruz address, Iranian Ayatollah Ali Khamenei remarks: The Holocaust is an event whose reality is uncertain and if it has happened, its uncertain how it has happened.

2014: Russia criminalizes Holocaust denial.

2014: Greece criminalizes Holocaust denial.

2015: Two government-sponsored Iranian cultural organizations, Owj Media & Art Institute and the Sarcheshmeh Cultural Complex, announce a second Holocaust cartoon contest, expecting to receive entries from cartoonists in dozens of countries.

2015: A German court finds Ursula Haverbeck guilty of sedition after she wrote a letter to the Mayor of Detmold, stating that it was “clearly recognizable” that Auschwitz was nothing more than a labor camp. She sent her message when the Detmold court was trying Reinhold Hanning, a former guard at the Auschwitz camp. In 2014, she had been on trial for saying that the Holocaust was “the biggest and longest-lasting lie in history.”

2016: On International Holocaust Remembrance Day, Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei releases a video entitled Holocaust: Are the Dark Ages Over?” on his website, which includes his 2014 comments questioning the Nazi mass slaughter of six million Jews during World War II.

2016: An amendment adopted in Italy criminalizes Holocaust denial.

2016: An exhibition displaying 150 Holocaust cartoons from the 11th Tehran International Cartoon Biennial opens in Tehran in the art section of the Islamic Propaganda Organization. Two weeks later, an awards ceremony is held for the winners of the Holocaust cartoon contest. Majid Mollanoroozi, the director of Tehran’s Museum of Contemporary Art and the Head of the Graphic Arts section of the Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance, takes part in the awards ceremony. Prizes reportedly total $50,000.

2016: The Polish cabinet approves a bill imposing prison terms on anyone convicted of referring to death camps operated by Nazi Germany in occupied Poland as Polish. Claiming that the Poles collaborated with the Nazis in exterminating the Jews would also be considered a criminal offense.

Link:

Holocaust Denial Timeline – ushmm.org

Charlottesville Police Refused to Protect Synagogue From …

Posted By on October 15, 2017

The Jewish community in Charlottesvillehired armed security to protectits synagogue for the first timeafterlocal police declined to provide a guard for the site despite hundreds of white supremacists congregating on the town over the weekend fora rally that resulted in the murder of counter-protester Heather Heyer.

Alan Zimmerman, president of the Congregation Beth Israel in the Virginia town, wrote a blog postpublished on Monday evening following the violent scenes on Saturday that resulted in a car-ramming attackthat took place just 200 feet from the place of worship.

He described the fearhe felt in the presence of white supremacists, who rallied aroundanti-Semitic slogans, as 40 members of the community prayed in the synagogue, withoutsupport from the local authorities.

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The police departmentpromised to provide an observer near the building but Zimmerman says it was not kept by the force, leaving the congregation vulnerable to assault as they worshipped.

For half an hour, three men dressed in fatigues and armed with semi-automatic rifles stood across the street from the temple, he wrote. Had they tried to enter, I dont know what I could have done to stop them, but I couldnt take my eyes off them, either.

Not only did armed protesters stand across from the synagogue, but neo-Nazis paraded past the building, shouting anti-Semitic slogans, a horrible reminder ofNazi Germanys persecution and mass slaughterof European Jews.

Several times, parades of Nazis passed our building, shouting, ‘There’s the synagogue!’followed by chants of ‘Sieg Heil’and other anti-Semitic language. Some carried flags with swastikas and other Nazi symbols, Zimmerman wrote.

This was before James Alex Fields Jr. plowed his car into protesters in the town, leaving a scene of carnage that has sparked outrage across the United States, and the wider western world.

The Jewish community has faced more incidents of hate crimes since the ascension of Donald Trump to the Oval Office. Jewish community centers have received bomb threatsmany of which turned out to be from a Jewish man based in IsraelJewish cemeteries have been desecrated and Trump himself has failed on several occasions to single out the white supremacists for censure, blaming violence on both sides, in reference to anti-racist protesters trying to stop Saturday’swhite supremacist march.

Zimmerman saidthe threat was not only on the ground, but online too. He learned that Nazi websites had posted a call to burn the synagogue after which the communityleaders took the precautionary step of removing our Torahs, including a Holocaust scroll, from the premises.

Zimmerman told the Jewish worshippersthat it would be better if they exited the synagogue by the back entrance, and to go in groups to protect each other.

This is 2017 in the United States of America, he wrote.

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Charlottesville Police Refused to Protect Synagogue From …

Facebook, Google team with ADL to fight hate – CNET

Posted By on October 12, 2017

The Anti-Defamation League is creating a lab with tech companies to fight online abuse.

Some of the biggest names in tech are partnering with the Anti-Defamation League to thwart online harassment.

Facebook, Twitter, Google and Microsoft, among others, are joining with the ADL to form aCyberhate Problem-Solving Lab, the companies and the civil rights group said Tuesday. They’ll exchange ideas and develop strategies to try to curb hate speech and abuse on the companies’ various platforms and across the internet.

“These companies have an added responsibility to do everything within their power to stop hate from flourishing on their watch,” ADL CEO Jonathan Greenblatt said in a statement. “We look forward to tackling this pressing challenge together.”

Click to see our in-depth coverage of online hatred.

The cyberhate lab comes about seven months after the ADL said it was building a command center in Silicon Valley. And as online harassment continues to grow, tech giants including Facebook and Twitter have been ramping up their own efforts in response to trolling.

Though it’s hard to quantify how pervasive online assaults have become, experts say the number is increasing. Forty percent of internet users have experienced some form of harassment, according to a 2014 Pew Research Center report. The figure jumps to about 65 percent for those between the ages of 18 and 29.

The ADL has said that roughly 19,000 anti-Semitic tweets targeted Jewish journalists between August 2015 and July 2016 and that about 1,600 online accounts were responsible for 68 percent of those tweets. During that same time, 2.6 million anti-Jewish tweets may have been viewed as many as 10 billion times, the hate-monitoring group said.

As for Facebook, the world’s largest social network has more than 7,500 people monitoring what users post, including violent videos and graphic images. Facebook has also invested in counterspeech to drown out racist, sexist and bigoted rhetoric and has programmed its service to keep people from creating groups with hateful terms in their names.

Yet, Facebook still is relying on its 2 billion monthly users to point out online abuse, and messages that violate Facebook’s terms of use aren’t always removed when they’re reported.

Monika Bickert, Facebook’s head of global policy, said in a statement that “some of the best minds in engineering will work alongside the ADL to help us rise to the occasion.”

Twitter has said its efforts to fight harassment are improving in part because of work with groups like the ADL to identify abusive behavior and help people more easily report it.

“We believe meaningful progress in safety measures and policies can best be informed in partnership with others, so we’ll continue to collaborate with leading advocacy organizations, like ADL, to work towards solutions,” Colin Crowell, Twitter’s head of public policy and philanthropy, said in a statement.

Microsoft declined to comment. Google didn’t immediately respond to a request for comment.

Solving for XX: The tech industry seeks to overcome outdated ideas about “women in tech.”

Special Reports: CNET’s in-depth features in one place.

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Facebook, Google team with ADL to fight hate – CNET

Sephardic Recipes | Sephardic Bikur Holim Congregation

Posted By on October 4, 2017

NOTE: We are looking for new recipes. If anyone has a recipe they would like to share, we would really love to publish it. Please contact the Synagogue Office at (206) 723-3028, or by email atsbholim@gmail.comto share your recipe.

AhashooApple CakeApple CrispApple DulceApple Jam (Pareve)Artichoke Quiche

Three Bean & Macaroni SaladBerry CrispBlintz (Cheese) SouffleBorkeas DAroz (Rice Borekas)Borekas de Calavasa or PhylloBoreka Dough Recipe IBoreka Dough Recipe IIBorkeas DPishcado (Fish Borekas)Bread Pudding Old FashionedBrownies for PassoverBurmuelos Recipe IBurmuelos Recipe II

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Cabbage SoupCabbage Patch StewCalavasa Borekas deCarrots and CeleryCasserole French ToastCelery Root and CarrotsCheese Blintz CakeCheese Blintz SouffleCheese Mushroom QuicheCheese Noodle PuddingCheese Phyllo SquaresCheese and Tomato FrittataEasy Hearty Chicken Vegetable SoupChiffon Cake Holiday Chocolate MousseClub SaladCream Cheese Pumpkin PieCreamy Rice Pudding

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Date CakeDough Boreka

Egg FritadaEggplant Moussaka

French Toast CasseroleFritada SpinachFrittata Tomato and CheeseFritada EggFish Borekas (Borkeas DPishcado)Folares Hard boiled eggs

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Graham Cracker Pie Crust

Halvah de Bimbrio (Quince)HamantashenHamburger Stuffed VegetablesOrejas De Haman Moroccan Hamans EarsHanukah Sugar CookiesHarocieHoliday Chiffon CakeHoney Cake (Parve)Huevos con Domat

Israeli Summer Salad

Kezadicas

Lasagna SpinachLentils and RiceLentil SaladLentil Soup (Sopa De Lentejas) Recipe ILentil Soup Recipe II

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Macaroni Salad Three BeanMandelbrot (Sliced Cookies)Meat PastelsMeginaMoroccan Hamans Ears Orejas De HamanMoussaka EggplantMushroom Cheese QuicheMustachudos

Noodle Cheese Pudding

Old Fashioned Bread PuddingOrange-Glazed Pumpkin CakeOrejas De Haman Moroccan Hamans EarsOvernight Refrigerator Cookies for Passover

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PanizikosPastels (Meat)Phyllo With Spinach (Pareve)Passover BrowniesPassover Cookies Overnight RefrigeratorPie Cream Cheese PumpkinPie Strawberry Ice BoxPot RoastPrasafuchiesPrassa Patties (Meat)Prehito (Wheat Pudding)Pumpkin Cream Cheese PiePumpkin Cake Orange-Glazed

Quiche ArtichokeQuiche Cheese Mushroom QuicheQuince Halvah de Bimbrio

Rice Borekas (Borkeas DAroz)Rice and LentilsCreamy Rice PuddingRosh Hashana Yehi Ratzones

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Salmon Patties Recipe ISalmon Patties Recipe IIClub SaladMacaroni Salad Three BeanCabbage SoupSalmon PattiesSesame CookiesSliced Cookies (Mandelbrot)Sopa De Lentejas (Lentil Soup)Chicken Vegetable Soup Easy HeartySoup VegetableSpinach FritadaSpinach LasagnaStrawberry Ice Box PieSpinach in Phyllo (Pareve)SufganiyotSummer Salad Israeli

Tomato and Cheese Frittata

Vegetables stuffed with HamburgerVegetable QuicheVegetable Soup

Wheat Pudding (Prehito)

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Yehi Ratzones Rosh Hashana

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Ahashoo

Katherine Scharhon about this recipe I have a request for the Ahashoo recipe. If you dont have it, this will be an appropriate recipe for after Passover. Do you remember when, with the leftover matzos after Pesah, your mother made a sweet treat called Ahashoo. (No I didnt sneeze! This is what its called.) Some of you may have never heard of this treat and hopefully some may remember it. In any case, have fun preparing and enjoy eating this delicious treat.

6 cups farfel or 6 sheets of matzos, crumbled1 cup sugar1 cup water1/2 cup honeyjuice of 1/2 a lemon1/2 tsp. cinnamon1/2 tsp. ginger1/2 tsp. nutmeg1 cup chopped toasted nuts (walnuts, almonds, etc.)

Toast farfel or sheets of matza lightly in oven. Boil sugar, honey and water until sticky, approximately 25 to 30 minutes. Add the spices, lemon juice, nuts, and matzos and stir over medium heat for five minutes. Mix well.

Pour into an 8 greased square pan and spread with a spatula, or roll into balls and place into paper candy cups.

Double the recipe for a 13 x 9 pan.

With the availability of all these ingredients, there is no reason why Ahashoo cannot be made during Passover.

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Apple Cake

2 1/4 c. all purpose flour2 1/2 t. baking powder1 t. each cloves, ginger and baking sodapinch of salt3 c. peeled and finely diced tart apples1/3 c. raisins (optional)1/2 c. chopped walnuts3/4 c. butter or Nucoa (room temp.)1 1/2 c. packed dark brown sugar1 t. vanilla extract3 large eggs1/2 c. buttermilk1/2 c. applesauce

Using a fork, combine flour, baking powder, spices, baking soda and salt in a bowl.In another bowl combines apples, raisins and walnuts. Add 3 tablespoons of flour mixture and toss to coat. Set aside. Combine butter, brown sugar and vanilla in a mixing bowl. Cream until mixture is light and creamy. Beat eggs one at a time. Stir in buttermilk and applesauce. Slowly add the remaining flour mixture to the butter mixture, beating until blended. Stir in reserved fruit nut mixture. Pour batter into the prepared 12 cup Bunt pan and smooth the top. Bake at 350 degrees until a toothpick inserted into the cake comes out clean (about 1 hour). Let cool in pan for 1 hour.

Syrup1/3 c. apple brandy or you may substitute apple cider2 T. sugar1 t. fresh lemon juicezest of 1 lemon

Combine syrup ingredients in a saucepan. Heat to simmer. When sugar dissolves, remove from heat. Set aside for 15 minutes. Unmold the cake onto a serving platter. Prick it all over with a wooden skewer. Strain the syrup (discarding lemon zest) and brush the cake with the syrup until it has been absorbed. Before serving, dust the top with confectioners sugar.

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Apple Crisp

2 1/2 lbs. tart apples1 T. lemon juice1 t. ground cinnamon1 t. lemon zest2 T honey

Topping6 T. butter, cut into 1/2 pieces1/2 c. brown sugar1/2 c. flour1 c. rolled oats1/2 c. chopped nuts1/2 t. nutmeg1 t. cinnamon

Preheat oven to 375 degrees. Lightly oil a 9 by 13 inch baking dish.Peel and core the apples and slice thinly. Toss with lemon juice, cinnamon, zest and honey. Place in baking dish. Mix remaining topping ingredients until crumbly. Sprinkle over apples. Bake for 35 to 40 minutes or until apples are soft.

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Apple Dulce

5 apples, peeled and sliced (approximately depends on the size of the apples)2 c. sugar1 1/2 c. waterjuice of 1/2 lemon5 6 whole cloves

Boil water and sugar until slightly thick. Add lemon juice. Dip sliced peeled apples into the syrup until partially cooked yet still firm. Remove from heat, add cloves and let cool. Refrigerate.

Apple Jam (Pareve)

(This recipe is from Nancy Resnik)

8 medium or large tart apples(Granny Smiths or Braeburn, etc.)1/2 orange (remove seeds, grind with skin and juice)3 c. sugar

Wash, peel and core apples into quarters. Grate in a food processor or hand grate. Gently squeeze out excess juice and moisture. Place apples into a bowl and mix in the sugar and grinded orange.

Cover with plastic wrap and leave a vent on one side. Place in microwave on high for 10 minutes. Take out and stir fruit. Place back into microwave on high for another 12 minutes. Cool and keep refrigerated.

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Artichoke Quiche

1 unbaked pie shell placed in a quiche dish.

Filling2 cans unmarinated chokes1 c. mayonnaise1/2 c. grated cheese of your liking1/2 c. grated Parmesan cheese1/4 t. Tabasco sauce or to your taste

In a blender, add drained artichokes and pulse mix until creamed. Remove from blender and add the rest of the ingredients. Pour into a quiche pan and bake at 350 degrees for 30 40 minutes.

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Three Bean & Macaroni Salad

Makes 6-8 servings

1 package assorted colored spiral or shell macaroni1 can (14 15 oz) green beans, drained, cut into pieces1 can (14 15 oz) wax beans, drained or 1 1/2 c. fresh wax beans, cut into pieces1 can (14 15 oz) kidney beans, drained1 can (14 15 oz) garbanzos, drained1 c. chopped sweet onion or regular onion1/2 c. green pepper, chopped1/2 c. red pepper, chopped1/2 c. yellow pepper, chopped1 1/2 c. halved cherry tomatoes1 c. cider vinegar1/2 c. salad oil2/3 c. sugarsalt & pepper to taste

Prepare macaroni according to package directions, rinse with cool water. Meanwhile, combine drained beans, chopped onion, and chopped peppers in a bowl.

In a separate bowl, combine cider vinegar and salad oil. Slowly add in sugar to dissolve. Add drained macaroni and vinegar mixture to beans. Add tomatoes and salt and pepper. Gently toss to combine.

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Berry Crisp

3/4 c. brown sugar3/4 c. quick cooking rolled oats1/2 c. flour1/2 c. margarine4 5 pts. fresh raspberries

6 servings

In an 8 round or square pan, place the washed berries evenly on the bottom. Crumble the first four ingredients with your fingers. Sprinkle evenly over the top of the fruit.

Bake at 350 degrees for 35 minutes until the top is golden brown. You can substitute any berries, peaches, apples, etc. in this recipe.

Cheese Blintz Souffle

12 blintzes, frozen or fresh4 eggs1/2 c. sugar1 pint sour cream1 t. vanilla1/2 c. butter or margarine (in a 13 x 9 baking dish)

Place blintzes in baking dish. Mix the eggs, sugar, sour cream and vanilla. Pour mixture over the blintzes and sprinkle with cinnamon. Bake at 350 degrees for 45-60 minutes. Top with sour cream and berries when serving.

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Borkeas DAroz (Rice Borekas)

Filling3 c. water1 T. butter, margarine or oil1 c. rice (long grain or medium rice)1/2 c. small curd cottage cheese1/2 c. parmesan cheese1/2 c. crumbled feta cheese1 t. salt2-3 eggs

Bring water and shortening to a boil. Lower heat and add the rice. Stir and cover the pot and cook rice until water is absorbed.

Cool rice and add the cheeses, salt and eggs. Set aside and prepare the Boreka dough.

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Borekas de Calavasa or Phyllo

Makes 3 dozen

Filling:1 can (16 oz.) cooked pumpkin1 egg1 T. all-purpose flour1 t. cinnamon1/3 c. firmly packed brown sugar

Combine filling ingredients in a bowl and set aside

Pastry:1 c. vegetable oil2/3 c. water1 t. salt1/2 t. ground cinnamon (opt.)3 4 c. all purpose flour1 egg

(some people may want to use the phyllo sheets)

For the pastry dough:

Combine oil, water, salt and cinnamon (optional). Gradually add flour, mixing well after each addition. Form dough into balls. With a rolling pin, roll each ball into a circle. Place about a tablespoon of filling near the edge of each circle. Fold circle in half, sealing edges by pressing with tines of a fork. Place them on an ungreased cookie sheet. Brush top with beaten egg.

You may also sprinkle on top with cinnamon or a mixture of 1/2 t. cinnamon and 2 T. sugar. Bake at 375 degrees for 20 to 25 minutes.

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Boreka Dough Recipe I

1 c. oil1 c. ice water1 t. salt5 c. flour

Mix together oil, water and salt. Add the flour and knead lightly into a ball.

Form balls to place a hard boiled egg on and cover bottom and lower side of egg with dough.

Place strips of dough and crisscross over the top of the egg. If you feel a little artistic you may add more dough to join to the bottom of the egg and make Hamans foot. Brush the dough with beaten egg. Bake at 350 degrees until golden brown.

Boreka Dough Recipe II

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Sephardic Recipes | Sephardic Bikur Holim Congregation

What is Zionism? – True Torah Jews | Against Zionism

Posted By on October 3, 2017

Zionism is a movement founded by Theodor Herzl in 1896 whose goal is the return of Jews to Eretz Yisrael, or Zion, the Jewish synonym for Jerusalem and the Land of Israel.

The name of “Zionism” comes from the hill Zion, the hill on which the Temple of Jerusalem was situated.

Supporters of this movement are called “Zionists”.

Today there is much confusion among Jews over the meaning of the term Zionism. It means different things to different people.

The reason for this is that historically, Zionism has been a movement dominated by secularist Jews. Herzl and most of his colleagues were assimilated Jews, who did not believe in or practice the Torah. Some Zionists were vehemently anti-religious, and saw the Torah and mitzvos as outdated rituals with no place in their modern state.

Yet the essence of the Zionist idea – that Jews should return to the Holy Land and establish a government – is not inherently secular, and in fact the Zionist movement had some religious members from the very beginning.

Some Jews today use Zionism as a synonym for Israeli secularism, and thus support the State of Israel while claiming to be anti-Zionist. These people’s only complaint about the State of Israel is that it is not religious enough. They hope for the day when the state will be dominated by the religious parties.

But this is not the meaning of the term Zionism as used on this site. When we talk about Zionism here, we are refering to the concept that Jews should rise up, emancipate themselves from exile without waiting for the messiah, and establish a Jewish government in the Holy Land. Using Jewish texts, we demonstrate that this concept is against the Torah and has been opposed by rabbis in all generations.

There have been hundreds of rabbis over the past century who spoke out against the Zionist movement. But because of the ambiguity of the term, it is not always possible to prove that a given rabbi meant to oppose the concept of Zionism, rather than just secularism. For this reason, religious Zionists often make the claim that much rabbinic opposition to Zionism was only because it was a secular movement. On the Rabbinic Quotations section of this site, we have avoided this confusion by carefully selecting those quotations that are clearly against the concept of Zionism itself. As the reader will see, these quotations alone are enough proof that almost all of the greatest sages and leaders of the Jewish people opposed the establishment of a Jewish state.

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What is Zionism? – True Torah Jews | Against Zionism

The Jewish Debasing Of American Culture | Real Jew News

Posted By on September 29, 2017

in 1923 in the state of Massachusetts. He now goes by the name, Sumner Redstone.

Murray Rothstein owns Viacom, a Media Corporation with subsidiaries such as, MTV, the Homosexual TV show, LOGO, and Paramount Pictures.

When Murray Rothstein puts on a video at his MTV subsidiary with blacks rapping such lyrics as: Hey yo, I smoke dust and shoot cops, sell drugs on new lots, we dust brothers f**k mothers.

I dont think that Sumner Redstone, that is Murray Rothstien, really grooves into it. Its for the Goys you know, and hes making a killing on the dumb Goys who have been conditioned by MTV and all of the Jewish-controlled media to despise anything that remotely resembles Christian morality.

As for Murrays homosexual show, LOGO, dont think for a minute that if his son brought a boyfriend-lover home for dinner that Murray would be too delighted. Jews you see have an obsession that their children should marry and bear grandsons, thus conferring immortality on their Jewish progenitors. A homosexual son is not only a disgrace to a Jew, but tantamount to wiping him out of existence.

But The Show Must Go On, as the saying goes. And thus the Jewish-controlled media and their legal arm, the Jewish-run and funded, American Civil Liberties Union, (ACLU), are engaged in a relentless effort to promote public displays of perversion and decadence.

One such decadent public display is the Folsom Gay Street Fair held in Folsom County CA every year and recently on September 30 2007. The perverse public displays would outrage even the most flaming liberal.See: Folsom Gay FairAND: Folsom Outrage

WALT DISNEY PRODUCTIONS IS NOW OWNED by the Jew, Michael Eisner. Mickey Mouse and Donald Duck have been pre-empted by Eisners Jewish Agenda of promoting a multicultural America. Multiculturism is nothing less than the Jewish sabotage of a homogenous Christian culture.

Examples of Eisners promotion of multiculturism are two films that launched his career in shaping an Anti-Christian culture: The Jungle Book and Pocahontas. In both films, Eisner portrays White males as contemptible, racist, cowardly, and inept. The White heroine in The Jungle Book rejects her British-officer suitor and lets herself be wooed and won by a Jungle-boy.

In Pocahontas, Eisner has Captain John Smith discarding Christianity in favor of American Indian animism through his union with Pocahontas. This Indian princess was named by those who knew her best: little wanton, (pocahontas).

What Eisner is not telling us is that Captain John Smith never married Pocahontas as she was already married with a 3 year old son. It was John Rolfe who had married little wanton. And the Jew Eisner would never scruple to tell his audience of children that it was Pocahontas who converted to Christianity, not vice versa.

As regards The Jungle Book, it bears no resemblance whatsoever to what was originally written by Rudyard Kipling. And what is the subliminal message that Eisner wishes to inject into the sensibilities of American children which will funnel out into American culture? That the White man with his Christianity is deficient in both moral virtues and spirituality.

But will Eisner teach his children and grandchildren to give up their Jewishness and intermarry with Hindus and Blacks? Eisner and his Jewish buddies would rather die than see their sons marry Calcutta Hinuds and Schwartzas!

JEWISHNESS IS BEING SHOVED in our faces everywhere we turn. Because the Jews wish to position themselves as victims, they have exploited the Holocaust to make Americans feel protective of the poor Jewish victim of Anti-Semitism. But has anyone brought to mind that these so called victims happen to be the wealthiest sufferers the world has ever known?

Until we are able to perceive that – America will continue to be a Holocaust Remembrance society. High School Curriculums throughout America are teeming with it. Holocaust Museums and Holocaust Study Centers are in every major U.S. city. The Jews have made sure that our collective memory will not be a Christian one that America once extolled.

Our former common Christian bond has been usurped by a Jewish agenda known as The Holocaust. Are we not sick and tired of the millionaire Jew, Elie Weisel, with his continual harping on his sufferings of the Holocaust? If any one has made a killing on the Holocaust Industry, it is the millionaire Jew, Elie Weisel.

THE JEWS HAVE SO PERMEATED our world-view and self-definition, that our culture has become a Prozac-fixated society. The Jewish Science, that is, Psychoanalysis, has so infused our consciousness, that instead of the John Waynes and the Mickey Mantles as our heroes, we now have as our prime American hero, the neurotic Jew and sex-obsessive pederast, Woody Allen.

Woody Allen, (born Allan Koningberg), typifies the man bereft of absolute truth, continually searching for meaning in a meaningless world, only to give up the search with the plunging into continual sexual gratification as the salvivic consolation. The best that Woody Allen can offer us by way of an example in real life, is his illicit sexual affair with the 16 year old adopted daughter of his second wife, Mia Farrow.

CONCLUSION

AMERICA WAS ONCE A NATION that bonded its citizens together through a common Christian memory, cause, and destiny. Christian decency has now been preempted by crass depravity through the Jewish-controlled Media and its legal arm, the Jewish-run and funded, American Civil Liberties Union. (ACLU).

Our Christian heritage has been undermined by the Jewish elite who have lobbied successfully for a multicultural (translate, all belief-systems that will crowd out Christianity, society. America, once known as a Christian nation, is now is now termed, thanks to Jewish Academia, a pluralistic nation.

But pluralism and multiculturism works to the Jews advantage: Divide And Conquer! What we have now in our nation, is not primarily a pluralistic society, but rather, a Jewish America.

WE STILL HAVE A CHANCE TO RECLAIM AMERICA out of the ruinous hands of the Jews. We can begin with makes a commitment to attend Church Services regularly and discussing with like-minded friends the issues that face us.

Then we can all call upon Christ to heal our nation, to heal our souls, to heal our apathy, and to heal our debilitated state.

And: Christians NOT Jews Are Gods Chosen People! Click Here

And: How Jews Think Click Here

Support Brother Nathanael! HERE

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The Jewish Debasing Of American Culture | Real Jew News

Asian American Heritage Committee | United Federation of …

Posted By on September 29, 2017

The Asian American Heritage Committee promotes awareness of Asian and Asian American cultures in the United Federation of Teachers and the broader labor movement. We accomplish this goal by hosting a wide array of events throughout the year and participating in all union activities.

Our two most important annual events are the Chinese New Year Parade, in January or February, and the Lunar New Year Dinner, in February or March. We have participated in the former for several years and have hosted the latter for more than two decades. We also host an annual origami workshop at the UFTs Manhattan Borough Office in the fall.

The committee proudly participates in all UFT events. We mobilize our members to join fellow teacher-unionists for rallies, marches and phone-banks as well as for cultural and celebratory activities. We are also very proud to share aspects of our culture at the unions annual Spring Conference, where we host popular exhibition tables dedicated to calligraphy and origami.

We also participate actively in the New York chapter of the Asian Pacific American Labor Alliance with similar groups from other area labor unions and count many Asian and Asian American community organizations among our friends. The proceeds of the raffle at our annual Lunar New Year Dinner are donated to support these allies.

The committee meets on the first Tuesday of each month at 4 p.m. in the Manhattan Borough Office.

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Asian American Heritage Committee | United Federation of …

Ashkenazi Jewish Heritage | Susan G. Komen

Posted By on September 28, 2017

In the U.S., breast cancer risk is slightly higher among Jewish women than among other women [27].

This increased risk is likely due to the high prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations in Jewish women of Eastern European descent (Ashkenazi Jews).

BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BReast CAncer genes 1 and 2) are the most well-known genes linked to breast cancer risk.

BRCA1/2 mutations can be passed to you from either parent and can affect the risk of cancers in both women and men.

Like other gene mutations, BRCA1/2 mutations are rare in the general population. In the U.S., between 1 in 400 and1 in 800 people in the general population have a BRCA1/2 mutation [28].

However, prevalence varies by ethnic group. Among Ashkenazi Jewish men and women, about1 in 40 have a BRCA1/2 mutation [28].

About 10 percent of Ashkenazi Jewish women diagnosed with breast cancer in the U.S. have a BRCA1/2 mutation [28].

Women who have a BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutation have an increased risk of breast cancer [29-31].

By age 70 [4,30]:

This means in a group of 100 women without a BRCA1/2 mutation, about 8 will develop breast cancer by age 70 (about 12 by age 85).

While in a group of 100 women with a BRCA1/2 mutation,45-65 will develop breast cancer by age 70. These numbers are averages, soriskfor a woman with a BRCA1/2 mutation may fall outside this range.

Learn more about gene mutations and breast cancer risk in women.

Learn about gene mutations and breast cancer risk in men.

Learn about testing for gene mutations.

Learn about risk-lowering options for women at higher risk.

Your family history of breast cancer and other health conditions is important to discuss with your health care provider. This information helps your provider understand your risk of breast cancer.

The Office of the Surgeon General created an online tool called My Family Health Portraitthat you can use tomake a chart of your familys health history.

This chart may be useful whenyou talkwith your provider about your family history of breast cancer and other health conditions.

Some support groups are tailored for people with BRCA1/2 gene mutations and those with BRCA1/2-related cancers.

Our Support section offers a list of resources to help find a local or on-line support group. For example, FORCE is an organization that has on-line support for women with hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer.

Sharsherethas on-line support for Jewish women with hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer.

Komen Support Resources

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Ashkenazi Jewish Heritage | Susan G. Komen

U.S. Anti-Semitic Incidents Spike 86 Percent So Far in …

Posted By on September 26, 2017

In 2016, there was a 34 percent year-over-year increase in incidents assaults, vandalism, and harassment with a total of 1,266 acts targeting Jews and Jewish institutions. Nearly 30 percent of these incidents (369) occurred in November and December. The surge has continued during the first three months of 2017, with preliminary reports of another 541 incidents, putting this year on pace for more than 2,000 incidents. Americans of all faiths have felt the increase and in a poll ADL released earlier this month a majority said they are concerned about violence in the U.S. directed at Jews.

Theres been a significant, sustained increase in anti-Semitic activity since the start of 2016 and whats most concerning is the fact that the numbers have accelerated over the past five months, said ADL CEO Jonathan A. Greenblatt. Clearly, we have work to do and need to bring more urgency to the fight. At ADL, we will use every resource available to put a stop to anti-Semitism. But we also need more leaders to speak out against this cancer of hate and more action at all levels to counter anti-Semitism.

380 harassment incidents, including 161 bomb threats, an increase of 127 percent over the same quarter in 2016;

155 vandalism incidents, including three cemetery desecrations, an increase of 36 percent;

720 harassment and threat incidents, an increase of 41 percent over 2015;

510 vandalism incidents, an increase of 35 percent;

The incidents were felt across the country, but continuing a consistent trend, the states with the highest number of incidents tend to be those with large Jewish populations. These include California (211 in 2016 and 87 in Q1 2017), New York (199 in 2016 and 97 in Q1 2017), New Jersey (157 in 2016 and 24 in Q1 2017), Florida (137 in 2016 and 41 in Q1 2017), and Massachusetts (125 and 38 in Q1 2017).

The 2016 presidential election and the heightened political atmosphere played a role in the increase. There were 34 incidents linked to the election. For example, in Denver, graffiti posted in May 2016 said Kill the Jews, Vote Trump. In November, a St. Petersburg, Fla., man was accosted by someone who told him Trump is going to finish what Hitler started.

Incidents on college campuses increased from 90 in 2015to 108 in 2016.

Anti-Semitic incidents at non-Jewish elementary, middle, and high schools increased 106 percent, from 114 in 2015 to 235 in 2016. This increase accelerated in Q1 2017, when 95 incidents were reported.

Schools are a microcosm of the country, Greenblatt said. Children absorb messages from their parents and the media, and bring them into their schools and playgrounds. We are very concerned the next generation is internalizing messages of intolerance and bigotry.

“These incidents need to be seen in the context of a general resurgence of white supremacist activity in the United States, said Oren Segal, director of the ADL Center on Extremism. Extremists and anti-Semites feel emboldened and are using technology in new ways to spread their hatred and to impact the Jewish community on and off line. Incidents in 2016 and Q1 2017 included network printer hacks and the use of source-masking technology to make it easier to harass Jews anonymously. “The majority of anti-Semitic incidents are not carried out by organized extremists, as the bomb threats in 2017 demonstrate. Anti-Semitism is not the sole domain of any one group, and needs to be challenged wherever and whenever it arises.”

ADL has been tracking anti-Semitic incidents in the United States since 1979. The audit includes both criminal and non-criminal incidents acts of harassment and intimidation, including distribution of hate propaganda, threats and slurs. Compiled using information provided by victims, law enforcement and community leaders and evaluated by ADLs professional staff, the Audit provides an annual snapshot of one specific aspect of a nationwide problem while identifying possible trends or changes in the types of activity reported. This information assists ADL in developing and enhancing its programs to counter and prevent the spread of anti-Semitism and other forms of bigotry.

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U.S. Anti-Semitic Incidents Spike 86 Percent So Far in …

What is Anti-Semitism? | ADL

Posted By on September 26, 2017

Hostility toward Jews dates to ancient times, perhaps to the beginning of Jewish history. From the days of the Bible until the Roman Empire, Jews were criticized and sometimes punished for their efforts to remain a separate social and religious group one that refused to adopt the values and the way of life of the non-Jewish societies in which it lived.

The rise of Christianity greatly increased hatred of Jews. They became seen not merely as outsiders but as a people who rejected Jesus and crucified him despite the fact that the Roman authorities ordered and carried out the crucifixion. By the high middle ages (11th-14th centuries), Jews were widely persecuted as barely human “Christ-killers” and “Devils.” Forced to live in all-Jewish ghettos, they were accused of poisoning rivers and wells during times of disease. Some were tortured and executed for supposedly abducting and killing Christian children to drink their blood or to use it in baking matzoh a charge known as the “blood libel.” A large number were forced to convert to Christianity to avoid death, torture, or expulsion, though many secretly practiced Judaism after their conversions. (In recent times, the Catholic church and other Christian churches have rejected these anti-Semitic falsehoods.)

In the 18th century, as the influence of Christianity began to lessen during the Enlightenment which celebrated the rights and possibilities of men and women to a far greater extent than ever before religiously based hatred of Jewishness gave way to non-religious criticism: Judaism was attacked as an outdated belief that blocked human progress. Jewish separatism was again targeted. As European countries began to take modern shape in the 19th century and national pride grew, Jews, who were still usually deprived of civil rights and lived throughout Europe as outsiders, were subjected to further hostility. This hostility resulted at times in deadly persecution, as in the late-19th century Russian pogroms violent attacks on Jewish communities with the aid or indifference of the government.

At the same time, in response to the decline of Christian belief and the growing number of Jews beginning to join the mainstream of European society (a trend known as “assimilation”), anti-Semites turned to the new “racial science,” an attempt, since discredited, by various scientists and writers to “prove” the supremacy of non-Jewish whites. The opponents of Jews argued that Jewishness was not a religion but a racial category, and that the Jewish “race” was biologically inferior.

The belief in a Jewish race would later become Germany’s justification for seeking to kill every Jewish person in lands Germany occupied during World War II, whether the person practiced Judaism or not. In fact, even the children or grandchildren of those who had converted to Christianity were murdered as members of the Jewish race. The Holocaust, as this systematic mass extermination between 1939-1945 is known, resulted in the death of six million Jews more than a third of the world’s Jewish population. While the rise to power of the Nazis (Germany’s leaders during World War II) in the 1920s and 1930s involved numerous social and political factors, the views that helped turn anti-Semitism into official government policy included belief in the inborn superiority of “Aryans,” or whites; belief that Jews destroyed societies; that Jews secretly worked together to gain control of the world; and that Jews already controlled world finance, business, media, entertainment, and Communism.

In the half-century since World War II, public anti-Semitism has become much less frequent in the Western world. While stereotypes about Jews remain common, Jews face little physical danger. The hatred of Jewishness and the conspiracy beliefs of past eras are for the most part shared only by tiny numbers of those on the fringes of society (although as the World Trade Center and Oklahoma bombings showed, even a handful of extremists can carry out acts of great violence). There are exceptions, of course: disagreement over policy toward the State of Israel has created opportunities in which the expression “Zionist” support for Israel as the Jewish homeland is often used as an anti-Semitic code word for “Jew” in mainstream debate. Holocaust denial and other recent re-writings of history such as the false claim that Jews controlled the Atlantic slave trade lie about the events of the past in order to make Jews seem underhanded and evil.

More seriously, many nations in Europe and in the former Soviet empire are struggling, mostly due to unsettled or chaotic economic and social conditions, with movements opposing “foreigners” including recent immigrants and traditional enemies. These movements champion racial or national supremacy, and call for the type of charismatic, authoritarian leader that historically persecuted Jews and other minorities.

But while parts of Europe remain caught up in racial unrest, the Middle East is home to the harshest anti-Semitism in the world today. Nazi-like language is regularly expressed by the media and governments in the countries that oppose Israel and the West. And as dozens and dozens of terrorist incidents have demonstrated, there are many in Middle Eastern countries willing to act on these beliefs.

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What is Anti-Semitism? | ADL


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