The Racist Anti-Semitic Murder of Jewish Factory Boss Leo Frank

Posted By on July 10, 2011

The Murder of Little Mary Phagan by Mary Phagan Kean, Publisher: New Horizon Press; 1st edition (September 15, 1989).

The book, 'The Murder of Little Mary Phagan' authored by Mary Phagan Kean, the great grand niece of little Mary Phagan (1899 to 1913) is probably the most even-handed book written about the subject and its aftermath in the last one hundred years.
This exceptional book 'The Murder of Little Mary Phagan' details the most infamously sensational and contentious early 20th century rape and strangulation cold case investigation that began at 3:30 AM on April 27, 1913 when the Night Watchman Newt Lee called the police and reported the murder. 56 hours later on April 28, 1913 at 11:30 AM, Leo Frank was arrested, it would be his last day of freedom. The cold case would be solved when detectives discovered one of the employees who worked at the factory named Monteen stover. While interviewing Monteen Stover the police found out she went to the factory on April 26, 1913, to get her pay and waited in Leo Frank's empty office from 12:05 to 12:10 PM. Without Leo Frank knowing the police had questioned Monteen Stover, Detectives John R. Black and Harry Scott, approached Leo Frank in his cell and asked him if he had been in his office every minute from noon to 12:35PM and Leo Frank responded an affirmative 'Yes'. The alibi of Leo Frank had just been cracked wide open.

Mary Phagan Kean offers a unique analysis of the 29 day capital murder trial which began on July 28 and led to the August 25, 1913 murder conviction of Leo Max Frank, followed by its affirmation by presiding Judge, the Honorable Leonard Strickland Roan on August 26, 1913, who sentenced Leo Frank to death by hanging at the suggestion of the Jury.
The book also discusses Leo Frank's subsequent post-conviction appeals from 1913 to 1915, and his death sentence commutation by the corrupt Governor John M. Slaton on June 21, 1915.
Leo Frank would have his throat slashed on July 17, 1915 by a fellow inmate named William Creen and on August 16, 1915, Leo Frank was abducted from prison in a military commando style raid by the elite of georgia and lynched at sunrise on August 17, 1913.

Nearly 70 years after the lynching of Leo Frank, pressure from the ADL of B'nai B'rith and other Jewish organizations resulted in a highly political posthumous pardon without exoneration for Leo Frank in 1986. The Leo Frank case continues to capture the imagination of the public more than 100 years after his conviction.

Brief Biography of Leo Frank

Leo Frank was born in Cuero (also known as Paris), Texas on April 17, 1884. His family moved 3 months later to Brooklyn, NY, where Leo Frank was raised and educated at local public schools. After doing college prep work at the Pratt Institute, Leo Frank matriculated into the Ivy League Cornell University in Ithaca, NY. Leo Frank began studying Mechanical Engineering during his first semester in fall of 1902.


During the summerbreak of 1905, between his Junior and Senior year in college, Leo Frank went with his wealthy uncle Moses Frank on a sojourn overseas and spent the summer travelling around Europe.


In the fall of 1905 Leo Frank began his senior year of college. After graduating in June, 1906, with a degree in Mechanical Engineering, Leo Frank bounced around from job to job, until he visited Atlanta, Georgia, in 1907 and met again with his rich uncle Moses Frank to discuss a potentially lucrative business venture. After visiting Atlanta, Leo Frank made a very serious life decision and decided he wanted to participate in his wealthy uncles venture and he would again go on a sojourn overseas to make it happen in December 1907. Leo Frank traveled to the German Empire where he studied pencil manufacturing. After his 9 month apprenticeship, Leo Frank returned to NYC, on August 1, 1908 on the USS Amerika and then briefly stopping at his home in Brooklyn to visit his family for 1 week. Leo Frank then made a permanent move to Atlanta, Georgia, in August, 1908, starting a new life in the Heart of the South, starting work at the National Pencil Company on August 10th, 1908.


In 1910, Leo Frank married into a wealthy and established German Jewish family (Selig-Cohen) and became actively involved with Jewish philanthropy and society. Leo Frank was a rising star he was elected B'nai B'rith President of Atlanta in 1912 by the 500 member lodge. By 1913, with nearly 5 years of experience, Leo Frank had reached the pinnacle of his career at the National Pencil Company, as superintendent, accountant, and part owner.


The National Pencil Co. factory was located on 37 to 41 South Forsyth Street, it was there Thirteen year old Mary Phagan, an employee of Leo Frank had begun working in the early Spring of 1912, a little more than a year before her murder. Mary Phagan worked just down the hall from Leo Frank's office on the 2nd floor where she participated in the final and finishing production stages of the pencil manufacturing process. Mary Phagan worked in the "metal room", in a section called the tipping department, her job was inserting erasers into the empty brass metal bands that were attached to the end of the pencils on a nulling machine.

The metal department, where Mary Phagan worked contained within it the only bathroom and also the girls dressing room on the second floor. It was these places where the blood and hair of Mary Phagan would be found on Monday morning at 7AM on April 28, 1913, by early bird employees starting the work week. Word of Mary Phagans death had already reached all of Atlanta when a newspaper "Extra" was released on Sunday, April 27, 1913, after the normal paper.
Once the word got out about the discovery of real forensic evidence, word traveled fast, employees of the whole factory who were already in emotional hysterics would flock to the metal room, gawking at these unusual blood stains on the floor and the tress of 6 to 8 hairs with dry blood on them broken off and stuck on the handle of the lathe machine of Robert P. Barret.
A white powder known as haskolene was found suspiciously smeared and rubbed into the fresh blood stains on the metal room floor found in front of the girls dressing room, it appeared to be an attempt to cover up the evidence, but the blood bled through the whitepowder turning the red blood stain variations of white, pink and dark blood red. The blood stain also had a star burst pattern that occurs when the back of someones bloody head is dropped on the floor.

The half-baked and half-assed "clean-up job" appeared to be a failed attempt to cover up the blood stains near where the murder victim it was later revealed was dropped as she was being moved from the scene of the crime in the metal room bathroom down 2 floors to the spot adjacent to the basement furnace.

Little Mary Phagan's Life (1899 to 1913):

The 55 hour work week Mary Phagan performed at the pencil factory for about 7.5 cents an hour, was her small way of helping support her five siblings, and widowed mother (who remarried a cotton mill worker named Mr. John W. Coleman in 1912). Mary's step father knew Mary Phagan and her family quite well for 4 years and he identified the hair found on the lathe machine as belonging to Mary Phagan, as did several employees.

The week before Phagan's murder, a shortage of brass supplies at the factory had led to a reduction in her work hours and she was temporarily laid off until the material and supplies could be replenished. Her wages for the shortened work week came to $1.20 or just 7.5 cents an hour for the 16 hours she had worked the previous Friday (11 hours), and Monday (5 hours) prior to her being murdered on Saturday, April 26, 1913.

On April 26, 1913, a State Holiday, celebrated locally as Confederate Memorial Day, Mary came to the factory to claim her pay before going to see the Confederate memorial day parade with some of her friends and neighbor / co-worker George W. Epps in the location of Elkins-Watson place at 2pm.

Mary Phagan never arrived at 2:00PM as promised, George W. Epps stuck around for 2 hours and then left at 4:00PM.
Later in the evening George Epps ran over to Mary Phagan's home, which was right around the corner, to find out why Mary Phagan never showed up at the designated time. Mary Phagan's family was already in a state of distress and panic over her being missing, but they also thought she might have gone to stay with a relative. Mary Phagan's father, Mr. Coleman, had looked for Mary at the Bijou theater, and discovered the Handsome Mr. Darley, Foreman, at the National Pencil Company with another guy, and each one them was with a young girl from the pencil factory. Mr. Darley was married, but the young girl he was squiring was not his wife.

April 26, 1913, Noon

When Mary Phagan arrived at the factory at minutes after noon (12:02PM), Marys pay was allegedly issued to her by Leo Frank and according to the pre-trial investigation and later the testimony at the 1913 Trial, Leo Frank was the last person to admit seeing Mary Phagan alive in a virtually empty factory. On Saturday, April 26, 1913, there were 4 people in the factory at the time of Phagans arrival, when the normal number was more than 100+. It was the reason among others why Leo Frank became a suspect so early on when all things were considered.

George Epps made a deposition providing troubling testimony to the police, stating that Mary had told him in confidence, that Leo Frank scared her and often made lascivious, inappropriate sexual innuendos and insinuations toward her, that Leo Frank was "after her" in local parlance. According to Epps, Mary Phagan told him that Leo Frank would run up in front of her when she was trying to leave work and during the work day would stare at her and wink.

George Epps would after the Leo Frank murder trial get kidnapped by Frank cronies, be threatened with violence and forced to recant his testimony by signing a false affidavit under duress. George Epps later signed a true affidavit about the intimate details of his abduction and being kidnapped to Alabama. The true affidavit described in details the dishonest trickery that unraveled when he was kidnapped and forced under duress to sign a pre-written affidavit.

April 27, 1913

In the early hours of Sunday, April 27, 1913, at around 3:24 AM in the morning, the Negro night watch ("night witch") Newt Lee made a phone call to the police. Newt Lee found Mary Phagans mangled body on a dirt mound near a furnace in the rear of the basement at 3:20 AM, with what looked like a strip or part of her bloody pettycoat wrapped around her head. Police reported there was evidence she had been dragged by her arms from the elevator 140 feet face down, before being dumped next to the furnace. Phagan's face was so scratched up, punctured and covered with filth at first the police were unsure if it were a white or black girl.

The autopsy would reveal she had been hit on the face around the eye with a fist, there was also damage to the back of her head that was likely caused when it hit the handle of the lathe on the second floor in the metal room and broke off her hair. The underwear of Mary Phagan was torn open, she had been violently raped, her face beaten black-and-blue, and strangled with a 7 foot cord. One doctor testified under oath to several types of specific kinds of sexual violence and vaginal damage that occurred, suggesting some kind of rape either penile or by fingers.

Leo M. Frank

The police after viewing the body of Mary Phagan made several failed attempts at reaching Leo Frank on the phone in the early hours of April 27, 1913, but they did not have problems reaching other people. It would not be until the early morning after sunrise the police finally reaching him on the phone, they went directly to the home of Leo Frank at around 7am in the morning.
When the detectives arrived at his home, the door was answered by Mrs. Lucille Selig Frank, the police asked to speak with Mr. Frank. Like typical seasoned detectives, without telling Leo Frank what it was about, they observed him and asked him to come to the factory with them, suspicion fell on Leo Frank because he appeared to be extremely nervous, trembling, rubbing his hands, and pale. Police noticed Leo Frank appeared to be badly hung over, bumbling, jimjamming and agitated. Leo Frank also gave overly detailed and meticulous answers on very minor points, his voice was hoarse. Leo Frank fumbled, butterfingered and struggled with minor tasks like fixing his collar and tie. Moreover, Leo kept saying he hadn't had breakfast and kept asking for a cup of coffee trying to delay the the process of being taken to the Pencil Manufacturing Plant he was Superintendent.
The police asked Leo Frank if he had known Mary Phaganand Leo Frank denied knowing a Mary Phagan saying he would need to check the accounting books he managed to be sure.

The Mary Phagan denial would become an important point at the trial, because Mary Phagan had worked for a year on the same floor as Leo Frank, her work station was only a few feet away next to the bathroom, where Leo Frank visited each day more than once. Other employees testified Frank knew Mary on a first name basis, others said they saw him behave in that gray area between politeness and sexual harassment toward her. Mary Phagan had also collected more than 50 pay envelopes from Leo Frank during her 1 year of employment and logged more than an impressive 2,750 hours of work at the factory from Spring 1912 to Monday, April 21, 1913.

Leo Frank flat out got caught in a lie about whether or not he knew Mary Phagan, which damaged his credibility and left people wondering why he was trying to pretend not to know her.

Frame the Nightwatchman Newt Lee

On Sunday, April 27, 1913, Leo Frank said Newt Lee's time card was punched correctly, but on Monday April 28, 1913, Leo Frank said Newt Lee did not punch his time card at 3 disparate intervals, creating 3 intervals of 1 hour of unaccounted for time for Newt Lee. Leo Frank told the police to check his body and house, the police found no Marks on his body, and his home and laundry showed no blood stains. When the police searched Newt Lee's home without a warrant, at the bottom of a laundry barrel they found a bloody shirt. The shirt had blood stains high up on the armpits in the front and back in a way the police immediately thought it was a plant, plus, the shirt was minty clean and did not have the distinctive negro funk on it hey recalled.
It was these three variables the fresh shirt, with oddly placed blood smears and no funky smell, that gave it away the shirt was a plant.

It was as if Leo Frank was trying to implicate Newt Lee, the murder notes with "night witch", the time card contradiction and the planted shirt, turned full suspicion on Leo Frank.

Leo Frank's last full day of freedom was Monday, April 28, 1913, because on Tuesday April 29, 1913, at 11:30PM Leo Frank was arrested.

After arresting and questioning the black janitor James "Jim" Conley, who it was later discoverd was present at work on the infamous Confederate Saturday, the police eventually cracked James "Jim" Conley with the 3rd degree and after 3 half-truth affidavits, they finally got James "Jim" Conley to admit he was an accomplice after the fact to the strangulation murder. They got the details out of him about how the body was transported to the basement and what Leo Frank was saying and doing that day.
James Conley admitted he was asked by Leo Frank to move the body of Mary Phagan to the basement and ghost wrote four dictated "death notes" (only 2 were discovered) which were scattered next to the head of Mary Phagan by Leo Frank once she was dumped in the basement and James Conley left the building.

The murder notes were a very contrived attempt to make it appear as if Mary Phagan had written the "death notes" after she went to the bathroom and was sexually assaulted by a negro. The "death notes" where unmistakeably clear in their attempt to pin the crime and point guilt to the "long tall slim negro" night watchman Newt Lee ("night witch").

The "death notes" left many people asking themselves when or ever in history of the 13.7 Billion Year Old Cosmos has a black man committed a rape, robbery and murder, and then stuck around to write literature, four murder notes, only 2 were found, as if they were being written by the victim in the middle of the rape by night time security guard and then addressing the notes to her mother describing what happened.

The Trial

There was some conflicting testimony about what Leo Frank said concerning a question Mary Phagan asked him at 12:03 PM, "Has the metal come in?". A Pinkerton detective and defense witness hired by the National Pencil Company contradicted Leo Frank about the answer Mary had given to the question.

The trial would make history, because it would be the first time in the United States of America, where the testimony of two black man (Jim Conley & Newt Lee) would lead to the conviction and death sentence of a white man (Leo Frank) by an all White jury in the white racially consciousness and racially segregated South. However, the star witness was not Black, but White.

Star Witness Monteen Stover and the (2nd) Leo Frank Murder Confession

Though the Star witness was neither Newt Lee or Jim Conley, but a 14 year old White girl named Monteen Stover who cracked wide open Leo Frank's alibi. Monteen Stover had come to the factory to collect her pay envelope minutes after Mary Phagan had arrived, but she did not bump into Mary Phagan walking down the stairs and Leo Frank was not in either his inner or outer office, nor was Leo Frank aware that Monteen Stover had arrived and waited for him in his second floor office for five minutes fully between 12:05 to 12:10 PM. Frank would counter the testimony of Monteen Stover stating, he might have "unconsciously" gone to the bathroom in the metalroom during this time.

Frank had entrapped himself beyond escape, because the only bathroom on the second floor was located within the metal room, it was the metal room where the murder evidence was found and the prosecution had successfully built a 29 day case that Leo Frank had murdered Mary Phagan there in the metal room between 12:05 and 12:10. To make matters worse, Leo Frank had made a statement, known as State's Exhibit B, where he said Mary Phagan had arrived into his office between 12:05PM and 12:10PM, but Frank's office was empty and he claimed he was inside the metal room's bathroom. Leo Frank had made a virtual murder confession at his own trial, it was the first time in US history.

Be sure to read the final closing statements of State's prosecution team leader, the Solicitor General Hugh Dorsey and Assistant Solicitor Frank Hooper in American State Trials Volume X 1918, for their unique take on the Leo Frank murder confession. One should also read the really long winded closing arguments of Hugh Dorsey published separately outside of American State Trials Volume X 1918, known as 'The Argument of Hugh M. Dorsey'.

Tom Watson

Many would argue the best post trial analysis of the Leo Frank murder confession is articulated by the genius & anti-semite Tom Watson in his five booklets on the Leo Frank trial in Watson's Magazine, January, March, August, September and October of 1915.

Appeals 1913 to 1915

Numerous frivolous, ultra cheesy and half-baked appeal attempts were made by the Leo Frank Legal Defense Team to the Georgia Superior Court, Georgia Supreme Court, US Federal District Court and United States Supreme Court, all appeals were denied after careful review, with lengthy decisions written and rendered (see

Commutation June 21, 1915

The departing Governor of Georgia, John M. Slaton (who also happened to be a senior legal partner and part owner of the same law firm which represented Leo Frank at the trial), decided to commute the death sentence of his client, Leo Frank, to life in prison on June 21, 1915, just days before the end of his last term as Governor. It was an act of political suicide, but it didn't matter, as he was leaving office anyway and was likely rewarded in other ways.


The genius anti-semite Tom Watson through his popular Jeffersonian publishing company in 1914 and 1915, mocked Leo Frank calling him a Jewish sodomite and wrote five separate scathing reviews about the Leo Frank Case in January, March, August, September and October of 1915 issues of Watson's Magazine (These 5 issues are available on They are deliciously sarcastic and filled with energy, seasoned wit and juicy venom.

Leo Frank Shanking, July 17, 1915

One month after the commutation of Leo Frank, he had his neck slashed in prison by a fellow violent inmate named William Creen, who used a 7 inch butcher knife on Leo's tender throat. Leo Frank barely survived the attack, two inmate doctors came to his help, the wound was a bit slow to heal in the hot humid summer of 1915.

Almost 2 months later, after Leo Frank received controversial clemency against the wishes of the Jury that sentenced him to death, a well organized group of about 25 to 35 men, many of which were from Georgia's highest strata of politics, law and society, organized themselves into the 'Knights of Mary Phagan'. This newly formed group of Georgia's elites, sought to fulfill the conviction of the Jury and death sentence judgement preserved and prescribed by Judge Leonard Strickland Roan. These elite men of the Knights of Mary Phagan wanted to deliver righteous retribution in the form of "Southern Style Vigilante Justice".
After much careful planning, Leo Frank was kidnapped from the minimum security Milledgeville prison he was housed on the evening of August 16, 1915, driven all through the night and then lynched in the early hours of August 17, 1915, from an oak tree near the town where Mary Phagan had formerly lived.

Post Lynching, August 17, 1915

Franks dangling body became a public spectacle, photographs were taken and the pictures of Leo Franks lifeless suspended body, gently twirling in the breeze became popular post cards and memorabilia in the South, selling out almost instantly.

How the Most Definitive Book on the Leo Frank Case was Born

The book 'The Murder of Little Mary Phagan' is written by the namesake of the murder victim, Mary Phagan's great niece named Mary Phagan Kean. When Mary Phagan Kean was 13 years old, she discovered her given name was no mere coincidence. When people heard Mary Phagan Keans name they started asking her questions about whether she was related to the famous little Mary Phagan who had been murdered long ago by Leo Frank on Confederate Memorial Day, Saturday, April 26, 1913.
Mary Phagan Kean would learn a startling secret when she asked her family if she was a blood relative connected to the Mary Phagan who was murdered. When her family revealed the truth about her blood relation, Mary Phagan Kean immediately became insatiably curious about the investigation, trial and aftermath.

Instantly becoming a life long student of the case at age 13, Mary Phagan-Kean has devoted every free moment in her entire life studying volumes of research and documents, reading every surviving document surrounding the torture, rape and strangulation of her great grand aunt, 13 year old Mary Phagan (1899 to 1913) and the biography of Leo Max Frank (1884 to 1915).

B'nai B'rith

Leo Frank was the President of the 500 member Atlanta Chapter of B'nai B'rith. As a result of the conviction in this national scandal which evolved into a sensational trial, it would become the critical mass of "Anti-semitism" catalyzing the formation of two American groups: the Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith in October, 1913, or ADL ( for short, and spark the revival of the defunct nativist and ethnic nationalist Ku Klux Klan (KKK) in 1915 as a White Nationalist immunal response to what they perceived as an infection of the United States as a host body.


Jewish Scholars which overwhelmingly wrote the lion share of all the written books, articles, web sites, scripts and texts about the subject of Leo Frank and Mary Phagan almost unanimously allege the investigation, trial, and conviction where part of a widespread Antisemitic conspiracy, a text book case of railroading and framing an innocent Jewish Man because of anti-Jewish racism and religious hatred. Leo Frank partisan books often leave out most of the relevant facts, evidence and testimony in the Leo Frank case dishonestly spinning the facts convenient to creating doubt about Leo Franks guilt.


Pressure from the powerful Jewish community, Jewish groups and ADL (Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith) with an affidavit from a lonely, broke and senile octogenarian, the former office boy of Leo Frank who worked for him for 3 weeks in April 1913, a man named Alonzo Mann, resulted in the highly political 1986 Georgian pardon of Leo Frank (without exoneration).
There was only one problem, Alonzo Mann had died in March of 1985 and no one could question him. The politically corrupt board forgave Leo Frank, but kept his guilt intact and thus did not disturb the verdict of the Jury.

On March 11, 1986, a pardon without exoneration of guilt was issued by the board:

Without attempting to address the question of guilt or innocence, and in recognition of the State's failure to protect the person of Leo M. Frank and thereby preserve his opportunity for continued legal appeal of his conviction, and in recognition of the State's failure to bring his killers to justice, and as an effort to heal old wounds, the State Board of Pardons and Paroles, in compliance with its Constitutional and statutory authority, hereby grants to Leo M. Frank a Pardon.

A number of fictionalized media dramatizations have been made about the trial in the form of plays, musicals, miniseries, docudramas, video blogs, songs, treatments and Broadway plays all created by Jews making a mockery of the life of Mary Phagan who is used as nothing more than a plot antagonist. Attempts are made idealize and rehabilitate Leo Frank as an innocent Jewish victim of evil Antisemitism, transforming him from a pedophile murderer into a holy religious martyr.

The blood libel against the Leo Frank prosecution and people who think Leo Frank guilt continues to this day by the Jewish community, though sometimes it is often couched. The Jewish community won't dare ever mention the "unconscious" bathroom murder confession Leo Frank made on the witness stand when he was giving his statement at the trial on August 18, 1913. The statement Leo Frank made to counter Monteen Stover's testimony is always left out of most books.

Leo Frank is the only person in US history to make a virtual murder confession at his own trial, shocking, but true. See Hugh M. Dorsey, Frank Arthur Hooper and Tom Watson's interpretation of the Leo Frank murder confession. Also see State's Exhibit A, B, J, Monteen Stover's Testimony, Harry Scott's Testimony and the Testimony of Leo Frank.

The 4.7MB adobe PDF version of the book is available here for download. Please download this book and read it.

"Definitive account of one of the most famous crimes of the century."--American Jewish Outlook

"Riveting and captivating!" -- Ira Stein

"The most evenhanded account of the most sensational trial of the 20th century." -- Matt Cohen

"The best book written on the Leo Frank case since 1915" - MC

The book was published in English on September 25, 1989

For more information on the Leo Frank Case, visit:
More excellent books and reading on the subject include:

0. The Leo Frank Case (Mary Phagan) Inside Story of Georgia's Greatest Murder Mystery 1913 - The first neutral book written on the subject in 1913. Very interesting read available on: and

1. The Murder of Little Mary Phagan by Mary Phagan Kean (Available here on Written by Mary Phagan Kean, the great grand niece of Mary Phagan. A neutral account of the events surrounding the trial of Leo Frank and considered the most balanced, fair and accurate work on the Leo Frank case. The Murder of Little Mary Phagan is well worth reading and it is a refreshing change from the endless number of Leo Frank partisan media, articles and books turning the Leo Frank case into a mellow dramatic, Jewish, neurotic, race obsessed and hollyweird tabloid controversy. The Murder of Little Mary Phagan is required reading.

2. American State Trials, volume X (1918) by John Lawson (Available here on and Tends to be biased or lean in favor of Leo Frank and his legal defense team, this document provides an abridged version of the Brief of Evidence, leaving out some important things said at the trial and the details of some of the evidence when it republishes parts of the official trial testimony. Be sure to read the closing arguments of Luther Zeigler Rosser, Reuben Rose Arnold, Frank Arthur Hooper and Hugh Manson Dorsey. What this book possesses is something that no other book does, it has the abridged closing arguments of State's prosecution team members Hugh M. Dorsey and Frank Arthur Hooper, be sure to read their interpretation of the Gobsmacking, August 18, 1913, Leo Frank murder confession when Leo Frank to counter Monteen Stover's testimony, says that he might have had the safe door open or "unconsciously" gone to the bathroom in the metal room. Be sure to familiarize yourself with Monteen Stover's testimony and the official 1913 Brief of Evidence. For the best interpretation of the mind boggling Leo Frank murder confession, one better than both Hugh Dorsey and Frank Arthur Hooper, then definitely read the Anti-Semite Tom Watson's five works on the Leo Frank trial in his Watson's Magazine issues: Jan, March, August, September and October of 1915. Putting aside Watson's vile Anti-Semitism, his works on the Leo Frank case are delicious, full of wit, sarcasm, energy and venom (Required Reading).

For a more complete version of the Leo M. Frank trial testimony, read the official 1913 murder trial brief of evidence (available on and you can see what was left out in American State Trials Volume X 1918.

3. Argument of Hugh M. Dorsey in the Trial of Leo Frank (Available here on Some but not all of the 9 hours of arguments given to the Jury at the end of the Leo Frank trial. Only 18 Libraries in the world have copies of this books. It can be found here on thanks to This is an excellent book and required reading to see how Dorsey in sales vernacular 'closed' a Jury of 12 men and Judge Roan. Make sure you read the section on the Leo Frank murder confession in this book and compare it to the one in American State Trials Volume X 1918, see the differences in the final closing arguments.

4. Leo M. Frank, Plaintiff in Error, vs. State of Georgia, Defendant in Error. In Error from Fulton Superior Court at the July Term 1913, Brief of Evidence. Extremely rare, only 1 copy exists, and it is at the Georgia State Archive. This document is available now on and

5.,6.,7., The Atlanta Constitution, The Atlanta Journal, The Atlanta Georgian (Hearst's Tabloid Yellow Journalism), April 28th to August 27th 1913.

8. Tom Watson's Jeffersonian and Watson's Magazine: Watson's Magazine, January 1915, Watson's Magazine, March 1915; Watson's Magazine, August 1915, Watson's Magazine, September 1915, and Watson's Magazine, October of 1915. (Available here on and Tom Watson's best work on the Leo M. Frank case was published in September 1915. Watson's five works written collectively on the Leo M. Frank topic, provide logical arguments confirming the guilt of Leo M. Frank with superb reasoning.

These five works are absolutely required reading for anyone interested in the Leo M. Frank Case. Tom Watson's magazine publications surged from 30,000 to 100,000 copies, when it was announced he would be writing on the Leo Frank case. These magazines are extremely rare and very difficult to find. However they have been scanned and are available on both and

1. The Leo Frank Case By Tom Watson (January 1915) Watson's Magazine Volume 20 No. 3. See page 139 for the Leo Frank Case. Jeffersonian Publishing Company, Thomson, Ga., Digital Source:

2. The Full Review of the Leo Frank Case By Tom Watson (March 1915) Volume 20. No. 5. See page 235 for 'A Full Review of the Leo Frank Case'. Jeffersonian Publishing Company, Thomson, Ga., Digital Source:

3. The Celebrated Case of The State of Georgia vs. Leo Frank By Tom Watson (August 1915) Volumne 21, No 4. See page 182 for 'The Celebrated Case of the State of Georgia vs. Leo Frank". Jeffersonian Publishing Company, Thomson, Ga., Digital Source:

4. The Official Record in the Case of Leo Frank, Jew Pervert By Tom Watson (September 1915) Volume 21. No. 5. See page 251 for 'The Official Record in the Case of Leo Frank, Jew Pervert'. Jeffersonian Publishing Company, Thomson, Ga., Digital Source:

5. The Rich Jews Indict a State! The Whole South Traduced in the Matter of Leo Frank By Tom Watson (October 1915) Volume 21. No. 6. See page 301. Jeffersonian Publishing Company, Thomson, Ga., Digital Source:
The most comprehensive research archive of Leo M. Frank Case information and documents, visit:

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