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Holocaust Denial: Key Dates | The Holocaust Encyclopedia

Posted By on October 4, 2018

What is Holocaust Denial?

The Holocaust is one of the best documented events in history. Holocaust denial describes attempts to negate the established facts of the Nazi genocide of European Jewry. Common denial assertions are: that the murder of six million Jews during World War II never occurred; that the Nazis had no official policy or intention to exterminate the Jews; and that the poison gas chambers in Auschwitz-Birkenau death camp never existed.

A newer trend is the distortion of the facts of the Holocaust. Common distortions include, for example, assertions that: the figure of six million Jewish deaths is an exaggeration; deaths in the concentration camps were the results of disease or starvation but not policy; and that the diary of Anne Frank is a forgery.

Holocaust denial and distortion are generally motivated by hatred of Jews, and build on an accusation that the Holocaust was invented or exaggerated by Jews as part of a plot to advance Jewish interests. This view perpetuates long-standing antisemitic stereotypes by accusing Jews of conspiracy and world domination, hateful charges that were instrumental in laying the groundwork for the Holocaust.

The United States Constitution ensures freedom of speech. Therefore, in the United States denying the Holocaust or engaging in antisemitic hate speech is not illegal, except when there is an imminent threat of violence. Many other countries, particularly in Europe where the Holocaust occurred, have laws criminalizing Holocaust denial and hate speech.

The International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance (IHRA), a multinational organization with 31 members including the United States, has adopted a Working Definition of Holocaust Denial and Distortion.

This timeline lists some key events in the evolution of Holocaust denial.

194244To conceal the evidence of their annihilation of Europe's Jews, Germans and their collaborators destroy evidence of mass graves at the Belzec, Sobibor, and Treblinka killing centers, and at thousands of sites of mass shooting operations throughout German-occupied Poland, the German-occupied Soviet Union, and Serbia, including Babi Yar, in an operation code named Aktion 1005.

1943In a speech to SS Generals at Poznan, Heinrich Himmler, Reich Leader (Reichsfhrer) of the SS (Schutzstaffel; Protection Squadrons), remarks that the mass murder of the European Jews will be kept secret, never to be recorded.

1955Willis Carto founds an influential, far right group based in Washington, DC, that eventually comes to be known as the Liberty Lobby. Led by Carto until its bankruptcy in 2001, the Liberty Lobby advocates a racially pure United States and blames Jews for problems facing the US and the world. The Liberty Lobby begins to publish Holocaust denial literature in 1969.

1959American clergyman Gerald L. K. Smith's antisemitic publication, Cross and the Flag, claims that six million Jews were not killed during the Holocaust but immigrated to the United States during World War II.

1964Paul Rassinier, a French Communist who had been interned by the Nazis, publishes The Drama of European Jewry, in which he claims that gas chambers were an invention of a Zionist establishment.

196667American historian Harry Elmer Barnes publishes articles in the Libertarian periodical Rampart Journal claiming that the Allies overstated the extent of Nazi atrocities in order to justify a war of aggression against the Axis powers.

1969Noontide Press, a subsidiary of the Liberty Lobby, publishes a book entitled The Myth of the Six Million.

1973Austin J. App, professor of English literature at LaSalle University in Philadelphia, publishes a pamphlet: The Six Million Swindle: Blackmailing the German People for Hard Marks with Fabricated Corpses. The pamphlet becomes a foundation for future claims by Holocaust deniers.

1976Northwestern University engineering professor Arthur R. Butz publishes The Hoax of the Twentieth Century: The Case Against the Presumed Extermination of European Jewry. Butz was the first Holocaust denier to use the pretense of academic rigor to disguise his falsehoods. Northwestern responds by declaring Butz's statements an embarrassment to the university.

1977Ernst Zndel, a German citizen living in Canada, establishes Samisdat Publishers, which issues neo-Nazi literature that includes Holocaust denial. In 1985 the Canadian government prosecuted Zndel for distributing information he knew to be false.

1977David Irving publishes Hitler's War, arguing that Hitler neither ordered nor condoned the Nazi policy of the genocide of the European Jews. Irving distorts historical evidence and scholarly methods to lend legitimacy to his thesis.

1978William David McCalden (also known as Lewis Brandon) and Willis Carto found the Institute for Historical Review (IHR) in California, which publishes material and sponsors conferences denying the Holocaust. The IHR masks its hateful, racist messages under the guise of valid academic inquiry.

1980The IHR promises a $50,000 reward to anyone who can prove that Jews were gassed at Auschwitz. Survivor Mel Mermelstein submits an affidavit of his internment at Auschwitz and brings suit against the IHR when the institute refuses to pay. In October 1981, Superior Court judge Thomas T. Johnson uses "judicial notice," which allows courts to recognize as fact matters that are common knowledge, to issue a ruling that the Holocaust was fact and that Jews were gassed at Auschwitz.

1981A French court convicts literature professor Robert Faurisson of inciting hatred and discrimination for calling the Holocaust a historical lie.

1984In a landmark case, a Canadian court convicts public school teacher James Keegstra of willfully promoting hatred against an identifiable group for espousing Holocaust denial and other antisemitic views to his social studies students.

1986On July 8, the Israeli parliament passes a law criminalizing denial of the Holocaust.

1987California-based Bradley Smith founds the Committee for Open Debate on the Holocaust. During the early 1990s, Smith's organization places full-page advertisements or editorial pieces in more than a dozen American college newspapers under the headline The Holocaust Story: How Much is False? The Case for Open Debate. Smith's campaign helps to blur the line between hate mongering and freedom of speech.

1987Jean Marie Le Pen, leader of France's far right National Front party, suggests that gas chambers were merely a detail of World War II. Le Pen runs for president in France in 1988 and comes in fourth.

1987Moroccan-Swedish writer Ahmed Rami begins broadcasting on Radio Islam, based in Sweden. The station describes the Holocaust as a Zionist/Jewish claim. Radio Islam later posts The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, Mein Kampf, and other antisemitic texts on its website.

1988At the request of Ernst Zndel, Fred Leuchter (a self-proclaimed specialist in execution methods) travels to the site of the Auschwitz killing center. He later issues the Leuchter Report : An Engineering Report on the Alleged Execution Gas Chambers at Auschwitz, Birkenau and Majdanek, Poland, which is cited by Holocaust deniers to cast doubt on the use of gas chambers for mass murder.

1989David Duke, a white supremacist, wins a seat in the Louisiana State Legislature. Duke sells Holocaust denial literature from his legislative office.

1990After Illinois becomes the first American state to mandate teaching about the Holocaust in public schools, parents Ingeborg and Safet Sarich publicly protest by pulling their 13-year-old daughter out of school. The Sariches also mail 6,000 letters to public officials, scholars, journalists, and Holocaust survivors attacking the historical record as rumors and exaggerations.

1990The French government enacts the Gayssot Law which declares that questioning the scale or existence of crimes against humanity (as defined in the London Charter of 1945) is a criminal offense. This act marks the first European statute explicitly outlawing denial of the Holocaust.

1990In the course of criminal proceedings brought against Fred Leuchter by the State of Massachusetts, it is revealed that Leuchter never actually earned an engineering degree or license. Leuchter admits that he has no training in biology, toxicology, or chemistry, all of which are crucial to the claims of the 1988 Leuchter Report, which is often cited to support claims made by Holocaust deniers.

1990A Swedish court sentences Ahmed Rami to six months in jail for hate speech and revokes the broadcasting license of Radio Islam for one year.

1991The American Historical Association, the oldest professional organization of historians, issues a statement: No serious historian questions that the Holocaust took place.

2000A British court declares David Irving an active Holocaust denier. Irving had sued Emory University historian Deborah Lipstadt for libel following the publication of her 1993 book Denying the Holocaust The Growing Assault on Truth and Memory.

2000The Czech Republic enacts a law criminalizing Holocaust denial. The law is reenacted in 2009.

2001Slovakia criminalizes Holocaust denial.

2002The Zayed Center for Coordination and Follow-Up, a think tank of the League of Arab States based in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), organizes a symposium on "Semitism." At the symposium, the Holocaust is called a false fable. The government of the UAE closes the Zayed Center in August 2003 after external pressure about the Centers anti-American and antisemitic publications and lectures.

2002Romania passes an Emergency Ordinance criminalizing Holocaust denial in response to a growing movement to publically rehabilitate General Ion Antonescu, a pro-Fascist dictator who oversaw the deaths of 280,000 Jews and 11,000 Roma(Gypsies) during World War II.

2002Swedish courts sentence neo-Nazi Fredrik Sandberg to six months in prison for re-publishing the Third Reich-era pamphlet, The Jewish Question.

2003Wolfgang Froelich is arrested in Vienna and sentenced to three years in jail following his 2001 publication of a book entitled Die Gaskammaer Luege (The gas chamber lie). He is released after one year. In the years following, Froelich is re-arrested or has his sentences extended a number of times for continued instances of Holocaust denial, including in 2015 for writing to the Austrian chancellor claiming that the Holocaust could not have occurred.

2003The Romanian government establishes an international commission on the Holocaust in Romania, headed by Elie Wiesel. It consists of 30 Romanian and foreign historians. The objective of the commission is to examine the history of the Holocaust in Romania to identify the facts that took place and to disseminate the research results in the country and abroad. The organization of the commission follows public statements made earlier in 2003 by then President Ion Iliescu who minimized the Holocaust in Romania, and by former Information Minister Vasile Dincu who denied the Holocaust in Romania.

2005In a speech broadcast on live television on December 14, Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad calls the Holocaust a myth.

2005The Japanese magazine Marco Polo features an article written by freelance author Masanori Nishioka entitled "There Were No Nazi Gas Chambers." In the article, Nishioka claims that the Holocaust never happened and that the gas chambers at Auschwitz were created by the Polish Communist government after the war.

2006Iran's government sponsors a meeting of Holocaust deniers in Tehran cloaked as an academic conference called Review of the Holocaust: Global Vision. In the same year, Farid Mortazavi, graphics editor of the Iranian newspaper Hamshahri, announces a Holocaust cartoon contest with gold and cash prizes for the winners. There are nearly 1,200 submissions from over 60 countries, including cartoons denying or minimizing the Holocaust. Later in the year, the Saba Art and Cultural Institute in Tehran opens an exhibition, sponsored by Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, of a selection of 200 cartoons from the contest.

2007On January 26, the United Nations adopts a resolution condemning denial of the Holocaust. The General Assembly declares that denial is tantamount to approval of genocide in all its forms.

2008The European Union adopts a Framework Decision on combating racism and xenophobia (2008/913/JHA). It requires EU member states to punishthrough their criminal lawpublicly condoning, denying, or grossly trivializing instances of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes, including those committed by the Nazis, when such conduct is intended to incite violence or hatred against a specific religious, ethnic, or other group.

2009English-born Catholic Bishop Richard Williamson denies the existence of gas chambers and minimizes the extent of killing during the Holocaust. The Vatican eventually calls on Williamson to retract his statements.

2009David Duke, the former leader of the Ku Klux Klan, is arrested by Czech authorities for denying the Holocaust and inciting hate. He had been invited to speak at Charles University by the Nrodn odpor (National Resistance) group. The Czech government orders Duke to leave the country the following day. The State Prosecutors Office in Prague later dismisses the charges due to lack of evidence.

2010Hungary criminalizes Holocaust denial.

2010Bradley Smith places his first online Holocaust denial advertisement, which appears on the website of the University of Wisconsin's Badger Herald in February. The Internetbecause of its ease of access and dissemination, seeming anonymity, and perceived authorityis now the chief conduit of Holocaust denial.

2010The Dutch appeals court fines the Arab European League (AEL) 2,500 for publishing a cartoon on its website in 2006 that suggested the Holocaust was made up or exaggerated by Jews. According to the AEL, the organization published the cartoon to highlight double standards in free speech after a Danish newspaper published a cartoon of the Prophet Mohammad. The court also imposes a 2-year probation period on the AEL.

2010Lithuania criminalizes Holocaust denial. Later in the same year, the Lithuanian magazine Veidas publishes an article entitled [The] Nuremberg War Crimes Tribunal - The Greatest Legal Farce in History by Petras Stankeras, a Lithuanian historian who also served in the Ministry of Interior of the Republic of Lithuania. In the article, Stankeras highlights the application of double standards towards the Nazis and criticizes the International Military Tribunal. He also describes the Holocaust as a legend lacking substantiation for the killing of six million Jews. After international pressure, Stankeras steps down from his post in the Ministry of the Interior. The Vilnius County Prosecutor's Office initiates a pre-trial investigation of the article, but closes the investigation in February 2011 without pressing any charges against Stankeras.

2011The vice chairman of Egypts Wafd Party tells the Washington Times in an interview that the September 11 terrorist attacks, the Holocaust, and Anne Franks diary are all historical fabrications. The Holocaust is a lie, says Ahmed Ezz El-Arab. He continues, the Jews under German occupation were 2.4 million. So if they were all exterminated, where does the remaining 3.6 million come from?

2012Nikolaos Michaloliakos, the head of Greeces far-right Golden Dawn party, denies the existence of gas chambers in Nazi concentration camps during the Holocaust. There were no ovens, no gas chambers, its a lie, he states during an interview aired on television.

2012Saudi cleric Salman al-Odeh tells Rotana Khalijiya TV that The Holocaust has a historical basis. Many stories about it are documented and well-founded. The problem lies, first of all, in the exaggeration of the Holocaust. It has been turned into a myth of tremendous proportions.... For thousands of years, the Jews were subject to persecution, deportation, killings, and accusations. Maybe much of this stemmed from their moral values, their treacherous nature, their schemes, and the ploys, which made other nations be wary of them.

2012Corneliu Vadim Tudor, a Romanian member of the European Parliament and leader of the nationalist Greater Romania Party, denies the Holocaust on the talk show Romania a la Raport. Tudor states, In Romania there was never a Holocaust.... I will deny it till I die because I love my people.

2013On Holocaust Remembrance Day, Fathi Shihab-Eddim, an aide to Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi, claims that the 6 million Jews who were killed by the Nazis actually relocated to the United States. U.S. intelligence agencies, in cooperation with their counterparts in Allied nations during World War II, created it [the Holocaust] to destroy the image of their opponents in Germany, and to justify war and massive destruction against military and civilian facilities of the Axis powers, and especially to hit Hiroshima and Nagasaki with the atomic bomb, states Shihab-Eddim.

2013Gyorgy Nagy becomes the first Hungarian to be convicted of Holocaust denial. Nagy carried a sign during a 2011 demonstration in Budapest which read the Holocaust never happened in Hebrew. The Court sentences him to 18 months in prison and probation. Part of his sentence is also to visit either Budapests Holocaust memorial museum, Auschwitz, or Yad Vashem.

2014Udo Voigt, the former leader of Germanys National Democratic Party (NDP) is appointed to the European Parliaments Civil Liberties, Justice, and Home Affairs Committee. While leader of the NDP, which espouses Neo-Nazi views, Voigt had praised Adolf Hitler and claimed that far fewer than six million Jews were murdered in the Holocaust. He was convicted of incitement of the people.

2014In his official 2014 Nowruz address, Iranian Ayatollah Ali Khamenei remarks: The Holocaust is an event whose reality is uncertain and if it has happened, its uncertain how it has happened.

2014Russia criminalizes Holocaust denial.

2014Greece criminalizes Holocaust denial.

2015Two government-sponsored Iranian cultural organizations, Owj Media & Art Institute and the Sarcheshmeh Cultural Complex, announce a second Holocaust cartoon contest, expecting to receive entries from cartoonists in dozens of countries.

2015A German court finds Ursula Haverbeck guilty of sedition after she wrote a letter to the Mayor of Detmold, stating that it was "clearly recognizable" that Auschwitz was nothing more than a labor camp. She sent her message when the Detmold court was trying Reinhold Hanning, a former guard at the Auschwitz camp. In 2014, she had been on trial for saying that the Holocaust was "the biggest and longest-lasting lie in history."

2016On International Holocaust Remembrance Day, Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei releases a video entitled Holocaust: Are the Dark Ages Over?" on his website, which includes his 2014 comments questioning the Nazi mass slaughter of six million Jews during World War II.

2016An amendment adopted in Italy criminalizes Holocaust denial.

2016An exhibition displaying 150 Holocaust cartoons (external link) from the 11th Tehran International Cartoon Biennial opens in Tehran in the art section of the Islamic Propaganda Organization. Two weeks later, an awards ceremony is held for the winners of the Holocaust cartoon contest. Majid Mollanoroozi, the director of Tehran's Museum of Contemporary Art and the Head of the Graphic Arts section of the Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance, takes part in the awards ceremony. Prizes reportedly total $50,000.

2016The Polish cabinet approves a bill imposing prison terms on anyone convicted of referring to death camps operated by Nazi Germany in occupied Poland as Polish. Claiming that the Poles collaborated with the Nazis in exterminating the Jews would also be considered a criminal offense.

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Holocaust Denial: Key Dates | The Holocaust Encyclopedia

Ashkenaz – Hebrew Nations

Posted By on October 3, 2018

4. Identifications of Ashkenaz

Ashkenaz is often identified with the Scyths. One of the names given the Scythians in Assyrian scripts was Ashguz or Ashkuz which could easily have been pronounced similarly to Ashkenaz.Ashkenaz was attributed "Asia" (Genesis Rabah 37) meaning an area by Sardes in Lydia (Western Turkey by Phrygia), as well possibly as a region in Cilicia(Southeast Turkey, and to part of Afghanistan. The name Ashkenaz was also given (Targum Jehonathan on Ezekiel 27;23) to Haydayb (i.e. Adiabene) in Northern Syria which in the Talmud (Yebamot 17) is equated with Habor whereto part of the Exiled Israelites were taken (2-Kings 17;6). The Targum Jerushalemi identifies Ashkenaz with the BARBARI which is an ethnic connotation for the so called "Germanic" peoples who attacked and invaded the Roman Empire ca.200-500 c.e. Elsewhere both the Barbari and the Germans are identified with Edom. In ancient times the term BARBAR was used synonymously with the term for Hebrew. Adiabene, which one source ascribed to Ashkenaz, is also attributed (Genesis Rabah 37) to Riphah brother of Ashkenaz.

Ashkenazhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AshkenazFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Ashkenaz is often identified with the Scythians and Sarmatians, due in part to the use of the name "Ashkuz" (Saka) for the Scythians in Assyrian Akkadian inscriptions. It may also refer to the Phrygians, who according to Homer's Iliad settled around Lake Ascania. The Assyrian Gimirri and Hebrew Gomer have likewise been associated with the Cimmerians.

In rabbinic literature, the kingdom of Ashkenaz was first associated with the Scythian region, then later with the Slavic territories,[1](Kraus. S, 1932, Hashemot 'ashkenaz usefarad, Tarbiz 3:423-435) and, from the 11th century onwards, with northern Europe and Germany (Kriwaczek, Paul (2005). Yiddish Civilization: The Rise and Fall of a Forgotten Nation. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-82941-6. , Chapter 3, footnote 9).

The region of Ashkenaz was centred on the Rhineland and the Palatinate (notably Worms and Speyer), in what is now the westernmost part of Germany. Its geographic extent did not coincide with the German Christian principalities of the time, and it included northern France.How the name of Ashkenaz came to be associated in the rabbinic literature with the Rhineland is a subject of speculation.[Kriwaczek, Paul (2005). ibid]

In rabbinic literature from the 11th century, Ashkenaz was considered the ruler of a kingdom in the North and of the Northern and Germanic people.

In 1498, a monk named Annio da Viterbo published fragments known as "Pseudo-Berossus", now considered a forgery, claiming that Babylonian records had shown that Noah had more than the three sons listed in the Bible. Specifically, Tuiscon or Tuisto is given as the fourth son of Noah, who had been the first ruler of Scythia and Germany following the dispersion of peoples, with him being succeeded by his son Mannus as the second king.

Later historians (e.g. Johannes Aventinus and Johann Hubner) managed to furnish numerous further details, including the assertion by James Anderson in the early 18th century that this Tuiscon was in fact none other than the biblical Ashkenaz, son of Gomer.[5] James Anderson's 1732 tome Royal genealogies reports a significant number of antiquarian or mythographic traditions regarding Askenaz as the first king of ancient Germany, for example the following entry: Askenaz, or Askanes, called by Aventinus Tuisco the Giant, and by others Tuisto or Tuizo (whom Aventinus makes the 4th son of Noah, and that he was born after the flood, but without authority) was sent by Noah into Europe, after the flood 131 years, with 20 Captains, and made a settlement near the Tanais [estuary of the Don River, Black Sea], on the West coast of the Euxin [Black] sea (by some called Asken from him) and there founded the kingdom of the Germans and the Sarmatians...

In the vocables of Saxony and Hessia, there are some villages of the name Askenaz, and from him the Jews call the Germans Askenaz, but in the Saxonic and Italian, they are called Tuiscones, from Tuisco his other name. ...The 20 captains or dukes that came with Askenaz are: Sarmata, from whom Sarmatia; Dacus or Danus - Dania or Denmark; Geta from whom the Getae; Gotha from whom the Goths; Tibiscus, people on the river Tibiscus; Mocia - Mysia; Phrygus or Brigus - Phrygia; Thynus - Bithynia; Dalmata - Dalmatia; Jader - Jadera Colonia; Albanus from whom Albania; Zavus - the river Save; Pannus -Pannonia; Salon - the town Sale, Azalus - the Azali; Hister - Istria; Adulas, Dietas, Ibalus - people that of old dwelt between the rivers Oenus and Rhenus; Epirus, from whom Epirus.

Askenaz had a brother called Scytha (say the Germans) the father of the Scythians, for which the Germans have of old been called Scythians too (very justly, for they came mostly from old Scythia) and Germany had several ancient names; for that part next to the Euxin was called Scythia, and the country of the Getes, but the parts east of the Vistule or Weyssel were called Sarmatia Europaea, and westward it was called Gallia, Celtica, Allemania, Francia and Teutonia; for old Germany comprehended the greater part of Europe; and those called Gauls were all old Germans; who by ancient authors were called Celts, Gauls and Galatians, which is confirmed by the historians Strabo and Aventinus, and by Alstedius in his Chronology...

=============================================================5.Ethnic Germans, Ashkenazi Jews, and Yiddish

Ashkenazi Jews have little in common with the real Ashkenazim of Germany other than the name.Ashkenaz was the name given in Jewish writings to Northern France and to the Rhineland of Germany and and then later to all Germany. The Jews were driven out of Germany and moved to the east bringing their customs and language with them. They were known as Ashkenazim after the places they had come from. Since they were culturally superior local Jews copied their ways. So all East European Jews as well as those of Germany and France became known as Ashkenazim. At least that is what historians usually assume.Another possibility exists which is that the Jews of eastern Europe settled in townships which at that time spoke German.In the period 200 BCE to ca. 450 CE surges of peoples speaking Germanic languages moved westward. They were followed by others speaking Slavic tongues and possessing a Slavic culture. In simplified terms from ca. 850 CE right up to 1850 the process westward was reversed and Germans began moving back towards the east. Areas close to Germany such as Prussia eventually became German in language and culture. Further east, in places such as Poland and Rumania, townships were set up by German settlers. The local non-Germanic rulers often considered themselves a different race from those they ruled over. They encouraged Germanic settlement. Natives who settled in these towns accepted German culture and eventually were considered ethnic Germans. (Occasionally it worked in the opposite direction. Numerous Germans from Saxony settled in Hungary, adopted the Magyar tongue and henceforth were regarded as native Hungarians.) Jews too were part of this process. Jews settled in the towns. Like everyone else they adopted the language already prevailing in the townships. Even Jews in the countryside regarded themselves as associated with the town communities. In the earlier stages the prevailing dialect in the townships was a type of southern German. This had a seminal effect in the formation of the Yiddish Language.

Ashkenazi JewsFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ashkenazi_JewsExtracts:Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or simply Ashkenazim... are a Jewish ethnic division that coalesced in the Holy Roman Empire around the end of the 1st millennium.[13] The traditional language of Ashkenazi Jews consisted of various dialects of Yiddish.They established communities throughout Central and Eastern Europe, which had been their primary region of concentration and residence until recent times, evolving their own distinctive characteristics and diasporic identities.[14] Once emancipated, weaving Jewish creativity into the texture of European life (Hannah Arendt),[15] the Ashkenazi made a 'quite disproportionate and remarkable contribution to humanity' (Eric Hobsbawm[16]), and to European culture in all fields of endeavour: philosophy, scholarship, literature, art, music and science.[17][18] The genocidal impact of the Holocaust, the mass murder of approximately 6 million Jews during World War II devastated the Ashkenazi and their Yiddish culture, affecting almost every Jewish family.[19][20]

It is estimated that in the 11th century Ashkenazi Jews composed only three percent of the world's Jewish population, while at their peak in 1931 they accounted for 92 percent of the world's Jews. Immediately prior to the Holocaust, the number of Jews in the world stood at approximately 16.7 million.[21] Statistical figures vary for the contemporary demography of Ashkenazi Jews, oscillating between 10 million[1] and 11.2 million.[2] Sergio Della Pergola in a rough calculation of Sephardic and Mizrahi Jews, implies that Ashkenazi make up less than 74% of Jews worldwide.[22] Other estimates place Ashkenazi Jews as making up about 75% of Jews worldwide.[23]

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Ashkenaz - Hebrew Nations

Sephardim.com – Sephardic surnames

Posted By on October 3, 2018

This site was created by Yoram Zara, Adv.Yoram is as Israeli attorney with offices in Portugaland Israel. Yoram specializes in obtaining Portuguese citizenship for Sephardi Jews.

The information in this siteused to appear on the sitewww.sephardim.com

Harry Steins website, SEPHARDIM.COM, has been for a long time one of the major websites for Sephardic genealogy on the Internet. Among its many offerings it contained a unique section on Sephardic herardlry and a list of Sephardic surnames that he patiently extracted from a large number of published books. Connected to the website was also arguably the most popular and active forum on Sephardic genealogy on the web.

The disappearance of Sephardic.com is a great loss to Sephardic genealogy on the Internet. In tribute to Harry Steinthis this site detials his name list and work.

The Sephardic names listed on this site are taken form the references listed below. The names are in alphabetical order. Beside each listing is a number or series of numbers and letters enclosed in parenthesis such as (2) (6A) (9) (29). These numbers correspond to the references listed below where the names were found. The authors of these works have identified the names as being held by Sephardim. The reference code is listed below.

(*) Name for which a coat of arms, crest.or history has been found.(+) Known or suspected converso families (as opposed to individual conversos). Most anyone appearing before the inquisition was a converso because the inquisition, by definition, had no power over the Jewish population. They did have control over New Christians or conversos.

NAMES FOUND ON THIS SITE ARE TAKEN FROM THE FOLLOWING REFERENCES

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Sephardim.com - Sephardic surnames

Fagin – Wikipedia

Posted By on September 30, 2018

FaginCreated byCharles DickensPortrayed byLon Chaney, Sr. (1922), Irving Pichel (1933), Alec Guinness (1948), Ron Moody (1968), Dom DeLuise (voice, 1988), Richard Dreyfuss (1997), Gary Farmer (2003), Ben Kingsley (2005), Timothy Spall (2007), Russ Abbott (2010/11), Noah Berry (2011), Rowan Atkinson (2010/11), Neil Morrisey (2011/12), Harry Moore (2012), Anton Lesser (2015)InformationGenderMaleOccupationCriminal

Fagin is a fictional character in Charles Dickens's novel Oliver Twist. In the preface to the novel, he is described as a "receiver of stolen goods". He is the leader of a group of children (the Artful Dodger and Charley Bates among them) whom he teaches to make their livings by pickpocketing and other criminal activities, in exchange for shelter. A distinguishing trait is his constantand insincereuse of the phrase "my dear" when addressing others. At the time of the novel, he is said by another character, Monks, to have already made criminals out of "scores" of children. Nancy, who is the lover of Bill Sikes (the novel's lead villain), is confirmed to be Fagin's former pupil.

Fagin is a self-confessed miser who, despite the wealth he has acquired, does very little to improve the squalid lives of the children he guards, or his own. In the second chapter of his appearance, he is shown (when talking to himself) that he cares less for their welfare, than that they do not "peach" (inform) on him and the other children. Still darker sides to the character's nature are shown when he beats the Artful Dodger for not bringing Oliver back; in his attempted beating of Oliver for trying to escape; and in his own involvement with various plots and schemes throughout the story. He indirectly but intentionally causes the death of Nancy by falsely informing Sikes that she had betrayed him, when in reality she had shielded Sikes from the law, whereupon Sikes kills her. Near the end of the book, Fagin is captured and sentenced to be hanged, in a chapter that portrays him as pitiable in his anguish.

In popular culture, Fagin (or at least his name) is used in comparison with adults who use children for illegal activities.

Dickens took Fagin's name from a friend he had known in his youth while working in a boot-blacking factory.[1]

Fagin's character might be based on the criminal Ikey Solomon, who was a fence at the centre of a highly publicised arrest, escape, recapture, and trial.[2][3] Some accounts of Solomon also describe him as a London underworld "kidsman" (a kidsman was an adult who recruited children and trained them as pickpockets, exchanging food and shelter for goods the children stole). The popularity of Dickens's novel caused "fagin" to replace "kidsman" in some crime circles, denoting an adult who teaches minors to steal and keeps a major portion of the loot.

Other sources, such as Howard Mancing in The Cervantes Encyclopedia, claim that Fagin is assumed to be modeled on Monipodio, one of the main characters in Miguel de Cervantes' Rinconete y Cortadillo (1613). Monipodio is the leader of a criminal ring in 17th century Seville that features cutpurses and cape stealers.

Fagin has been the subject of much debate over antisemitism, during Dickens's lifetime and in modern times. In an introduction to a 1981 Bantam Books reissue of Oliver Twist, for example, Irving Howe wrote that Fagin was considered an "archetypical Jewish villain."[4] The first 38 chapters of the book refer to Fagin by his racial and religious origin 257 times, calling him "the Jew", against 42 uses of "Fagin" or "the old man". In 2005, novelist Norman Lebrecht wrote that "A more vicious stigmatisation of an ethnic community could hardly be imagined and it was not by any means unintended."[5] Dickens, who had extensive knowledge of London street life, wrote that he had made Fagin Jewish because: "it unfortunately was true, of the time to which the story refers, that the class of criminal almost invariably was a Jew".[6] It is often argued that Fagin was based on a specific Jewish criminal of the era, Ikey Solomon.[7] Dickens also claimed that by calling Fagin "the Jew" he had meant no imputation against the Jewish people: "I have no feeling towards the Jews but a friendly one. I always speak well of them, whether in public or private, and bear my testimony (as I ought to do) to their perfect good faith in such transactions as I have ever had with them..."[8]

In later editions of the book, printed during his lifetime, Dickens excised over 180 instances of 'Jew' from the text.[9] This occurred after Dickens sold his London home in 1860 to a Jewish banker, James Davis, who objected to the emphasis on Fagin's Jewishness in the novel. When he sold the house, Dickens allegedly told a friend: "The purchaser of Tavistock House will be a Jew Money-Lender" before later saying: "I must say that in all things the purchaser has behaved thoroughly well, and that I cannot call to mind any occasion when I have had moneydealings with anyone that has been so satisfactory, considerate and trusting."[5]

Dickens became friendly with Eliza (Davis' wife), who told him in a letter in 1863 that Jews regarded his portrayal of Fagin a "great wrong" to their people. Dickens then started to revise Oliver Twist, removing all mention of "the Jew" from the last 15 chapters; and later wrote in reply: "There is nothing but good will left between me and a People for whom I have a real regard and to whom I would not willfully have given an offence". In one of his final public readings in 1869, a year before his death, Dickens cleansed Fagin of all stereotypical caricature. A contemporary report observed: "There is no nasal intonation; a bent back but no shoulder-shrug: the conventional attributes are omitted."[5][8]

In 1865, in Our Mutual Friend, Dickens created a number of Jewish characters, the most important being Mr Riah, an elderly Jew who finds jobs for downcast young women in Jewish-owned factories. One of the two heroines, Lizzie Hexam, defends her Jewish employers: "The gentleman certainly is a Jew, and the lady, his wife, is a Jewess, and I was brought to their notice by a Jew. But I think there cannot be kinder people in the world."[8]

The comic book creator Will Eisner, disturbed by the antisemitism in the typical depiction of the character, created a graphic novel in 2003 titled Fagin the Jew. In this book, the back story of the character and events of Oliver Twist are depicted from his point of view.

Numerous prominent actors have played the character of Fagin. Alec Guinness portrayed Fagin in David Lean's movie adaptation of Oliver Twist, with controversial make-up by Stuart Freeborn which exaggerated stereotypical Jewish facial features. The release of the film in the USA was delayed for three years on charges of being anti-Semitic by the Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith and the New York Board of Rabbis. It was finally released in the United States in 1951, with seven minutes of profile shots and other parts of Guinness's performance cut.

Ron Moody's portrayal in the original London production of the musical Oliver! by Lionel Bart, which he repeated in the Oscar-winning 1968 film, is recognisably influenced by Guinness' portrayal. The supposedly "anti-semitic" quality of Guinness's portrayal was considerably toned down in the musical, partly because of Moody being Jewish himself; he was in fact the first Jewish actor to portray Fagin. While Fagin remains an unrepentant thief, he is a much more sympathetic and comic character than he is in the novel. His plot with Monks is deleted and his role in Nancy's death is similarly excised, and he is portrayed as being cowardly and deeply afraid of Bill Sykes. Bart's musical also deletes Fagin's arrest and the musical ends with Fagin, faced with beginning again, pondering the possibility of going straight. The film version reverses this ending, with Fagin briefly considering reformation, but then gleefully teaming up again with Dodger to start their racket again. Moody won a Golden Globe for his performance, was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actor. When Oliver! was brought to Broadway in 1964, Fagin was portrayed by Clive Revill, but in a 1984 revival, Moody reprised his performance opposite Tony Award winner Patti LuPone, who played Nancy. Moody later stated: "Fate destined me to play Fagin. It was the part of a lifetime."[10]

Academy Award winner Ben Kingsley's portrayal of Fagin in Roman Polanski's 2005 screen adaptation was also inspired by the 1948 version.

In the 1980 ATV series The Further Adventures of Oliver Twist, Fagin was played by David Swift. In this 13-episode series, Fagin has escaped his hanging by pretending to have had a stroke, which has left him paralyzed (and therefore unfit to be executed) and is in hiding at The Three Cripples, tended to by Barney.

In the 1982 made-for-TV movie version, Fagin is portrayed by George C. Scott. Though the character is generally portrayed as elderly, diminutive and homely, Scott's version of the character was markedly younger, stronger, and better looking. Also, this version of the character had him more caring of his orphan charges, feeding them well and treating them with obvious concern.

In the 1985 miniseries, Fagin is portrayed by Eric Porter.

In Disney's animated version, Oliver & Company (1988), Fagin is a kind-hearted but poor man living in New York. He lives on a houseboat with his five dogs and is desperately searching for money to repay his debts to the New York loan shark Sykes. He is voiced by Dom DeLuise.

In 1994, Oliver! was revived in London. Fagin was played by many noted British actors and comedians, including Jonathan Pryce, George Layton, Jim Dale, Russ Abbot, Barry Humphries (who had played Mr Sowerberry in the original 1960 London production of Oliver!) and Robert Lindsay, who won an Olivier Award for his performance. The different actors playing Fagin were distinguished by their different costumes, especially their coats. Pryce used a patched red and brown coat, while Lindsay used the traditional dark green overcoat seen in the 1968 film version.

In Disney's 1997 live action television production, Oliver Twist, Fagin is played by Richard Dreyfuss.

In the 1997 film Twisted (a film loosely based on Dickens' Oliver Twist) the Fagin character is played by actor William Hickey.

In the 2003 film Twist (a film loosely based on Dickens' Oliver Twist) Fagin is played by actor Gary Farmer.

In the 2007 BBC television adaptation Fagin is played by Timothy Spall. Contrary to his appearance in the novel, he is beardless and overweight in this version. He is also a more sympathetic character.

In December 2008, Oliver! was revived at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, London with Rowan Atkinson playing the character. This role was taken over by Omid Djalili in July 2009. Griff Rhys Jones took over the role from Omid Djalili in December 2009. He was succeeded by Russ Abbot in June 2010.

In 2015-16, BBC2's Dickensian Fagin was played by the actor Anton Lesser.

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Fagin - Wikipedia

Congregation Adath Jeshurun | Open doors. Open hearts …

Posted By on September 30, 2018

AJ HURRICANE FLORENCE RELIEF FUND

Our hearts go out to the thousands of people impacted by Hurricane Florence. AJ has set up a Hurricane Florence Relief Fund to provide aid to victims. Donations can be sent to AJ (2401 Woodbourne Avenue, Louisville, KY 40205-1799) or online by clicking here. Checks should note the Hurricane Relief. The funds will be sent to Nechama - Jewish Response to Disaster.

WHAT IF YOU WERE A REFUGEE TODAY?

Most of us have grandparents or great-grandparents who were refugees prior to reaching safety in the United States. On Rosh Hashanah, Rabbi Slosberg spoke about the current refugee crisis, and on what Judaism compels each of us to do to help. You shall not oppress a stranger, for you know the feelings of the stranger, having yourselves been strangers in the land of Egypt.

The Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society (HIAS) was founded in 1881 to assist Jews fleeing pogroms in Russia and Eastern Europe. They later expanded their mission to providing assistance to non-Jewish refugees worldwide, especially those in immediate danger. Visit their website at: http://www.HIAS.org to find a way that you can make a difference, just as others did for those family members who came before us.

CelebrateSimchat TorahWith Adath Jeshurun & Keneseth Israel!

Monday, October 1st at Adath Jeshurun.

Clickhereto sign up and for more information!

Sunday, October 28th

6:30 p.m.

Join us for dessert and a festive evening of fun! The moderators for the evening will be Louisville Trivia, and they are sure to bringmanyfun and challenging questions! AJ will furnish all the set-ups.Just bring yourself and anything you wish to drink! Each table will be a team, so grab a group of friends, or let us know with whom youd like to be seated.

The cost is only$10per personplus 6% sales take.Participants are requested to bring a canned food item to donate to the JFCS Food Pantry.

To reserve your space by theOctober 19thdeadline, please fill out the form here.You can also reserve your space by phone with a credit card by calling the synagogue office at 458-5359 or by filling out the form in the Messenger and mailing it back into the synagogue office by October 19th.

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Congregation Adath Jeshurun | Open doors. Open hearts ...

Jewish American Heritage Month | continuum | University of …

Posted By on September 29, 2018

By Kate DietrickArchivist, Nathan and Theresa Berman Upper Midwest Jewish Archives

May is Jewish American Heritage Month, a time set aside to recognize and celebrate Jewish American achievements and contributions to our country.

From the beginning of Minnesotas establishment as a territory in 1849, there has been a steady presence of Jewish communities throughout the state. Although only around 2 percent of Minnesotas population is currently Jewish, Jewish Americans contributions to local and national history have been remarkable. To celebrate Jewish American Heritage Month, here are a few highlights with examples from the Upper Midwest Jewish Archives.

Did you know that members of the local Jewish community

created the first non-sectarian hospital in the state that accepted members of minorities on its medical staff?

Following a push from the Jewish community post-World War II for a hospital that admitted practicing Jewish doctors, Mount Sinai Hospital opened its doors in February 1951 under Chief of Staff Dr. Moses Barron. The hospital was located on Chicago Avenue at 22nd Street in Minneapolis.The seven-story, 197-bed facility was the most modern hospital in the community at the time. Its creation served two purposes: Jewish physicians who had been denied admitting privileges at other city hospitals could now practice medicine, and the founders garnered enormous civic prestige.

It was the first private non-sectarian hospital in the community to welcome minority races to its medical staff, a great leap forward in the 1950s. A very active womens auxiliary group provided support through volunteering, publicity, and extensive fundraising to aid the mission of Mount Sinai.

In 1990, the hospital merged with Metropolitan Medical Center to become Metropolitan-Mount Sinai; in 1991 they closed their doors. The auxiliary group, however, continues today as the Mount Sinai Community Foundation, providing grants to local nonprofits involved with health and well-being.

routinely fought for our country?

In April 1917, the United States entered into the First World War, and so this year we mark the centennial commemoration. Over on the Upper Midwest Jewish Archives Facebook page, we spent April showcasing our collections relating to the Great War, including the Jack Pink papers, the Sidney Cohen papers, and the Frank and Arthur Eisenberg papers. Nearly half a million American Jewish men and women served in various branches of the United States armed services. We have numerous collections from men who served during World War II as well, both in Europe and the Pacific.

Men of course were not the only ones who served their country. We have a collection put together by Molly Ehrlich Tyler who researched local Jewish women who served in the armed forces during World War II, including WAVES, WAC, WAAC, Women Marine Corps, Navy Nurse Corps, Army Nurse Corps, and the USAF. This collection is comprised of original documents and information about 74 female veterans of World War II from Minnesota and North Dakota.

broke barriers for the LGBT community?

When Stacy Offner took a position as the rabbi of the newly formed Shir Tikvah in Minneapolis in 1988, she became the first openly gay rabbi of a mainstream Jewish congregation.

Offner began her local career as Assistant and then Associate Rabbi at Mount Zion Temple in St. Paul from 1984 to 1987. However, in 1988, Rabbi Offner resigned amidst speculation regarding her sexual orientation. In the public downfall of allegations regarding discrimination, a group of congregants spoke out on behalf of Offner and subsequently left Mount Zion to form a new Reform congregation Shir Tikvah and Offner became their rabbi. During her time with Shir Tikvah, Offner was also an active spokesperson regarding womens issues, medical ethics, and interfaith relations. She remained with the Shir Tikvah for nearly two decades, until 2008 when she was offered the role of Vice President to the Union for Reform Judaism, a position she held until 2010. She is currently the rabbi at Temple Beth Tikvah in Madison, Connecticut.

Rabbi Offners career has been marked by many milestones including: Minnesotas first female rabbi, the nations first openly lesbian rabbi, the Minnesota State senates first Jewish chaplain, and the first female vice president of the Union for Reform Judaism.

To learn more about Stacy Offner, view her papers in the Archives.

Throughout the month of May the Upper Midwest Jewish Archives will continue to celebrate Jewish American Heritage Month by sharing photos and stories on our Facebook page. Search for our page on Facebook or follow the link at z.umn.edu/umjafb.

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Jewish American Heritage Month | continuum | University of ...

Hispanic Heritage Month reminds Army the benefits from …

Posted By on September 29, 2018

Sept. 15- Oct. 15 is the national observance of Hispanic Heritage Month. Permanently put into law by President Ronald Reagan in 1988, the 30-day period recognizes the culture and contributions of American citizens of Hispanic origins coming from Spain, Mexico, the Caribbean and Central, and South America.

The Department of Defense has always worked to lead the way for progress because diversity is America's greatest strength. They hope for everyone to equally be able to maximize their talents for the highly-trained force. The declaration of department-wide observances such as Hispanic Heritage Month demonstrates that desire.

We, as Army Soldiers, Families, veterans, and civilians need to take this opportunity not only to inform us, but to remind us of the heroism and accomplishments of Hispanic service members, but to realize there is still more progress to be made. We need to ask ourselves what more can be done to utilize this strength.

Hispanics have been serving in the U.S. Army since the Civil War. From the Spanish-American War through both world wars, Korea, and Vietnam, the Soldiers with Hispanic heritage have served the U.S. honorably even in the face of negative stereotypes and doubts about their abilities to serve in combat.

Pvt. Marcelino Serna was an immigrant from Mexico who moved to El Paso, Texas, during World War I. Serena volunteered to join the Army and declined to be discharged when it came to light that he was not a U.S. citizen. He then went off to war in France. On Sept. 12, 1918, he followed a German sniper into a trench killing 26 and capturing 24 enemy soldiers single handedly. He became the first Hispanic to be awarded the Distinguished Service Cross and became the most decorated veteran in Texas.

The 65th Infantry Regiment, a unit comprised of primarily Hispanics from Puerto Rico, had already had decorated Soldiers -- Two Silver Stars, 22 Bronze Stars, and 90 purple hearts -- from their service in World War II. Even after integration of units in 1948, the unit stayed primarily Hispanic and Spanish-speaking going into the Korean War. The Hispanic Soldiers were ready to serve and try to continue to prove their combat worthiness, which they did as a part of Operation PORTEX -- the largest military exercise at that time. The Soldiers showed that they could hold their own. It was a monumental policy change in the U.S. military's racial policy when they became attached to the 3rd Infantry Division going into Korea.

In 1951 Gen. Douglas MacArthur said of the 65th Regiment, "The Puerto Ricans forming the ranks of the gallant 65th Infantry give daily proof on the battlefields of Korea of their courage, determination and resolute will to victory, their invincible loyalty to the United States and their fervent devotion to those immutable principles of human relations which the Americans of the Continent and of Puerto Rico have in common. They are writing a brilliant record of heroism in battle, and I am indeed proud to have them under my command. I wish that we could count on many more like them."

Spanning the decades of war, 60 men of Hispanic Heritage have received the Medal of Honor. Seventeen of those were handed out by President Barack Obama in a presentation in March 2014, after the National Defense Authorization Act called for a review of Jewish American and Hispanic-American veterans from World War II, Korean, and the Vietnam wars to ensure that no prejudice was shown to those who did go above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy. Among them was Master Sgt. Jose Rodela, who commanded his company in 18 hours of combat in Phuoc Long Province, Vietnam, and continuously exposed himself to enemy fire to eliminate an enemy rocket position and help his fallen Soldiers.

Today, 136,000 Hispanic Soldiers make up 13.8 percent of America's fighting force. Since the beginning of the 2000s, they have been the boots on the ground in antiterrorism operations. They uphold Army values while working alongside others.

However, the fight is not over, and the Army can still move toward a more inclusive environment. Hispanics make up 17 percent of enlisted, active duty service members which reflects the 17 percent of the overall U.S. population. However, according to statistics from the Office of Army Demographics, only 7 percent of commissioned officers were Hispanic in the fiscal year 2016. A study from the Casaba Group, a Hispanic veteran's organization, stated that of active duty Latino officers, 15 were generals and admirals.

While other minority groups have moved forward with the military, there is still a gap for Hispanics. It is imperative that everyone a part of the DOD works toward closing that gap for Hispanics, so our leadership will be representative of what the U.S. looks like today because it does not matter if they trace back their heritage from Spain, Mexico, or any other Spanish speaking country, Hispanics, like Serena, the men of the 65th, and Rodela, formed a legacy of Hispanics making sacrifices for this country, and we all need to play a role in carrying it on.

Pentagram Staff Writer Abigail Kelly can be reached at akelly@dcmilitary.com.

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Hispanic Heritage Month reminds Army the benefits from ...

SIMPLY MING Season 15 Season 15 | American Public Television

Posted By on September 29, 2018

SIMPLY MING Season 15 Season 15 | American Public Television

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Board of Education decision (May 17 1954)" }, { "id": "05 Jewish American Heritage Month (May)", "name": "05 Jewish American Heritage Month (May)" }, { "id": "05 Memorial Day (May)", "name": "05 Memorial Day (May)" }, { "id": "05 Mental Health Month (May)", "name": "05 Mental Health Month (May)" }, { "id": "05 Mother's Day (May)", "name": "05 Mother^s Day (May)" }, { "id": "05 National Bicycle Month (May)", "name": "05 National Bicycle Month (May)" }, { "id": "05 National Maritime Day (May 22)", "name": "05 National Maritime Day (May 22)" }, { "id": "05 Older Americans Month (May)", "name": "05 Older Americans Month (May)" }, { "id": "06 Anne Frank's birthday (June 12)", "name": "06 Anne Frank^s birthday (June 12)" }, { "id": "06 Caribbean American Heritage Month (June)", "name": "06 Caribbean American Heritage Month (June)" }, { "id": "06 D-Day Anniversary (June 6)", "name": "06 D-Day Anniversary (June 6)" }, { "id": "06 Fathers Day (June)", "name": "06 Fathers Day (June)" }, { "id": "06 First Little League game played (June 6 1939)", "name": "06 First Little League game played (June 6 1939)" }, { "id": "06 Gay Pride Month (June)", "name": "06 Gay Pride Month (June)" }, { "id": "06 Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Awareness Day (June 27)", "name": "06 Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Awareness Day (June 27)" }, { "id": "06 Robert F. Kennedy assassination (June 6 1968)", "name": "06 Robert F. Kennedy assassination (June 6 1968)" }, { "id": "06 World Oceans Day (June 8)", "name": "06 World Oceans Day (June 8)" }, { "id": "07 Amelia Earhart Day (July 24)", "name": "07 Amelia Earhart Day (July 24)" }, { "id": "07 Bastille Day (July 14)", "name": "07 Bastille Day (July 14)" }, { "id": "07 Battle of Gettysburg (July 1-3 1863)", "name": "07 Battle of Gettysburg (July 1-3 1863)" }, { "id": "07 Civil Rights Act of 1964 (July 2)", "name": "07 Civil Rights Act of 1964 (July 2)" }, { "id": "07 First Moon Landing (July 20 1969)", "name": "07 First Moon Landing (July 20 1969)" }, { "id": "07 Independence Day (July 4)", "name": "07 Independence Day (July 4)" }, { "id": "07 Thurgood Marshall born (July 2 1908)", "name": "07 Thurgood Marshall born (July 2 1908)" }, { "id": "08 Aviation Day (August 18)", "name": "08 Aviation Day (August 18)" }, { "id": "08 Hawaii Admission Day (August 21 1959)", "name": "08 Hawaii Admission Day (August 21 1959)" }, { "id": "08 Hurricane Katrina Anniversary (August 29 2005)", "name": "08 Hurricane Katrina Anniversary (August 29 2005)" }, { "id": "08 International Day Against Nuclear Tests (August 29)", "name": "08 International Day Against Nuclear Tests (August 29)" }, { "id": "08 Little League World Series", "name": "08 Little League World Series" }, { "id": "08 Woodstock (August 15-18 1969)", "name": "08 Woodstock (August 15-18 1969)" }, { "id": "09 Back to School (September)", "name": "09 Back to School (September)" }, { "id": "09 Childhood Obesity Awareness Month (September)", "name": "09 Childhood Obesity Awareness Month (September)" }, { "id": "09 Classical Music Month (September)", "name": "09 Classical Music Month (September)" }, { "id": "09 Hispanic Heritage Month (September/October)", "name": "09 Hispanic Heritage Month (September/October)" }, { "id": "09 International Day of Peace (September 21)", "name": "09 International Day of Peace (September 21)" }, { "id": "09 Ovarian Cancer Awareness Month (September)", "name": "09 Ovarian Cancer Awareness Month (September)" }, { "id": "09 September 11th Anniversary", "name": "09 September 11th Anniversary" }, { "id": "09 Star-Spangled Banner written (September 13 1814)", "name": "09 Star-Spangled Banner written (September 13 1814)" }, { "id": "09 Suicide Prevention Awareness Month (September)", "name": "09 Suicide Prevention Awareness Month (September)" }, { "id": "10 Breast Cancer Awareness Month (October)", "name": "10 Breast Cancer Awareness Month (October)" }, { "id": "10 Columbus Day (October)", "name": "10 Columbus Day (October)" }, { "id": "10 Coming Out Day (October)", "name": "10 Coming Out Day (October)" }, { "id": "10 Depression Awareness Month (October)", "name": "10 Depression Awareness Month (October)" }, { "id": "10 Disability Employment Awareness Month (October)", "name": "10 Disability Employment Awareness Month (October)" }, { "id": "10 Down Syndrome Awareness Month (October)", "name": "10 Down Syndrome Awareness Month (October)" }, { "id": "10 Food Day (October 24)", "name": "10 Food Day (October 24)" }, { "id": "10 Halloween (October 31)", "name": "10 Halloween (October 31)" }, { "id": "10 Italian-American Heritage Month (October)", "name": "10 Italian-American Heritage Month (October)" }, { "id": "10 National Fire Prevention Month", "name": "10 National Fire Prevention Month" }, { "id": "10 October Scheduling", "name": "10 October Scheduling" }, { "id": "10 Polish-American Heritage Month (October)", "name": "10 Polish-American Heritage Month (October)" }, { "id": "10 Thurgood Marshall becomes Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court (October 2 1967)", "name": "10 Thurgood Marshall becomes Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court (October 2 1967)" }, { "id": "10 World Series (October)", "name": "10 World Series (October)" }, { "id": "11 Alzheimer's Disease Awareness Month (November)", "name": "11 Alzheimer^s Disease Awareness Month (November)" }, { "id": "11 Gettysburg Address (November 19 1863)", "name": "11 Gettysburg Address (November 19 1863)" }, { "id": "11 John F. Kennedy assasination (November 22 1963)", "name": "11 John F. Kennedy assasination (November 22 1963)" }, { "id": "11 National Family Caregivers Month (November)", "name": "11 National Family Caregivers Month (November)" }, { "id": "11 Native American Heritage Month (November)", "name": "11 Native American Heritage Month (November)" }, { "id": "11 November Scheduling", "name": "11 November Scheduling" }, { "id": "11 Thanksgiving (November)", "name": "11 Thanksgiving (November)" }, { "id": "11 Veterans Day (November 11)", "name": "11 Veterans Day (November 11)" }, { "id": "12 Christmas (December 25)", "name": "12 Christmas (December 25)" }, { "id": "12 December Scheduling", "name": "12 December Scheduling" }, { "id": "12 Pearl Harbor Anniversary (December 7)", "name": "12 Pearl Harbor Anniversary (December 7)" }, { "id": "12 Prohibtion ends / 21st Amendment passed (December 5 1933)", "name": "12 Prohibtion ends / 21st Amendment passed (December 5 1933)" }, { "id": "12 World AIDS Day (December 1)", "name": "12 World AIDS Day (December 1)" }, { "id": "99 Chanukah", "name": "99 Chanukah" }, { "id": "99 Chinese New Year", "name": "99 Chinese New Year" }, { "id": "99 Civil War", "name": "99 Civil War" }, { "id": "99 Korean War", "name": "99 Korean War" }, { "id": "99 Ramadan", "name": "99 Ramadan" }, { "id": "99 Revolutionary War", "name": "99 Revolutionary War" }, { "id": "99 Rosh Hashanah (Jewish New Year) - September/October", "name": "99 Rosh Hashanah (Jewish New Year) - September/October" }, { "id": "99 Vietnam War", "name": "99 Vietnam War" }, { "id": "99 War of 1812", "name": "99 War of 1812" }, { "id": "99 World War I", "name": "99 World War I" }, { "id": "99 World War II", "name": "99 World War II" }, { "id": "99 Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement) - September/October", "name": "99 Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement) - September/October" }, { "id": "Hispanic Heritage Month (September/October)", "name": "Hispanic Heritage Month (September/October)" }]

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Cambodian genocide denial – Wikipedia

Posted By on September 27, 2018

Cambodian genocide denial was the belief expressed by many Western academics that claims of atrocities by the Khmer Rouge government (1975-1979) in Cambodia were much exaggerated. Many scholars of Cambodia and intellectuals, opposed to the U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War, denied or minimized the human rights abuses of the Khmer Rouge, characterizing contrary information as "tales told by refugees" and U.S. propaganda.[1] They viewed the assumption of power by the communist Khmer Rouge as a positive development for the people of Cambodia who had been severely impacted by the Vietnam War and the Cambodian Civil War.

On the other side of the argument, anti-Communists in the United States and elsewhere saw in the rule of the Khmer Rouge vindication of their belief that the victory of communist governments in South-East Asia would lead to a "bloodbath".

Scholar Donald W. Beachler, writing of the controversy about the range and extent of Khmer Rouge atrocities, concluded that "much of the posturing by academics, publicists, and politicians seems to have been motivated largely by political purposes" rather than concern for the Cambodian people.[2]

With conclusive evidence (including the discovery of over 20,000 mass graves[3]) of a large number of deathsestimated at between one and three millionof Cambodians caused by the Khmer Rouge, denials, deniers, and apologists largely disappeared, although disagreements concerning the actual number of Khmer Rouge victims have continued.

Against the background of the Vietnamese invasion and occupation of Cambodia (1978-1979), the United States practiced what the Washington Post called "hold-your-nose diplomacy", recognizing the Khmer Rouge as the legitimate government of Cambodia while abhoring the "record of genocide" of the Khmer Rouge. The U.S. policy was in solidarity with China, Thailand, and other South East Asian countries who opposed the Vietnamese invasion of Cambodia.[4]

The Khmer Rouge captured Phnom Penh, the capital of Cambodia, on April 17, 1975 and immediately ordered all the residents to evacuate the city. "Between two and three million residents of Phnom Penh, Battambang, and other big towns were forced by the communists to walk into the countryside... without organized provision for food, water, shelter, physical security or medical care."[5] The evacuation probably resulted in at least 100,000 deaths.[6] The dispossessed urban dwellers were assigned to re-education camps or "New Settlements." Former government employees and soldiers were executed. Soon, according to journalists, Cambodia resembled "a giant prison camp with the urban supporters of the former regime being worked to death on thin gruel and hard labor."[7]

The Khmer Rouge guarded the border with Thailand and only a few thousand refugees were able to make their way to Thailand and safety. As virtually no Westerners were allowed to visit Cambodia, those refugees plus the official news outlets of the Khmer Rouge were the principal sources of information about conditions in Cambodia for the next four years.

Beachler has described the late 1970s debate about the character of the Khmer Rouge. "Many of those who had been opponents of U.S. military actions in Vietnam and Cambodia feared that the tales of murder and deprivation under the Khmer Rouge regime would validate the claims of those who had supported U.S. government actions aimed at halting the spread of communism. Conservatives pointed to the actions of the Khmer Rouge as proof of the inherent evils of communism and evidence that the U.S. had been right to fight its long war against communists in Southeast Asia... "[2]

Despite the eye-witness accounts by journalists prior to their expulsion during the first few days of Khmer Rouge rule, and the later testimony of refugees; many academics in the United States, United Kingdom, France, Australia and other countries portrayed the Khmer Rouge favorably or at least were skeptical about the stories of Khmer Rouge atrocities. None of them, however, were allowed to visit Cambodia until the final few days of Khmer Rouge rule (except Gunnar Bergstrom, president of the SKFA) and few actually talked to the refugees whose stories they believed to be exaggerated or false.[8][9]

Some Western scholars believed that the Khmer Rouge would free Cambodia from colonialism, capitalism, and the ravages of American bombing and invasion during the Vietnam War. Cambodian scholar Sophal Ear has titled the pro-Khmer Rouge academics as the "Standard Total Academic View on Cambodia" (STAV). The STAV, which he said included among its adherents almost all Cambodian scholars in the Western world, "hoped for, more than anything, a socialist success story with all the romantic ingredients of peasants, fighting imperialism, and revolution."[8] Author William Shawcross was another critic of the STAV academics. Shawcross's views were endorsed and summarized by human rights activist David Hawk: the West was indifferent to the atrocities taking place in Cambodia due to "the influence of anti-war academics on the American left who obfuscated Khmer Rouge behavior, denigrated the post-1975 refugee reports, and denounced the journalists who got those stories."[10]

The controversy concerning the Khmer Rouge intensified in February 1977 with the publication of excerpts from a book by John Barron and Anthony Paul in Reader's Digest magazine. Based on extensive interviews with Cambodian refugees in Thailand, Barron and Paul estimated that, out of a total population of about 7 million people, 1.2 million Cambodians had died of starvation, over-work, or execution during less than two years of Khmer Rouge rule.[11] Published about the same time was Franois Ponchaud's book, Cambodia: Year Zero. Ponchaud, a French priest, had lived in Cambodia and spoke Khmer. He also painted a picture of mass deaths caused by the Khmer Rouge. French scholar, Jean Lacouture, formerly a sympathizer of the Khmer Rouge, reviewed Ponchaud's book favorably in The New York Review of Books on March 31, 1977.[12]

On May 3, 1977, Congressman Stephen Solarz led a hearing on Cambodia in the United States House of Representatives. The witnesses were Barron and three academics who specialized in Cambodia: David P. Chandler, who would become perhaps the most prominent American scholar of Cambodia, Peter Poole, and Gareth Porter. Chandler believed that "bloodbath" was an accurate description of the situation and by no means an exaggeration.[13] Porter stated that the tales of Khmer Rouge atrocities were much exaggerated.[14] Porter was the most outspoken of the academics. He had co-authored (with George Hildebrand) Cambodia: Starvation and Revolution, a highly positive book about the Khmer Rouge. Porter characterized the accounts of a million or more dead Cambodians as wildly exaggerated. He said, "I cannot accept the premise... that 1 million people have been murdered systematically or that the Government of Cambodia is systematically slaughtering its people."[15] He described the stories by refugees of Khmer Rouge atrocities collected by Barron and others as second-hand and hearsay. Asked for his sources, Porter cited the works of another adherent of the STAV, Ben Kiernan, an editor for a pro-Khmer Rouge publication in Australia. Porter never mentioned having spoken to any Cambodian refugees to evaluate their stories personally.

Solarz, who had visited Cambodian refugee camps and listened to refugees' stories of Khmer Rouge atrocities, characterized justifications and explanations during the hearing about the Khmer Rouge as "cowardly and contemptible" and compared them to the justifications of the murder of Jews by Adolf Hitler during World War II.[16]

Academics Noam Chomsky and Edward S. Herman were among those who examined the conflicting reports of the situation in Cambodia in 1977. On June 6, 1977, Chomsky and Herman published an article in The Nation which contrasted the views expressed in books by Barron and Paul, Ponchaud, and Porter and Hildebrand, and in articles and accounts by Butterfield, Bragg, Kahin, Cazaux, Shanberg, Tolgraven and others. Their conclusion was: "We do not pretend to know where the truth lies amidst these sharply conflicting assessments; rather, we again want to emphasize some crucial points. What filters through to the American public is a seriously distorted version of the evidence available, emphasizing alleged Khmer Rouge atrocities and downplaying or ignoring the crucial U.S. role, direct and indirect, in the torment that Cambodia has suffered."[17]

Chomsky and Herman noted the conflicting information in the various accounts, and suggested that after the "failure of the American effort to subdue South Vietnam and to crush the mass movements elsewhere in Indochina" there was now "a campaign to reconstruct the history of these years so as to place the role of the United States in a more favorable light". This rewriting of history by the establishment press was served well by "tales of Communist atrocities, which not only prove the evils of communism but undermine the credibility of those who opposed the war and might interfere with future crusades for freedom." They wrote that the refugee stories of Khmer Rouge atrocities should be treated with great "care and caution" because "refugees are frightened and defenseless, at the mercy of alien forces. They naturally tend to report what they believe their interlocuters wish to hear."[17]

In support of their assertion, Chomsky and Herman criticized Barron and Paul's book Murder of a Gentle Land for ignoring the U.S. government's role in creating the situation, saying, "When they speak of 'the murder of a gentle land,' they are not referring to B-52 attacks on villages or the systematic bombing and murderous ground sweeps by American troops or forces organized and supplied by the United States, in a land that had been largely removed from the conflict prior to the American attack". They give several examples to show that Barron and Paul's "scholarship collapses under the barest scrutiny," and they conclude that, "It is a fair generalization that the larger the number of deaths attributed to the Khmer Rouge, and the more the U.S. role is set aside, the larger the audience that will be reached. The Barron-Paul volume is a third-rate propaganda tract, but its exclusive focus on Communist terror assures it a huge audience."[17]

Chomsky and Herman had both praise and criticism for Ponchaud's book Year Zero, writing that it was "serious and worth reading" and "the serious reader will find much to make him somewhat wary."[17] In the introduction to the American edition of his book, Ponchaud responded to a personal letter from Chomsky, saying, "He [Chomsky] wrote me a letter on October 19, 1977 in which he drew my attention to the way it [Year Zero] was being misused by anti-revolutionary propagandists. He has made it my duty to 'stem the flood of lies' about Cambodia -- particularly, according to him, those propagated by Anthony Paul and John Barron in Murder of a Gentle Land."[18]

A different response appeared in the British introduction to Ponchaud's book.

"Even before this book was translated it was sharply criticized by Mr Noam Chomsky [reference to correspondence with Silvers and the review cited in note 100] and Mr Gareth Porter [reference to May Hearings]. These two 'experts' on Asia claim that I am mistakenly trying to convince people that Cambodia was drowned in a sea of blood after the departure of the last American diplomats. They say there have been no massacres, and they lay the blame for the tragedy of the Khmer people on the American bombings. They accuse me of being insufficiently critical in my approach to the refugee's accounts. For them, refugees are not a valid source... "After an investigation of this kind, it is surprising to see that 'experts' who have spoken to few if any refugees should reject their very significant place in any study of modern Cambodia. These experts would rather base their arguments on reasoning: if something seems impossible to their personal logic, then it doesn't exist. Their only sources for evaluation are deliberately chosen official statements. Where is that critical approach which they accuse others of not having?"[19]

Cambodia scholar Bruce Sharp criticized Chomsky and Herman's Nation article, as well as their subsequent work After the Cataclysm (1979), saying that while Chomsky and Herman added disclaimers about knowing the truth of the matter, and about the nature of the regimes in Indochina, they nevertheless expressed a set of views by their comments and their use of various sources. For instance, Chomsky portrayed Porter and Hildebrand's book as "a carefully documented study of the destructive American impact on Cambodia and the success of the Cambodian revolutionaries in overcoming it, giving a very favorable picture of their programs and policies, based on a wide range of sources." Sharp, however, found that 33 out of 50 citations in one chapter of Porter and Hildebrand's book derived from the Khmer Rouge government and six from China, the Khmer Rouge's principal supporter.[9]

Veteran Cambodia correspondent Nate Thayer said of Chomsky and Herman's Nation article that they "denied the credibility of information leaking out of Cambodia of a bloodbath underway and viciously attacked the authors of reportage suggesting many were suffering under the Khmer Rouge."[20]

Journalist Andrew Anthony in the London Observer, said later that the Porter and Hildebrand's book "cravenly rehashed the Khmer Rouge's most outlandish lies to produce a picture of a kind of radical bucolic idyll." Chomsky, he said, questioned "refugee testimony" believing that "their stories were exaggerations or fabrications, designed for a western media involved in a 'vast and unprecedented propaganda campaign' against the Khmer Rouge government, 'including systematic distortion of the truth.'"[21]

Beachler cited reports that Chomsky's attempts to counter charges of Khmer Rouge atrocities also consisted of writing letters to editors and publications. He said: "Examining materials in the Documentation Center of Cambodia archives, American commentator Peter Maguire found that Chomsky wrote to publishers such as Robert Silver of the New York Review of Books to urge discounting atrocity stories. Maguire reports that some of these letters were as long as twenty pages, and that they were even sharper in tone than Chomskys published words."[22] Journalist Fred Barnes also mentioned that Chomsky had written "a letter or two" to the New York Review of Books. Barnes discussed the Khmer Rouge with Chomsky and "the thrust of what he [Chomsky] said was that there was no evidence of mass murder" in Cambodia. Chomsky, according to Barnes, believed that "tales of holocaust in Cambodia were so much propaganda."[23]

Journalist Christopher Hitchens defended Chomsky and Herman. They "were engaged in the admittedly touchy business of distinguishing evidence from interpretations."[24] Chomsky and Herman have continued to argue that their analysis of the situation in Cambodia was reasonable based on the information available to them at the time, and a legitimate critique of the disparities in reporting atrocities committed by communist regimes relative to the atrocities committed by the U.S. and its allies.

Malcolm Caldwell was a British academic who wrote extensively about Cambodia, including, a few months before his death, an article in The Guardian denying reports of Khmer Rouge genocide.[21] Caldwell was a member of the first delegation of three Western writers, two Americans, Elizabeth Becker and Richard Dudman, and Caldwell, to be invited to visit Cambodia in December 1978nearly four years after the Khmer Rouge had taken power. The invitation was apparently an effort by Pol Pot, leader of the Khmer Rouge, to improve the image of the Khmer Rouge in the West, now questioned by some of its former academic sympathizers.[21] On December 22, Caldwell had a private meeting with Pol Pot and returned "euphoric" to the guest house in Phnom Penh where the three members of the delegation were staying. During the night Becker awoke to the sound of gunfire and saw a Cambodian man with a gun in the guest house outside her room. Later that night she and Dudman were allowed by guards to venture out of their rooms and they discovered Caldwell's body. He had been shot. The body of a Cambodian man was also in his room.[25]

The murder of Caldwell has never been fully explained. Four of the Cambodian guards were arrested and two "confessed" under torture. They said, "We were attacking to ruin the Khmer Rouge Party's policy, to prevent the Party from gathering friends in the world... it would be enough to attack the English guest, because the English guest had written in support of our Party... Therefore, we must absolutely succeed in attacking this English guest, in order that the American guests would write about it." Whatever the motive behind Caldwell's murder, it seems highly unlikely that it could have occurred in tightly-controlled Cambodia without the involvement of high-level Khmer Rouge officials.[21]

The impact of Caldwell's visit to Cambodia and his murder was muted by the Vietnamese invasion of Cambodia three days later on December 25, 1978, which soon ended the rule of the Khmer Rouge. Support for the Khmer Rouge in the Western academic community of Cambodian scholars quietly faded away. Peter Rodman, an American foreign policy expert and public official, stated that "When Hanoi [Vietnam] turned publicly against Phnom Penh, it suddenly became respectable for many on the Left to 'discover' the murderous qualities of the Khmer Rouge qualities that had been obvious to unbiased observers for years."[26]

In August 1978, the Swede Gunnar Bergstrm, who was then president of the SKFA (Sweden-Kampuchea Friendship Association) as well as one of the Khmer Rouge's most ardent supporters,[27] was the only Westerner allowed to visit Democratic Kampuchea together with three other Swedes. They also had dinner with Pol Pot.[28]

At that time, Gunnar Bergstrm was just 27 years old and he was an idealist and a leftist, truly believing that the reports about overwork, starvation and mass killings in Cambodia were just "Western propaganda".[29] They saw "smiling peasants", a society on its way to become "an ideal society, ...with no oppressors". When they came back to Sweden, they "undertook a speaking tour and wrote articles in support of the Democratic Kampuchea regime".[29]

Evidence that emerged after the fall of the regime shocked Bergstrm, forcing him to change his views. He said that it was "like falling off the branch of the tree" and that he had to re-identify everything he had believed in.[29] In later interviews, he acknowledged that he had been wrong, that it was a "propaganda tour" and that they were brought to see what they wanted them to see.[27][29]

After then, Gunnar Bergstrm went back to Cambodia for a "big forgiveness tour".[27] In a speech with high school students in Phnom Penh on 12 September 2016, he recommended that everybody should learn history and he stated that a peaceful communist revolution is simply not possible.[29]

With the takeover of Cambodia by Vietnam in 1979 and the discovery of incontestable evidence of Khmer Rouge atrocities, including mass graves, the "tales told by refugees", which had been doubted by many Western academics, proved to be entirely accurate. Some former enthusiasts for the Khmer Rouge recanted their previous views, others diverted their interest to other issues, and a few continued to defend the Khmer Rouge.[8]

In a caustic exchange with William Shawcross in The New York Review of Books on July 20, 1978, Gareth Porter wrote that, "It is true, as Shawcross notes from my May 1977 Congressional testimony, that I have changed my view on a number of aspects of the Cambodian situation. I have no interest in defending everything the Khmer government does, and I believe that the policy of self-reliance has been carried so far that it has imposed unnecessary costs on the population of Cambodia. Shawcross, however, clearly does have an interest in rejecting our conclusions. It is time, I suggest, for him to examine it carefully, because it does not make for intellectual honesty." Shawcross responded, "I was glad to acknowledge in my article that Mr. Porter had changed his views on the Khmer Rouge and it is a tribute to his own integrity that he now agrees that the Khmer Rouge have imposed 'unnecessary costs' on the Cambodian people. He should, however, be a little more careful before he accuses others of deliberately falsifying evidence and of intellectual dishonesty."[30]

In 2010, Porter said he had been waiting many years for someone to ask him about his earlier views of the Khmer Rouge. He described how the climate of distrust of the government generated during the Vietnam War carried over to Cambodia. "I uncovered a series of instances when government officials were propagandizing [about the Vietnam War]. They were lying," he explained. "I've been well aware for many years that I was guilty of intellectual arrogance. I was right about the bloodbath in Vietnam, so I assumed I would be right about Cambodia."[31]

Australian Ben Kiernan recanted after interviewing 500 Cambodian refugees in 1979. He admitted that he had been "late in recognizing the extent of the tragedy in Cambodia... and "wrong about... the brutal authoritarian trend within the revolutionary movement after 1973."[32]

In the opinion of Donald W. Beachler, the genocide deniers and doubters among academics may have been motivated more by politics than a search for the truth, but conservatives who "embraced the reports" of Khmer Rouge atrocities had no less "cynicism or naivet" in later downplaying reports of atrocities by anti-communists in Central America.[33] He noted that the supportive attitude towards the Khmer Rouge had also been expressed by the U.S. government and politicians for a dozen years after the regime was toppled in January 1979, as part of the denigration against the Vietnamese occupation of Cambodia in the 1980s. In fact, the U.S. was one of the countries that voted for the retainment of the Democratic Kampuchea's seat at the United Nations until 1991.[34] Bruce Sharp, who points out many errors of Chomsky's analysis, also says that "While Chomsky's comments on Cambodia are misleading and inaccurate, one important point must be borne in mind: The actions of the United States were largely responsible for the growth of the Khmer Rouge."[9]

Certain authors have continued to downplay Khmer Rouge atrocities in recent years. Richard Dudman, who accompanied Caldwell to Cambodia, challenged the "conventional wisdom that Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge are irrational fanatics who practiced deliberate genocide [and] slaughtered more than one million Cambodians" in a 1990 New York Times editorial, arguing that "The evidence for these fixed beliefs consists mainly of poignant though statistically inconclusive anecdotes from accounts of mass executions in a few villages. It comes mostly from those with an interest in blackening the name of the Khmer Rouge: From Cambodian refugees, largely the middle- and upper-class victims of the Pol Pot revolution, and from the Vietnamese".[35] In 2012, journalist Israel Shamir wrote an article titled "Pol Pot Revisited" for the American left-wing newsletter CounterPunch in which he argued:

"New Cambodia (or Kampuchea, as it was called) under Pol Pot and his comrades was a nightmare for the privileged, for the wealthy and for their retainers; but poor people had enough food and were taught to read and write. As for the mass killings, these are just horror stories, averred my Cambodian interlocutors. Surely the victorious peasants shot marauders and spies, but many more died of American-planted mines and during the subsequent Vietnamese takeover, they said... Noam Chomsky assessed that the death toll in Cambodia may have been inflated 'by a factor of a thousand'... To me, this recalls other CIA-sponsored stories of Red atrocities, be it Stalin's Terror or the Ukrainian Holodomor... [The Vietnamese] supported the black legend of genocide to justify their own bloody intervention."[36]

In 2013, the Cambodian Prime Minister Hun Sen passed legislation which makes illegal the denial of the Cambodian genocide and other war crimes committed by the Khmer Rouge. The legislation was passed after comments by a member of the opposition, Kem Sokha, who is the deputy president of the Cambodian National Rescue Party. Sokha had stated that exhibits at Tuol Sleng were fabricated and that the artifacts had been faked by the Vietnamese following their invasion in 1979. Sokha's party have claimed that the comments have been taken out of context.[37]

Estimates of the number of Cambodians who died during the four years of Khmer Rouge rule have been controversial and range from less than one million to more than three million. Kiernan, head of the Cambodian Genocide Project at Yale University, estimated that the Khmer Rouge were responsible for 1.5 million deaths and later raised that estimate to 1.7 million, more than 20 percent of the population. His deputy, Craig Etcheson, undertook the most complete survey of mass graves and evidence of executions in Cambodia and concluded in 1999 that the Khmer Rouge may have executed as many as 1.5 million people and as many as another 1.5 million may have died of starvation and overwork. Kiernan criticized Etcheson for "sloppiness, exaggerating a horrific death toll", and "ethnic auctioneering". Etcheson's report was removed from the web site of the Cambodian Genocide Project.[38]

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Cambodian genocide denial - Wikipedia

Edict of Expulsion – Wikipedia

Posted By on September 25, 2018

This article is about the 1290 Edict of Expulsion from England. For the 1492 Edict of Expulsion from Spain, see Alhambra Decree. For other historic instances of Jews being expelled from the lands where they resided, see Jewish refugees.

The Edict of Expulsion was a royal decree issued by King Edward I of England on 18 July 1290, expelling all Jews from the Kingdom of England. The expulsion edict remained in force for the rest of the Middle Ages. The edict was not an isolated incident, but the culmination of over 200 years of increased persecution. The edict was overturned during the Protectorate more than 350 years later, when Oliver Cromwell permitted Jews to return to England in 1657.

The first Jewish communities of significant size came to England with William the Conqueror in 1066.[1] After the conquest of England, William instituted a feudal system in the country, whereby all estates formally belonged to the Crown; the king then appointed lords over these vast estates, but they were subject to duties and obligations (financial and military) to the king. Under the lords were other subjects such as serfs, who were bound and obliged to their lords, and to their lords' obligations. Merchants had a special status in the system, as did Jews. Jews were declared to be direct subjects of the king,[2] unlike the rest of the population. This was an ambivalent legal position for the Jewish population, in that they were not tied to any particular lord but were subject to the whims of the king, it could be either advantageous or disadvantageous. Every successive king formally reviewed a royal charter, granting Jews the right to remain in England. Jews did not enjoy any of the guarantees of the Magna Carta[3] of 1215.

Economically, Jews played a key role in the country. The Church then strictly forbade the lending of money for profit, creating a vacuum in the economy of Europe that Jews filled because of extreme discrimination in every other economic area. Canon law was not considered applicable to Jews, and Judaism does not forbid loans with interest between Jews and non-Jews.[4] Taking advantage of their unique status as his direct subjects, the King could appropriate Jewish assets in the form of taxation. He levied heavy taxes on Jews at will, without having to summon Parliament.[5]

The reputation of Jews as extortionate moneylenders arose,[citation needed] which made them extremely unpopular with both the Church and the general public. While an anti-Jewish attitude was widespread in Europe, medieval England was particularly anti-Jewish.[3] An image of the Jew as a diabolical figure who hated Christ started to become widespread, and myths such as the tale of the Wandering Jew and allegations of ritual murders originated and spread throughout England as well as in Scotland and Wales.[6]

In frequent cases of blood libel, Jews were said to hunt for children to murder before Passover so that they could use their blood to make the unleavened matzah.[7] Anti-Jewish attitudes sparked numerous riots in which many Jews were murdered, most notably in 1190, when over 100 Jews were massacred in York.[7]

The situation only got worse for Jews as the 13th century progressed. In 1218, Henry III of England proclaimed the Edict of the Badge requiring Jews to wear a marking badge.[8] Taxation grew increasingly intense. Between 12191272, 49 levies were imposed on Jews for a total of 200,000 marks, a vast sum of money.[5] Henry III imposed greater segregation and reinforced the wearing of badges in the 1253 Statute of Jewry. He endorsed the myth of Jewish child murders. Meanwhile, his court and major Barons bought Jewish debts with the intention of securing lands of lesser nobles through defaults. The Second Barons' War in the 1260s brought a series of pogroms aimed at destroying the evidence of these debts and Jewish communities in major towns, including London, where 500 Jews died, Worcester, Canterbury and many other towns.[9]

The first major step towards expulsion took place in 1275, with the Statute of the Jewry. The statute outlawed all lending at interest and gave Jews fifteen years to readjust.[10]

In the duchy of Gascony in 1287, King Edward ordered the local Jews expelled.[11] All their property was seized by the crown and all outstanding debts payable to Jews were transferred to the Kings name.[12] By the time he returned to England in 1289, King Edward was deeply in debt.[13] The next summer he summoned his knights to impose a steep tax. To make the tax more palatable, Edward, in exchange, essentially offered to expel all Jews.[14] The heavy tax was passed, and three days later, on 18 July,[15] the Edict of Expulsion was issued.

One official reason for the expulsion was that Jews had declined to follow the Statute of Jewry and continued to practice usury. This is quite likely, as it would have been extremely hard for many Jews to take up the "respectable" occupations demanded by the Statute. The edict of expulsion was widely popular and met with little resistance, and the expulsion was quickly carried out.[citation needed]

The Jewish population in England at the time was relatively small, perhaps 2,000 people, although estimates vary.[16] The expulsion process appears to have been relatively non-violent, although there were some accounts to the contrary. One perhaps apocryphal story told of a captain taking a ship full of Jews to the Thames, en route to France, while the tide was low, and convincing them to go out for a walk with him. He then lost them and made it back to his ship quickly before the tide came back in, leaving them all to drown.[12]

Many Jews emigrated, to Scotland, France and the Netherlands, and as far as Poland, which, at that time, protected them (see Statute of Kalisz).

Between the expulsion of Jews in 1290 and their formal return in 1655, there are records of Jews in the Domus Conversorum up to 1551 and even later. An attempt was made to obtain a revocation of the edict of expulsion as early as 1310, but in vain. Notwithstanding, a certain number of Jews appeared to have returned; for complaints were made to the king in 1376 that some of those trading as Lombards were actually Jews.[17]

Occasionally permits were given to individuals to visit England, as in the case of Dr Elias Sabot (an eminent physician from Bologna summoned to attend Henry IV) in 1410, but it was not until the expulsion of the Jews from Spain in 1492 and Portugal in 1497 that any considerable number of Sephardic Jews found refuge in England. In 1542 many were arrested on the suspicion of being Jews, and throughout the sixteenth century a number of persons named Lopez, possibly all of the same family, took refuge in England, the best known of them being Rodrigo Lpez, physician to Queen Elizabeth I, and who is said by some commentators to have been the inspiration for Shylock.[18]

England also saw converts like Immanuel Tremellius and Philip Ferdinand. Jewish visitors included Joachim Gaunse, who introduced new methods of mining into England and there are records of visits from Jews called Alonzo de Herrera and Simon Palache in 1614. The writings of John Weemes in the 1630s provided a positive view of the resettlement of Jews in England, effected in 1657.[19]

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