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The Anti-Defamation League Works to Combat Hate | Fred Turner

Posted By on February 10, 2018

Anti-Defamation League

Since receiving his MA in political science from American University in 1995, Fred Turner has enjoyed a long political career in Washington, DC. Having worked as legislative assistant to Congressman Alcee Hastings and legislative director for Congresswoman Karen McCarthy, he is now chief of staff to Senator Bob Menendez. Fred Turner began his career as a graduate legislative fellow with the Anti-Defamation League.

What Is the Anti-Defamation League?

The Anti-Defamation League (ADL) is a civil rights organization that was founded in 1913 to fight anti-Semitism. Now, the ADL works to fight all forms of prejudice and bigotry and has become known for its civil rights initiatives. The ADL seeks to provide information, legislation, and advocacy for victimized populations.

What Initiatives Top the ADLs Agenda?

Today, the ADL is focused broadly on combating hate. To that end, it continues to work globally to challenge leaders to fight anti-Semitism and violence. The ADL also monitors and catalogues hate and extremist groups and the crimes they commit. In 1981, the ADL drafted model legislation imposing harsh penalties on perpetrators of hate crimes. Similar legislation has since been enacted in 45 states and the District of Columbia. The ADL also educates the public on First Amendment and religious rights, provides anti-bias education to schools, and develops bullying and cyberbullying workshops and resources for youth and educators.

How Can I Support the ADL?

The ADL conducts its work through a system of 27 regional and local offices in the United States and one office in Israel, and those interested can get involved at the local level. The ADL also encourages the public to take action by sending letters to representatives on ADL issues, subscribing to the ADLs newsletter to stay apprised of current efforts, or making a donation.

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The Anti-Defamation League Works to Combat Hate | Fred Turner

THE SATANIC VERSES OF THE JEWISH TALMUD AND ZIONISM …

Posted By on February 10, 2018

SATANIC VERSES OF THE JEWISH TALMUD: ZIONISTS, ZIONISM AND JUDAISM

by Syarif Hidayat

The Talmud supercedes the Old Testament in authority for the Jews. And the Talmud is the most racist, hate-mongering , blasphemous book the world has ever known, according to the Real Jew News (www.realjewnews.com).

The Talmud was written in Hebrew between the 3rd & 6th Centuries as a codification of the so-called Oral Law that the Jewish rabbis claim was handed down from Moses.

But the Messiah Jesus censored the Oral Law when He said, By the traditions of your elders you make void the Word of God. (St Matthew 15).

The English translation of the Talmud has been watered down so as to conceal from the Gentiles the satanic verses contained in the original Hebrew.

The Satanic Verses of the Talmud can be classified into 3 categories:

1) Jewish Supremacy.

2) Hatred Towards The Goys (Gentiles).

3) Blasphemies Against Jesus Christ, The Virgin Mary, & All Christians.

The Truth About The Talmud

Michael A. Hoffman II in his article titled The Truth About The Talmud A Documented Expos Of Supremacist Rabbinic Hate Literature published in Rense.Com (http://www.rense.com) wrote the Talmud is Judaisms holiest book (actually a collection of books). Its authority takes precedence over the Old Testament in Judaism. Evidence of this may be found in the Talmud itself, Erubin 21b (Soncino edition): My son, be more careful in the observance of the words of the Scribes than in the words of the Torah (Old Testament).

The supremacy of the Talmud over the Bible in the Israeli state may also be seen in the case of the black Ethiopian Jews. Ethiopians are very knowledgeable of the Old Testament. However, their religion is so ancient it pre-dates the Scribes Talmud, of which the Ethiopians have no knowledge. According to the N.Y. Times of Sept. 29, 1992, p.4:

The problem is that Ethiopian Jewish tradition goes no further than the Bible or Torah; the later Talmud and other commentaries that form the basis of modern traditions never came their way.

Because they are not traffickers in Talmudic tradition, the black Ethiopian Jews are discriminated against and have been forbidden by the Zionists to perform marriages, funerals and other services in the Israeli state.

Rabbi Joseph D. Soloveitchik is regarded as one of the most influential rabbis of the 20th century, the unchallenged leader of Orthodox Judaism and the top international authority on halakha (Jewish religious law). Soloveitchik was responsible for instructing and ordaining more than 2,000 rabbis, an entire generation of Jewish leadership.

N.Y. Times religion reporter Ari Goldman described the basis of the rabbis authority: Soloveitchik came from a long line of distinguished Talmudic scholarsUntil his early 20s, he devoted himself almost exclusively to the study of the TalmudHe came to Yeshiva Universitys Elchanan Theological Seminary where he remained the pre-eminent teacher in the TalmudHe held the title of Leib Merkin professor of Talmudsitting with his feet crossed in front of a table bearing an open volume of the Talmud. (N.Y. Times, April 10, 1993, p. 38).

Nowhere does Goldman refer to Soloveitchiks knowledge of the Bible as the basis for being one of the leading authorities on Jewish law. The rabbis credentials are all predicated upon his mastery of the Talmud. Other studies are clearly secondary. Britains Jewish Chronicle of March 26, 1993 states that in religious school (yeshiva), Jews are devoted to the Talmud to the exclusion of everything else.

The Talmud Nullifies the Bible

The Jewish Scribes claim the Talmud is partly a collection of traditions Moses gave them in oral form. These had not yet been written down in Jesus time. Christ condemned the traditions of the Mishnah (early Talmud) and those who taught it (Scribes and Pharisees), because the Talmud nullifies the teachings of the Holy Bible.

Shmuel Safrai in The Literature of the Sages Part One (p.164), points out that in chapters 4 and 5 of the Talmuds Gittin Tractate, the Talmud nullifies the Biblical teaching concerning money-lending: Hillel decreed the prozbul for the betterment of the world. The prozbul is a legal fiction which allows debts to be collected after the Sabbatical year and it was Hillels intention thereby to overcome the fear that money-lenders had of losing their money.

The famous warning of Jesus Christ about the tradition of men that voids Scripture (Mark 7:1-13), is in fact, a direct reference to the Talmud, or more specifically, the forerunner of the first part of it, the Mishnah, which existed in oral form during Christs lifetime, before being committed to writing. Mark chapter 7, from verse one through thirteen, represents Our Lords pointed condemnation of the Mishnah.

Unfortunately, due to the abysmal ignorance of our day, the widespread Judeo-Christian notion is that the Old Testament is the supreme book of Judaism. But this is not so. The Pharisees teach for doctrine the commandments of rabbis, not God.

The Talmudic commentary on the Bible is their supreme law, and not the Bible itself. That commentary does indeed, as Jesus said, void the laws of God, not uphold them. As students of the Talmud, we know this to be true.

Jewish scholar Hyam Maccoby, in Judaism on Trial, quotes Rabbi Yehiel ben Joseph: Further, without the Talmud, we would not be able to understand passages in the BibleGod has handed this authority to the sages and tradition is a necessity as well as scripture. The Sages also made enactments of their ownanyone who does not study the Talmud cannot understand Scripture.

There is a tiny Jewish sect which makes considerable effort to eschew Talmud and adhere to the Old Testament alone. These are the Karaites, a group which, historically, has been most hated and severely persecuted by orthodox Jewish rabbinate.

To the Mishnah the rabbis later added the Gemara (rabbinical commentaries). Together these comprise the Talmud. There are two versions, the Jerusalem Talmud and the Babylonian Talmud.

The Babylonian Talmud is regarded as the authoritative version: The authority of the Babylonian Talmud is also greater than that of the Jerusalem Talmud. In cases of doubt the former is decisive. (R.C. Musaph-Andriesse, From Torah to Kabbalah: A Basic Introduction to the Writings of Judaism, p. 40).

This study is based on the Jewish-authorized Babylonian Talmud. We have published herein the authenticated sayings of the Jewish Talmud. Look them up for yourself.

We publish the following irrefutable documentation in the hope of liberating all people, including Jewish people, from the corrosive delusions and racism of this Talmudic hate literature, which is the manual of Orthodox and Hasidic Jews the world over.

The implementation by Jewish supremacists of Talmudic hate literature has caused untold suffering throughout history and now, in occupied Palestine, it is used as a justification for the mass murder of Palestinian civilians. The Talmud specifically defines all who are not Jews as non-human animals.

Some Teachings of the Jewish Talmud

Where a Jew Should Do Evil

Moed Kattan 17a: If a Jew is tempted to do evil he should go to a city where he is not known and do the evil there.

Penalty for Disobeying Rabbis

Erubin 21b. Whosoever disobeys the rabbis deserves death and will be punished by being boiled in hot excrement in hell.

Hitting a Jew is the same as hitting God

Sanhedrin 58b. If a heathen (gentile) hits a Jew, the gentile must be killed.

O.K. to Cheat Non-Jews

Sanhedrin 57a . A Jew need not pay a gentile (Cuthean) the wages owed him for work.

Jews Have Superior Legal Status

Baba Kamma 37b. If an ox of an Israelite gores an ox of a Canaanite there is no liability; but if an ox of a Canaanite gores an ox of an Israelitethe payment is to be in full.

Jews May Steal from Non-Jews

Baba Mezia 24a . If a Jew finds an object lost by a gentile (heathen) it does not have to be returned. (Affirmed also in Baba Kamma 113b). Sanhedrin 76a. God will not spare a Jew who marries his daughter to an old man or takes a wife for his infant son or returns a lost article to a Cuthean

Jews May Rob and Kill Non-Jews

Sanhedrin 57a . When a Jew murders a gentile (Cuthean), there will be no death penalty. What a Jew steals from a gentile he may keep.

Baba Kamma 37b. The gentiles are outside the protection of the law and God has exposed their money to Israel.

Jews May Lie to Non-Jews

Baba Kamma 113a. Jews may use lies (subterfuges) to circumvent a Gentile.

Non-Jewish Children are Sub-Human

Yebamoth 98a. All gentile children are animals.

Abodah Zarah 36b. Gentile girls are in a state of niddah (filth) from birth.

Abodah Zarah 22a-22b . Gentiles prefer sex with cows.

Insults Against Blessed Mary

Sanhedrin 106a . Says Jesus mother was a whore: She who was the descendant of princes and governors played the harlot with carpenters. Also in footnote #2 to Shabbath 104b of the Soncino edition, it is stated that in the uncensored text of the Talmud it is written that Jesus mother, Miriam the hairdresser, had sex with many men.

Gloats over Christ Dying Young

A passage from Sanhedrin 106 gloats over the early age at which Jesus died: Hast thou heard how old Balaam (Jesus) was?He replied: It is not actually stated but since it is written, Bloody and deceitful men shall not live out half their days it follows that he was thirty-three or thirty-four years old.

Jesus in the Talmud

Horrible Blasphemies Against Jesus Christ

While it is the standard disinformation practice of apologists for the Talmud to deny that it contains any scurrilous references to Jesus Christ, certain Orthodox Jewish organizations are more forthcoming and admit that the Talmud not only mentions Jesus but disparages him (as a sorcerer and a demented sex freak). These orthodox Jewish organizations make this admission perhaps out of the belief that Jewish supremacy is so well-established in the modern world that they need not concern themselves with adverse reactions.

For example, on the website of the Orthodox Jewish Hasidic Lubavitch groupone of the largest in the worldwe find the following statement, complete with Talmudic citations:

The Talmud (Babylonian edition) records other sins of Jesus the Nazarene:

1) He and his disciples practiced sorcery and black magic, led Jews astray into idolatry, and were sponsored by foreign, gentile powers for the purpose of subverting Jewish worship (Sanhedrin 43a).

2) He was sexually immoral, worshipped statues of stone (a brick is mentioned), was cut off from the Jewish people for his wickedness, and refused to repent (Sanhedrin 107b; Sotah 47a).

3) He learned witchcraft in Egypt and, to perform miracles, used procedures that involved cutting his flesh, which is also explicitly banned in the Bible (Shabbos 104b).

End quote from http://www.noahide.com/yeshu.htm (Lubavitch website) June 20, 2000.

[Note: we have printed and preserved in our files a hard copy of this statement from the LubavitchNoahs Covenant Website, as it appeared on their website at http://www.noahide.com on June 20, 2000, in the event that denials are later issued and the statement itself suppressed].

Let us examine further some of these anti-Christ Talmud passages:

Gittin 57a. Says Jesus is in hell, being boiled in hot excrement.

Sanhedrin 43a. Says Jesus (Yeshu and in Soncino footnote #6, Yeshu the Nazarene) was executed because he practiced sorcery: It is taught that on the eve of Passover Jesus was hung, and forty days before this the proclamation was made: Jesus is to be stoned to death because he has practiced sorcery and has lured the people to idolatryHe was an enticer and of such thou shalt not pity or condone.

Kallah 51a.The elders were once sitting in the gate when two young lads passed by; one covered his head and the other uncovered his head. Of him who uncovered his head Rabbi Eliezer remarked that he is a bastard. Rabbi Joshua remarked that he is the son of a niddah (a child conceived during a womans menstrual period). Rabbi Akiba said that he is both a bastard and a son of a niddah.

They said, What induced you to contradict the opinion of your colleagues? He replied, I will prove it concerning him. He went to the lads mother and found her sitting in the market selling beans.

He said to her, My daughter, if you will answer the question I will put to you, I will bring you to the world to come. (eternal life). She said to him, Swear it to me.

Rabbi Akiba, taking the oath with his lips but annulling it in his heart, said to her, What is the status of your son? She replied, When I entered the bridal chamber I was niddah (menstruating) and my husband kept away from me; but my best man had intercourse with me and this son was born to me. Consequently the child was both a bastard and the son of a niddah.

It was declared, ..Blessed be the God of Israel Who Revealed His Secret to Rabbi Akiba

In addition to the theme that God rewards clever liars, the preceding Talmud discussion is actually about Jesus Christ (the bastard boy who uncovered his head and was conceived in the filth of menstruation). The boys adulterous mother in this Talmud story is the mother of Christ, Blessed Mary (called Miriam and sometimes, Miriam the hairdresser, in the Talmud).

The Editio Princeps of the complete Code of Talmudic Law, Maimonides Mishneh Torah replete not only with the most offensive precepts against all Gentiles but also with explicit attacks on Christianity and on Jesus (after whose name the author adds piously, May the name of the wicked perish) Dr. Israel Shahak, Jewish History, Jewish Religion, p. 21.

The Talmud contains a few explicit references to JesusThese references are certainly not complimentaryThere seems little doubt that the account of the execution of Jesus on the eve of Passover does refer to the Christian JesusThe passage in which Jesus punishment in hell is described also seems to refer to the Christian Jesus. It is a piece of anti-Christian polemic dating from the post-70 CE period Hyam Maccoby, Judaism on Trial, pp. 26-27.

According to the Talmud, Jesus was executed by a proper rabbinical court for idolatry, inciting other Jews to idolatry, and contempt of rabbinical authority. All classical Jewish sources which mention his execution are quite happy to take responsibility for it; in the talmudic account the Romans are not even mentioned.

The more popular accountswhich were nevertheless taken quite seriouslysuch as the notorious Toldot Yeshu are even worse, for in addition to the above crimes they accuse him of witchcraft. The very name Jesus was for Jews a symbol of all that is abominable and this popular tradition still persists..

The Hebrew form of the name JesusYeshuwas interpreted as an acronym for the curse, may his name and memory be wiped out, which is used as an extreme form of abuse. In fact, anti-zionist Orthodox Jews (such as Neturey Qarta) sometimes refer to Herzl as Herzl Jesus and I have found in religious zionist writings expressions such as Nasser Jesus and more recently Arafat Jesus. Dr. Israel Shahak, Jewish History, Jewish Religion, pp. 97- 98, 118.

Talmud Attacks Christians and Christian Books

Rosh Hashanah 17a. Christians (minnim) and others who reject the Talmud will go to hell and be punished there for all generations.

Sanhedrin 90a. Those who read the New Testament (uncanonical books) will have no portion in the world to come.

Shabbath 116a. Jews must destroy the books of the Christians, i.e. the New Testament.

Dr. Israel Shahak of Hebrew University reports that the Israelis burned hundreds of New Testament Bibles in occupied Palestine on March 23, 1980 (cf. Jewish History, Jewish Religion, p. 21).

Sick and Insane Teachings of the Talmud

Gittin 69a . To heal his flesh a Jew should take dust that lies within the shadow of an outdoor toilet, mix with honey and eat it.

Shabbath 41a. The law regulating the rule for how to urinate in a holy way is given.

Yebamoth 63a. States that Adam had sexual intercourse with all the animals in the Garden of Eden.

Yebamoth 63a. Declares that agriculture is the lowest of occupations.

Sanhedrin 55b. A Jew may marry a three year old girl (specifically, three years and a day old).

Sanhedrin 54b. A Jew may have sex with a child as long as the child is less than nine years old.

Kethuboth 11b. When a grown-up man has intercourse with a little girl it is nothing.

Yebamoth 59b. A woman who had intercourse with a beast is eligible to marry a Jewish priest. A woman who has sex with a demon is also eligible to marry a Jewish priest.

Abodah Zarah 17a. States that there is not a whore in the world that the Talmudic sage Rabbi Eleazar has not had sex with. On one of his whorehouse romps, Rabbi Eleazar leanred that there was one particular prostitute residing in a whorehouse near the sea, who would receive a bag of money for her services. He took a bag of money and went to her, crossing seven rivers to do so. During their intercourse the prostitute farted. After this the whore told Rabbi Eleazar: Just as this gas will never return to my anus, Rabbi Eleazar will never get to heaven.

Hagigah 27a. States that no rabbi can ever go to hell.

Baba Mezia 59b. A rabbi debates God and defeats Him. God admits the rabbi won the debate.

Gittin 70a. The Rabbis taught: On coming from a privy (outdoor toilet) a man should not have sexual intercourse till he has waited long enough to walk half a mile, because the demon of the privy is with him for that time; if he does, his children will be epileptic.

Gittin 69b. To heal the disease of pleurisy (catarrh) a Jew should take the excrement of a white dog and knead it with balsam, but if he can possibly avoid it he should not eat the dogs excrement as it loosens the limbs.

Go here to read the rest:
THE SATANIC VERSES OF THE JEWISH TALMUD AND ZIONISM ...

Rothschild Zionism – YouTube

Posted By on February 10, 2018

British author and lecturer David Icke has written 20 books and traveled to over 55 countries since 1990. His books reveal how a hidden hand is behind world-changing events like the attacks of 9/11 and the manufactured wars in the Middle East, as part of a mass mind manipulation technique he has dubbed problem-reaction-solution. While being controversial and often heavily ridiculed and attacked, David Icke has driven on with his unrelentless investigation into subject areas that others don't dare touch. He reveals information that has been kept from a "dumbed down" population and has allowed the establishment to treat them as nothing more than slaves to a sinister hidden agenda.

His books are some of the most comprehensive exposs of the global conspiracy ever written and among them are: And the Truth Shall Set You Free, The Biggest Secret, Remember Who You Are and Human Race Get Off Your Knees: The Lion Sleeps No More.

Many have dubbed Icke as the "most controversial speaker" on the planet. They used to laugh at him, but now they come in the thousands to hear him speak all over the world.

Nonetheless, David's words are designed to inspire all of us to be who we really are, to fling open the door of the mental prison we build for ourselves and to walk into the light of freedom.

David Icke's website: http://www.davidicke.com/

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Rothschild Zionism - YouTube

Jackson shul approved, first synagogue for Orthodox Jews in town

Posted By on February 8, 2018

What's the difference between a synagogue, a temple and a shul in Judaism? Mike Davis

Rendering of the Royal Grove Shul, approved to be built on East Veterans Highway in Jackson.(Photo: Courtesy of Royal Grove Shul)

JACKSON -After years of privately gathering in living rooms or walking to a Lakewood synagogue to pray, some of the township's Orthodox Jews will soon have a shul of their own.

The planning board Monday night unanimously approved plans for a synagogue on East Veterans Highway. The action concludeda relatively quick deliberative process in contrast with the months-long hearings and pitchedlegal battles that have sprung from other religious land-use controversies.

"Shul" is an Orthodox Jewish term for synagogue, a house of worship in the Jewish faith. Reform Jews refer to their houses of worship as temples,which you can learn more about in the video at the top of the page.

The Royal Grove Shul is expected to open in about two years, replacing a house near the intersection with Grand Boulevard, principal Sam Heller said.

The facility will host two 45-minute prayer services, mornings and evenings, six days per week. On Saturdayswhen Jews celebrate the Sabbaththe services last two to three hours.

MORE: Jackson subject of DOJ, AG investigations over discrimination

More: POLL: Should Jackson have rejected shul on safety grounds?

The shul will also include a social room for gatherings, a women's prayer sanctuary, two private study rooms and a basement with mikvahsbaths used for a Jewish purification rituals separated for men and women.

Residents examine blueprints for a shul in Jackson.(Photo: Mike Davis)

While the vote was unanimous, multiple board members qualified their decisions.

Some shared concerns about whether the shul could handle a congregation operating at maximum capacity: Although Heller expects no more than 100 people at the shul on the busiest days, it can hold up to 300 people.

There are quite a few families moving right around that area, Heller said. But the reality of 100 is overestimated. On any given day, its 20 to 30 people 50 people, maximum.

Under Jewish law, Jews cannot operate machinery or electricity including driving a car on the Sabbath. As a result, Jews often walk from place to place on Saturdays, including prayer services.

But that's a risky endeavor on East Veterans Highway, a county road with a 50mph speed limit, board member Robert Hudak said.

I have real safety concerns with possibly 100 people walking at 11 p.m. on this road, Hudak said. It just concerns me. Thats a tough road. The speed limit is up there.

Royal Grove Shul has already received Ocean County approval but will seek an easement to construct a sidewalk,said Ray Shea, the synagogue's attorney. That sidewalk would connect it to the nearby Royal Grove neighborhood, which has a large Jewish population.

That would beideal, even though its not required by law. We want what you want: safety, Shea said.

Blueprints for a shul in Jackson.(Photo: Mike Davis)

If approved, Royal Grove would become the township's onlyformal shul. Butprayer services are regularly held in private homes, asJewish law only requires a quorum of 10 men. If a synagogue is not within walking distance, a home service is usually held.

Last month, a Jackson homeownersued the township over alleged "stake outs" of his home during evening and Sabbath prayer servicesafter complaints from a township council member and numerous residents.

The township's code compliance supervisor reported that no violations occurred and the township administrator even admonished the activity as a "waste of valuable time and money," akin to "chasing ghosts."

LAWSUIT: Jackson ordered Sabbath 'stake out' of Orthodox Jewish prayer services

The synagogue plan is the latest bone of contention among some of Jackson's longtime residents, who have complained of unwanted culturalas the town's Orthodox Jewish community continues to grow. The latter has gone to court to push back against what it perceived as unlawful religious discrimination.

On Monday night, the stated concerns were largely limited to safety.Its a 50 mph road, but nobody drives 50 mph. Were all human. Its 55 mph, 60 mph, said Monarch Court resident Gene Quintieri. Its just not safe.

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On occasion, however, the tension usually boils over on social media and at public meetings around particular hot-button issues, including about religious symbols and land-use matters. Anti-Semitic comments have become commonplace among the vitriol.

Last year, hours of public testimony were heard over moves to ban construction of schools and dormitories in most areas of town.

Later, council members changed a previouslyforgotten law in a way that prevented a group ofOrthodox Jewsfrom constructing an eruv, a wire boundary strung along utility poles that allows practicing Jews to carry objects on the Sabbath and certain holidays.

RELATED: Is Jackson's eruv ban anti-Semitism?

The council was sued over both controversial moves, later reversingthe decisions and entering mediation.

The Department of Justice and Attorney General's Office are investigating whether the township discriminated against Orthodox Jews in both cases.

Mike Davis; @byMikeDavis; 732-643-4223; mdavis@gannettnj.com

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Jackson shul approved, first synagogue for Orthodox Jews in town

Harvey flood-damaged Houston synagogue could relocate

Posted By on February 8, 2018

Feb. 6, 201812:57 PM ET

HOUSTON (AP) Light peeking through stained glass windows illuminated the melancholy faces of the men of United Orthodox Synagogues as they put on their traditional tefillin and tallit to prepare for the temple's last morning prayer. They bowed their heads alongside the women in the congregation, separated by a cloth partition.

In a Sunday, Feb. 4, 2018 photo, people look at a display of photos during a final service held at United Orthodox Synagogues, in Houston as part of a farewell event before the building is demolished at a later date. The building was damaged by three recent floods: Memorial Day 2015, Tax Day 2016, and Harvey 2017. (Melissa Phillip/Houston Chronicle via AP)

In a Sunday, Feb. 4, 2018 photo, Sophie Lee Landau, left, and Gillian Davis, right, pray on the women's side separated by a divider from the men's side during a final service held at United Orthodox Synagogues, in Houston as part of a farewell event before the building is demolished at a later date. The building was damaged by three recent floods: Memorial Day 2015, Tax Day 2016, and Harvey 2017. (Melissa Phillip/Houston Chronicle via AP)

In a Sunday, Feb. 4, 2018 photo, Daniel Smith, center, and Gershie Meisel right, pray during a final service at United Orthodox Synagogues, in Houston as part of a farewell event before the building is demolished at a later date. The back wall is shown half removed after flood damaged. The building was damaged by three recent floods: Memorial Day 2015, Tax Day 2016, and Harvey 2017. (Melissa Phillip/Houston Chronicle via AP)

In a Sunday, Feb. 4, 2018 photo, synagogue Items are shown removed for preservation at United Orthodox Synagogues, in Houston, where a final service was held as part of a farewell event before the building is demolished at a later date. The building was damaged by three recent floods: Memorial Day 2015, Tax Day 2016, and Harvey 2017. (Melissa Phillip/Houston Chronicle via AP)

The Houston Chronicle reports after suffering damage from three floods in as many years, the synagogue's board of directors made a decision to demolish the sanctuary, school wing and offices. More than 150 congregation members gathered or tuned in to a web stream for the Feb. 4 final service.

"If someone had told me 10 years ago that it would all end like this, I would have thought they were telling a fantasy," congregant Denise Weinberg said.

The synagogue is located on Greenwillow Drive in the historic Jewish community in Meyerland, just hundreds of feet from Brays Bayou. About 1??in 13 Jewish families there an estimated 2,000 households were flooded by Hurricane Harvey.

A tour through the synagogue makes clear the drastic effects of the floods of Memorial Day 2015, Tax Day 2016 and Harvey. Rust covers ovens in the kitchen. Watermarks stain memorial plaques that line the walls. In the library, only bare shelves remain after floodwaters ruined hundreds of sacred books.

"You spend a whole lifetime collecting things that remind you of other things, just for the water to take it all away," Weinberg said.

In an effort to save their synagogue, United Orthodox had engineers look at the building, received the help of over 500 volunteers and had many fundraisers. Rabbi Adir Posy said residents of 46 states and four Canadian provinces donated $400,000. Posy has worked closely to help the synagogue rebuild, and he flew in from Los Angeles so he could attend the final services.

"In 2015 and 2016, Houston came together to help us; in 2017 it was the entire American Jewish community," said board member Amy Goldstein. "It was so impacting we could not deal with it ourselves."

Ultimately, the board decided repairing a building that repeatedly flooded would be a poor investment.

The synagogue's goal for demolition is March. Freedman Hall, an elevated reception hall next door, will continue to serve as the temporary sanctuary.

Goldstein said the board of directors is exploring all viable options for a new building, such as rebuilding with elevated facilities or moving to a new location. A challenge is that since Orthodox Jews don't drive on the Sabbath, congregation members must live within walking distance of the synagogue. After Harvey, several congregants spent a significant amount of their savings to fix their homes in order to stay in the neighborhood.

"Going anywhere else would be a significant religious choice to make," Goldstein said.

On the final Sunday morning, old photos taken in the synagogue were spread across tables so worshippers could take a look into their building's past. Rabbi Barry Gelman had many pictures of his family on Jewish holidays and occasions celebrated in the synagogue, which he said were moments he would never forget.

"I have fond memories of sitting with my three generations of family," Gelman said. "The walls in this room have absorbed the story of a lifetime."

United Orthodox broke ground on the complex in 1961 when the congregations Adath Emeth, Adath Israel and Beth Jacob merged. The building's original plans were on display to honor the original days of the congregation. A photo of the synagogue when it was first built read, "Designed to Serve Forever." Many members of the congregation said they believe that though their sanctuary soon will be gone, their memories will always remain.

"I have absolute faith that the things that mean the most to us are going to continue," said Dov Liberman, an official in the synagogue.

After morning prayer, congregants reflected on a few of their favorite synagogue memories. They shared childhood stories of running behind the stained glass and emotional reflections of members who have died. When Holocaust survivor Alex Pollak reminisced about his second bar mitzvah last November, the crowd erupted in cheers.

Two congregation members, Max Reichental and Steve Moore, are cousins who have been with the synagogue since its beginning. The two said the building has always been the hub of everything in their lives. Moore had his bar mitzvah at the synagogue in its second year, and he teared up when he thought back to his sister's wedding there.

"She looked so beautiful," Moore said. "I will never forget that day."

The sanctuary is filled with sacred decorative features that have played an important part in the building's history. The main stained glass window, memorial plaques dedicated to congregation members and other physical reminders of the synagogue's past are being kept in hopes they will be moved to a new building.

In a final gathering of closure, the congregation sat in its old seats to listen to speeches from United Orthodox President Rick Guttman and Gelman. The two thanked everyone who made the service possible and spoke about what the synagogue means to them.

Once the last words were said and the services were over, congregants talked and laughed with one another over their personal history with the synagogue. Gloria Ribnick, a member for "forever and then some," spoke of a brighter future in the congregation.

"I think it's not the end," Ribnick said. "It's the beginning."

___

Information from: Houston Chronicle, http://www.houstonchronicle.com

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Harvey flood-damaged Houston synagogue could relocate

Hasidic Vs Orthodox: Whats The Difference? | The Hasidic World

Posted By on February 8, 2018

Hasidic Vs Orthodox. Whats the difference? Let me get right down to it: Hasidic Jews are a sect/movement within Orthodox Judaism. All Hasidic Jews are Orthodox, but not all Orthodox Jews are Hasidic. There are various sects within Orthodox Judaism and the Hasidic movement is only one of them.

If you are not very familiar with Orthodox Judaism, I will try to give a brief breakdown of the different sects (by the way, Orthodoxy is only one sect within Judaism as a whole). This is a bit of a simplification, but there are three major types of Orthodox Jews: Hasidic, Yeshivish/Litvish, and Modern Orthodox.

Lets start with Hasidic. The Hasidic movement was founded in the 1700s by the Baal Shem Tov. At that time, Orthodox Judaism had become an elitist movement that valued Torah learning and intellect. Those that were not Torah scholars often felt out of place and received little respect within the Orthodox world. The Baal Shem Tov tried to counteract that notion by emphasizing the value of each and every Jew, even those that had little time or abilityto learn Torah. Instead, he emphasized fervent prayer, song, and the connection with a Rebbe (the leader of a Hasidic sect).

Today, Hasidic Jews are the strictest and most insular sect within Orthodox Judaism. They have many children, often learn Torah full-time, and live within very insular communities. Major Hasidic communities include Williamsburg and Monsey in the US, Antwerp in Belgium, and Jerusalem and Bnei Brak in Israel. Hasidic Jews have a very unique way of dressing. Almost all Hasidimwear long coats, black hats, and have side curls.

To make things even more complicated, within Hasidic Judaism there are many different sects, each with its uniquestyle of dress and practices. Some of the major sects within Hasidic Judaism include Satmar, Chabad, Gur, Breslov, Toldos Aharon, and Belz.

Here is a picture of a Hasidic family in Brooklyn, New York:

And another picture of Hasidim, but this time in Meah Shearim, Jerusalem:

Yeshivish/Litvish Jews are another very strict sect within Orthodox Judaism and like Hasidim, are also referred to as Haredi or Ultra-Orthodox Jews. The movement started in Eastern Europe as a reaction to Reform Judaism. The Rabbis that started the movement were The Chasam Sofer and The Vilna Gaon. Both were tremendous Torah Scholars.

Litvish Jews emphasize Torah learning more than anything and many learn full-time. Major centers of Litvish Judaism include Lakewood in New Jersey, Brooklyn in New York, and Jerusalem and Bnei Brak in Israel.

Here is a picture of Litvish Jews in Jerusalem. Notice that the men are not wearing long coats and their hats have a completely different style than those worn by Hasidim.

Modern OrthodoxJudaism is a sect within Orthodoxy that believes in combining Orthodox Judaism with the modern world. They believe in receiving both a Jewish and secular education. Most Modern Orthodox Jews have full-time jobs in the secular world and only learn Torah at nighttime or on weekends. In Israel, Modern Orthodox Jews serve in the Israeli army, unlike most Litvish or Hasidic Jews.

Major Modern Orthodox thinkers include Rabbi Joseph Soloveichikand Rabbi Aharon Lichtenstein. Modern Orthodox Jews live in cities across both America and Israel.

Here is a picture of Rabbi Moshe Lichtenstein, a major Modern Orthodox Rabbi in Israel. Notice that he is not wearing a hat, he is clean shaven, and his yarmulkeis knitted.

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Sephardic Genealogy – Family Tree

Posted By on February 7, 2018

On a sunny afternoon during my first visit to Barcelona, I stood at the top of Mount Tibidabo. I looked down at the coastline and understood the longing Sephardim took with them on their exile in 1492.

Our Talalay family always heard that This was our name in Spain, and that we were Sephardic in originno matter how long wed lived in Eastern Europe, specifically in Mogilev, Belarus.

When most genealogists think about Jewish ancestry, theyre probably thinking of Ashkenazimthose who generally lived in assimilated Europe, speaking secular languages, or in Eastern Europe, where Yiddish was the lingua franca.

Sephardim, a lesser-known group to which my family belongs, originated in Spain and Portugal. For most of recorded history, Jewish history was essentially the history of Sephardim, which comes as a great shock to those alive today, says award-winning author Jeffrey S. Malka, founder of SephardicGen.com. Sephardic Jews constituted 90 percent of all Jewry up to the 12th century.

Malkas research, confirmed by leading Jewish demographer and statistician Sergio Della Pergola of The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, reveals that 12,000 Jews lived in 12th-century Toledo, Spain, to Frankfurts 700. Fourteenth-century Seville, Spain, was home to 12,000 Jews, versus 1,200 in Prague. And beginning with the first 23 Jews who arrived in New Amsterdam (today, New York) in 1654 from Recife, Brazil, the American Jewish population was mostly Sephardic for nearly two centuries. Early synagogues in New York, Philadelphia, Newport, Charleston, Savannah and New Orleans were Sephardic. Rabbi Malcolm Sterns pivotal work on early Colonial families demonstrates the prominence of Sephardim, although few of their descendants today are Jewish.

There is, unfortunately, little knowledge of Sephardic history among Ashkenazim, Malka says, noting that some genealogical resources for the groups are the same, and others differ because of their different locations. The Sephardic resources are woefully undeveloped, he adds.

Well show you the other side of Jewish genealogy, which for too long has been Eastern European-centric, and help you discover your Sephardic family history.

Your first step to uncover your familys hidden past is to learn about the history of Sephardim. These Jews spoke Ladino, a mix of Hebrew, Spanish and other languages, with various geographic dialects. Most were expelled from their homes on the Iberian Peninsula in 1492, when the Catholic monarchs of Spain issued the Alhambra decree. King Manuel of Portugal made a similar order in 1497. Sephardim fanned out fro Iberia to all parts of the known world: Western Europe, Eastern Europe, North Africa, the Ottoman Empire, the New World, Central and South America. Some remained, secretly practicing their faith; theyre called conversos in Spanish or bnei anousim in Hebrew.

Sephardim from now-Yemen, Iraq, Syria, Iran and India, where other Jewish languages and dialects such as Judeo-Persian were common, are more correctly called Mizrahi or Eastern Jews. Additionally, Sephardim encompass Roman Jews, who live in the oldest Jewish community outside Israel, and the indigenous Greek-speaking Romaniote Jews. But todays broad definition of Sephardim includes all non-Yiddish speaking, non-Ashkenazi Jews.

New World Jewish settlement began in Dutch Brazil. Exile and resettlement brought Sephardic Jews from there to the Caribbean and the Guianas for their experience in plantations, sugar mills and business. The Dutch and English competed for them, offering civil rights and religious freedom in 1659 (French Guiana) and 1660 (Surinam). Along with shipping expertise, the Jews fluency in Spanish and Portuguese furthered contacts with countrymen (and often family) throughout the New World, Europe and Africa.

Of 401 plantations in Jamaica in 1737, 115 were Jewish. Some of these plantations (with the owners names in parentheses) include Mahanaim (Gabay Baeza); Beersaba (widow of Abraham de Meza); Gilgal (Joseph Arrias); Nahamu (Benjamin Henriques de Granada); Goshen (S.J. Sanchez); Haran (Jacob de Pina); Petah ve Naim (Jacob Cohen Nassi); Carmel (Isaak Granada da Fonseca); Beit El (Jacob de Meza); Dothan, Carillo, Serphati and Hebron (Moises Nunez Henriquez).

Jews settled in St. Eustatius (known as Stasia) in 1660, where Spanish-Portuguese merchants supplied Americans fighting for independence from Britain. In 1776, 18 ships reached North American rebel ports. The British didnt know where the Americans supplies were coming from until 1777, when they captured a ship with military equipment. Documents on board showed the owners were Spanish-Portuguese Jews from Stasia.

Besides family stories and ancestors in areas with large Sephardic populations, hints you have Sephardic roots could include customs such as eating rice on Passover, which is forbidden to Ashkenazim, and naming patterns (see the next page). Today, DNA testing also can be of help.

Jewish genealogy, as for other groups, grew from the popularity of the Roots TV series in the 1970s. But American Jewish culture was Ashkenazi. The much smaller Sephardic community was busy blending in, Malka says, and many were ignorant of their own history.

Genealogist Alain Farhi disagrees. Sephardic genealogy always existed, but wasnt publicized or discovered by the masses or the American genealogists. The British Sephardic genealogists didnt have to catch up with the rest of Jewish genealogy. They were up front all the time.

The internet is the catalyst that jump-started Jewish genealogy, particularly Sephardic genealogy, by providing accessible information, guidance and resources. Researchers could instantly network and strategize, sharing data, surnames and geographical information. The internet made it easier to extend the reach of genealogy and collect data beyond national borders, Farhi says.

Stein married a Sephardic woman and wanted his children to understand their heritage. My Sephardic friends kept telling me how lucky I was to have married an Abravanel. I didnt know who or what that was. He learned that Abravanel is akin to royalty in the Sephardic world.

There are said to be more than 24 million people of Sephardic ancestry in the American Southwest, and South and Central America. Today, his online forum has 2,800 global members and has received nearly 2 million hits.

Being aware of challenges unique to Sephardic research will help you prepare to handle them. Those include cultural and language differences, tragic historical events such as the Inquisition and the Holocaust, and religious persecution (including forced conversion, murder, expulsion and blood libels). Sephardic researchers face challenges due to a wide variety of languages records come in; restrictions on access; informal archives; decentralized, small communities where Sephardim lived; and unusual handwriting in records.

Sephardic Jewish records come in Hebrew, Ladino, Spanish, Portuguese, Catalan and other languages associated with their geographic location. Additional traces of Sephardic families are found in even more languages across Western, Central and Eastern Europewherever a Jewish community might have existed.

Names keep genealogists going. While you search for ancestors names, you learn the historical and cultural contexts of their lives. Along the way, you find genealogical details in unusual archival or geographical locations. Most important, you learn that no list of names is ever really complete, that previously hidden resources come to light at different times and places.

Sephardic surnames are ancient. Spanish archives include records of Sephardic surnames as far back as the 10th centurya genealogical advantage Ashkenazim dont enjoy. Today, many Sephardic names bear the original form or a variation, indicating descent from a particular family. These ancient surnames are important to tracing roots in Iberia and in subsequent countries Sephardic families lived.

Many Sephardic Jews exiled in 1492 had relatives who remained in Spain and used aliases to hide their identities as they conducted international business. Abraham de Mordechai Vaz Dias studied the Amsterdam State Archive to identify many aliases in notarial records; his database is one of the many at SephardicGen.com. One father and son, whose Sephardic names were Isac and Jacob Semach, used a maze of at least 14 aliases including the Portuguese names Antonio Hidalgo o Velho, Antonio Hidalgo Ouelho and Antonio Hidalgosee their aliases untangled here .

Given name patterns also provide clues. Although Ashkenazim name children after only deceased relatives, Sephardim name children after the living or dead. Traditionally, the eldest son is named for the paternal grandfather; eldest daughter for the paternal grandmother; second male child for the maternal grandfather; second female child for the maternal grandmother; next child for a paternal uncle or aunt; next child for a maternal uncle or aunt. A recently deceased grandparent or sibling of the newborn would take precedence over the living relative. Some Sephardim name children after their own living parents, considered a great honor.

No one in my Yiddish-speaking Ashkenazi family from Mogilev really believed we came from Spainuntil I began finding genealogy records and other Sephardic families in Mogilev: Abravanel, Don Yahia, Pines, Aboaf/Abugof and more. Use these resources as you begin to explore your Sephardic ancestors lives:

Books: Genealogists whove researched Sephardim serve as a source of guidance and encouragement. Questions Malka received through Sephardicgen.com were the impetus for his how-to book.

Bonnins Sangre Judia caused a minor revolution in Spain with three sold-out editions since 1998 and a fourth in 2006. The author is a chueta of Mallorca, descended from Jews who were forcibly converted 100 years before the 1492 expulsion and were never accepted by the Old Christians. In addition to chapters on Judaism and Spanish Jewish history, the book includes thousands of Sephardic surnames found in Inquisition and other records. The books fourth edition includes the city and year of a document discovered for each name listed.

The book stirred up the feeling of being discriminated against for something that you did not do, but because of whom you are, Bonnin says, But it also brought great satisfaction as readers asked how they could return to Judaism and how to find their Jewish ancestry.

Not every reaction has been positive, though. Some, upset to read their names, deny Jewish connections and are angry and filled with hate because they feel trapped by an identity they would prefer to erase, Bonnin says.

Many Sephardim also have roots in the Southwest. Though the University of New Mexicos Stanley Hordes, PhD, has no personal Sephardic roots to his knowledge, hes fascinated with the Latin American history of the Inquisition and Crypto-Jews (conversos who secretly practiced Judaism). As New Mexicos state historian, Hordes focused on Crypto-Jews on the northern frontier of Mexico, today the US Southwest. His genealogical research on early 15th- to -18th century New Mexican settlers and Hispanic New Mexicans claiming a Crypto-Jewish past is documented in To the End of the Earth: A History of the Crypto-Jews of New Mexico (Columbia University Press). His next book will focus on the history of Crypto-Jews in Cuba, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico and pre-British Jamaica.

For Caribbean roots, read The Jewish Nation of the Caribbean: The Spanish-Portuguese Jewish Settlements in the Caribbean and the Guianas (Gefen) by Bulgarian-born professor Mordechai Arbell. The book covers the Wild Coast of the Americas and adjacent islands of Martinique, Guadaloupe, French Guiana, Tobago, Pauroma (an old name for Pomeroon, a region in Guyana, South America), Surinam, Curacao, St. Eustatius, Barbados, Nevis, Jamaica, Tucacas, Danish West Indies, Haiti, and the liberated colonies of Spain in the mid-17th to the 20th centuries. It also covers Latvian Jews in 17th-century Tobago.

Interestingly, Arbell discovered that until recently, many Caribbean Jewish communities had prohibitions against Sephardim marrying Ashkenazim. Such a marriage could result in excommunication, as evidenced in a record from Surinam: December 8, 1813: Samuel Haim de la Parra having lost his membership in the Portuguese Jewish community on marrying his Ashkenazi wife.

Websites: On Sephardim.com, youll find an excellent database of names indexed from Sephardic genealogy books and other sources, plus a name translator and other information. Youll also find a Consolidated Index of Sephardic Surnames on SephardicGen.com (click Databases). The How to Start and Sephardic History sections are good places to begin, and I also recommend surfing the country-specific resources.

Check both sites bibliographies for information on the names and locations youre interested in researching. Look for details on traditions similar to those in your family, which can clue you into Sephardic roots.

Farhis online database, Les Fleurs de lOrient, contains more than 250,000 names. In 1979, after my fathers death, I discovered among his papers handwritten trees compiled by my grandfather, Dr. Hillel Farhi, he says. He began collecting information and distributed copies of these trees to many Farhi in the United States, Europe, Latin America and Israel. As they responded with more data, Farhi built his database.

Records: Your search for genealogical records will take you from the places your ancestors lived post-exile (Eastern Europe, for example, or in Spain or Portugal for conversos) back to Iberia, so youll find yourself consulting records guides for all those places (youll find many guides in Family Tree Magazines Passport to Europe CD).

Notarial records, an important resource in Spain, are basically business documents recording transactions such as real estate sales or purchases of clothing and food. Theyre generally kept in Spanish regional archives; with a few on FamilySearch microfilm (search the online catalog for the place Spain, then click the Notarial Records category).

Genetic genealogy: Many Sephardim.com forum members have embraced DNA to help them find their roots. Family Tree DNAs database contains records for Ashkenazim, Sephardim, and those who trace their ancestry to the Levites and Kohanim. Although Ashkenazi Jews still enjoy a more accessible gene pool, Family Tree DNA founder Bennett Greenspan says, the number of Sephardim in the companys databases is growing.

In order to test the family lines in which you suspect Sephardic roots, you may need to find a cousin or other relative to contribute DNA. Sometimes autosomal tests can find Jewish ancestry, Simon adds, though these are better at identifying Ashkenazi ancestry than Sephardic.

Whether youre surprised to discover your ancestors were Sephardim or, like me, family stories tell of roots in Iberia, your research will help you reconnect with your familys past. Almost daily, I receive letters and messages from people inquiring about the Jewish origin of their last name, Bonnin says. There is a mysterious connection between the person and the lineage that goes beyond logic.

From the May/June 2013 Family Tree Magazine

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Sephardic Genealogy - Family Tree

Report: Abbas Holocaust-Denial Dissertation Widely-Taught …

Posted By on February 7, 2018

Research by the Center for Near East Policy Research Center has found that the doctoral dissertation of PA Chairman Mahmoud Abbas stars throughout the Palestinian Authority educational curriculum, and is the basis for Holocaust studies in the PA.

The Centers Director, David Bedein, has asked Education Minister Gideon Saar and the government of Israel to demand that the PA remove the work from its schools and from its curricula.

Bedein wrote that the Center is engaged in preparing a movie on the PA educational system, in the course of which it tracks that which is taught in PA classrooms. Throughout the educational system of the PA, he wrote to Saar, we have found that the doctorate of Mahmoud Abbas stars, and forms the basis of PA Holocaust studies.

Downgrades Number of Victims, Accuses Zionists of CollaborationThe doctorate was published as a book in 1984, entitled,"The Other Side: the Secret Relationship Between Nazism and Zionism. It was completed in 1982 at a university in Communist Russia, and was defended at the Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

It downgrades the number of Holocaust victims to [possibly] below one million, and accuses Zionist leaders of encouraging the persecution of Jews.

Italso denies that the gas chambers were used to murder Jews, quoting a "scientific study" to that effect by French Holocaust-denier Robert Faurisson.

Excerpts:

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Report: Abbas Holocaust-Denial Dissertation Widely-Taught ...

United Nations General Assembly Resolution 3379 – Wikipedia

Posted By on February 7, 2018

UN General AssemblyResolution 3379Date10 November 1975Meetingno.2400CodeA/RES/3379(Document)SubjectElimination of all forms of racial discrimination

Voting summary

United Nations General Assembly Resolution 3379, adopted on 10 November 1975 by a vote of 72 to 35 (with 32 abstentions), "determine[d] that Zionism is a form of racism and racial discrimination". The vote took place approximately one year after UNGA 3237 granted the PLO "observer status", following PLO president Yasser Arafat's "olive branch" speech to the General Assembly in November 1974. The resolution was passed with the support of the Soviet bloc and other then Soviet-aligned nations, in addition to the Arab and Muslim majority countries.

The determination that "Zionism is a form of racism and racial discrimination", contained in the resolution, was revoked in 1991 with UN General Assembly Resolution 46/86.[1]

In July 1920, at the San Remo conference, a Class "A" League of Nations mandates over Palestine was allocated to the British. The preamble of the mandate document declared:

Whereas the Principal Allied Powers have also agreed that the Mandatory should be responsible for putting into effect the declaration originally made on November2nd, 1917, by the Government of His Britannic Majesty, and adopted by the said Powers, in favour of the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, it being clearly understood that nothing should be done which might prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country.[2]

On 29 November 1947, the UN General Assembly adopted a resolution recommending "to the United Kingdom, as the mandatory Power for Palestine, and to all other Members of the United Nations the adoption and implementation, with regard to the future government of Palestine, of the Plan of Partition with Economic Union" as Resolution 181 (II).[3] The plan contained a proposal to terminate the British Mandate for Palestine and partition Palestine into "independent Arab and Jewish States and the Special International Regime for the City of Jerusalem." On 14 May 1948, the day on which the British Mandate over Palestine expired, the Jewish People's Council gathered at the Tel Aviv Museum, and approved a proclamation which declared the establishment of a Jewish state in Eretz Israel, to be known as the State of Israel.[4]

On 11 May 1949, Israel was admitted to membership in the United Nations.[5]

The full text of Resolution 3379:[6]

3379 (XXX). Elimination of all forms of racial discrimination

The General Assembly,

Recalling its resolution 1904 (XVIII) of 20 November 1963, proclaiming the United Nations Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, and in particular its affirmation that "any doctrine of racial differentiation or superiority is scientifically false, morally condemnable, socially unjust and dangerous" and its expression of alarm at "the manifestations of racial discrimination still in evidence in some areas in the world, some of which are imposed by certain Governments by means of legislative, administrative or other measures",

Recalling also that, in its resolution 3151 G (XXVIII) of 14 December 1973, the General Assembly condemned, inter alia, the unholy alliance between South African racism and zionism,

Taking note of the Declaration of Mexico on the Equality of Women and Their Contribution to Development and Peace 1975, proclaimed by the World Conference of the International Women's Year, held at Mexico City from 19 June to 2 July 1975, which promulgated the principle that "international co-operation and peace require the achievement of national liberation and independence, the elimination of colonialism and neo-colonialism, foreign occupation, zionism, apartheid and racial discrimination in all its forms, as well as the recognition of the dignity of peoples and their right to self-determination",

Taking note also of resolution 77 (XII) adopted by the Assembly of Heads of State and Government of the Organization of African Unity at its twelfth ordinary session, held at Kampala from 28 July to 1 August 1975, which considered "that the racist regime in occupied Palestine and the racist regime in Zimbabwe and South Africa have a common imperialist origin, forming a whole and having the same racist structure and being organically linked in their policy aimed at repression of the dignity and integrity of the human being",

Taking note also of the Political Declaration and Strategy to Strengthen International Peace and Security and to Intensify Solidarity and Mutual Assistance among Non-Aligned Countries, adopted at the Conference of Ministers for Foreign Affairs of Non-Aligned Countries held at Lima from 25 to 30 August 1975, which most severely condemned zionism as a threat to world peace and security and called upon all countries to oppose this racist and imperialist ideology,

Determines that Zionism is a form of racism and racial discrimination.

In his address to the United Nations General Assembly the same day, 10 November 1975, Israeli Ambassador Chaim Herzog stated:[7]

"I can point with pride to the Arab ministers who have served in my government; to the Arab deputy speaker of my Parliament; to Arab officers and men serving of their own volition in our border and police defense forces, frequently commanding Jewish troops; to the hundreds of thousands of Arabs from all over the Middle East crowding the cities of Israel every year; to the thousands of Arabs from all over the Middle East coming for medical treatment to Israel; to the peaceful coexistence which has developed; to the fact that Arabic is an official language in Israel on a par with Hebrew; to the fact that it is as natural for an Arab to serve in public office in Israel as it is incongruous to think of a Jew serving in any public office in an Arab country, indeed being admitted to many of them. Is that racism? It is not! That ... is Zionism."

In his response he also said that the resolution was:

"another manifestation of the bitter anti-Semitic, anti-Jewish hatred which animates Arab society. Who would have believed that in this year, 1975, the malicious falsehoods of the 'Elders of Zion' would be distributed officially by Arab governments? Who would have believed that we would today contemplate an Arab society which teaches the vilest anti-Jewish hate in the kindergartens? ... We are being attacked by a society which is motivated by the most extreme form of racism known in the world today"

Herzog ended his statement, while holding a copy of the resolution, with these words:

"For us, the Jewish people, this resolution based on hatred, falsehood and arrogance, is devoid of any moral or legal value. For us, the Jewish people, this is no more than a piece of paper and we shall treat it as such."

As he concluded his speech, Herzog tore the resolution in half.

The name of "The UN avenue" in Haifa, Jerusalem and Tel Aviv was switched to "The Zionism avenue" as a response to the UN's decision.[8]

Before the vote, Daniel Patrick Moynihan, the United States ambassador to the United Nations, warned that, "The United Nations is about to make anti-Semitism international law."[9] He delivered a speech against the resolution, including the famous line, "[The United States] does not acknowledge, it will not abide by, it will never acquiesce in this infamous act ... A great evil has been loosed upon the world."[10]

In Campbell, California, in the United States, a group of high school students attempted to solicit signatures on the premises of a local shopping center for a petition against Resolution 3379. The result was the landmark U.S. Supreme Court decision in Pruneyard Shopping Center v. Robins (1980) that supported states' rights to expand the exercise of free speech, which California held was legal in what were considered public areas of a shopping mall.[11]

Mexico's vote in favor of the resolution led some United States Jews to organize a tourism boycott of Mexico. This ended after Mexican foreign minister Emilio scar Rabasa made a trip to Israel (Rabasa shortly afterward was forced to resign).[12][13]

United Nations General Assembly Resolution 46/86, adopted on 16 December 1991, revoked the determination in Resolution 3379, which had called Zionism a form of racism.[1] Israel had made revocation of Resolution 3379 a condition of its participation in the Madrid Peace Conference, in progress in the last quarter of 1991.[15]

The resolution was raised under pressure from the administration of US President George H.W. Bush.[16] The text of the revocation was simply:

"The General Assembly Decides to revoke the determination contained in its resolution 3379 (XXX) of 10 November 1975."

The motion was supported by 111 (including the 90 nations who sponsored the resolution), opposed by 25 nations and abstained by 13 nations.

George H. W. Bush personally introduced the motion to revoke 3379 with these words:

And now, for the first time, we have a real chance to fulfill the U.N. Charter's ambition of working "to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person, in the equal rights of men and women and nations large and small to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom. Those are the words from the charter. We will not revive these ideals if we fail to acknowledge the challenge that the renewal of history presents.

....No one here can promise that today's borders will remain fixed for all time. But we must strive to ensure the peaceful, negotiated settlement of border disputes. We also must promote the cause of international harmony by addressing old feuds. We should take seriously the charter's pledge "to practice tolerance and live together in peace with one another as good neighbors."

UNGA Resolution 3379, the so-called "Zionism is racism" resolution, mocks this pledge and the principles upon which the United Nations was founded. And I call now for its repeal. Zionism is not a policy; it is the idea that led to the creation of a home for the Jewish people, to the State of Israel. And to equate Zionism with the intolerable sin of racism is to twist history and forget the terrible plight of Jews in World War II and, indeed, throughout history. To equate Zionism with racism is to reject Israel itself, a member of good standing of the United Nations.

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United Nations General Assembly Resolution 3379 - Wikipedia

Mishnah – Wikipedia

Posted By on February 7, 2018

The Mishnah or Mishna (; Hebrew: , "study by repetition", from the verb shanah , or "to study and review", also "secondary")[1] is the first major written redaction of the Jewish oral traditions known as the "Oral Torah". It is also the first major work of Rabbinic literature.[2][3] The Mishnah was redacted by Judah the Prince at the beginning of the third century CE[4] in a time when, according to the Talmud, the persecution of the Jews and the passage of time raised the possibility that the details of the oral traditions of the Pharisees from the Second Temple period (536 BCE 70 CE) would be forgotten. Most of the Mishnah is written in Mishnaic Hebrew, while some parts are Aramaic.

The Mishnah consists of six orders (sedarim, singular seder ), each containing 712 tractates (masechtot, singular masechet ; lit. "web"), 63 in total, and further subdivided into chapters and paragraphs or verses. The word Mishnah can also indicate a single paragraph or a verse of the work itself, i.e. the smallest unit of structure in the Mishnah. For this reason the whole work is sometimes called by the plural, Mishnayot.

The term "Mishnah" originally referred to a method of teaching by presenting topics in a systematic order, as contrasted with Midrash, which followed the order of the Bible. As a written compilation, the order of the Mishnah is by subject matter and includes a much broader selection of halakhic subjects, and discusses individual subjects more thoroughly, than the Midrash.

The Mishnah consists of six orders (sedarim, singular seder ), each containing 712 tractates (masechtot, singular masechet ; lit. "web"), 63 in total. Each masechet is divided into chapters (peraqim, singular pereq) and then paragraphs (mishnayot, singular mishnah). In this last context, the word mishnah means a single paragraph of the work, i.e. the smallest unit of structure, leading to the use of the plural, "Mishnayot", for the whole work.

Because of the division into six orders, the Mishnah is sometimes called 'Shas' (an acronym for Shisha Sedarim the "six orders"), though that term is more often used for the Talmud as a whole.

The six orders are:

In each order (with the exception of Zeraim), tractates are arranged from biggest (in number of chapters) to smallest. A popular mnemonic consists of the acronym "Z'MaN NaKaT."[5]

The Babylonian Talmud (Hagiga 14a) states that there were either six hundred or seven hundred orders of the Mishnah. Hillel the Elder organized them into six orders to make it easier to remember. The historical accuracy of this tradition is disputed.[citation needed] There is also a tradition that Ezra the scribe dictated from memory not only the 24 books of the Tanakh but 60 esoteric books. It is not known whether this is a reference to the Mishnah, but there is a case for saying that the Mishnah does consist of 60 tractates. (The current total is 63, but Makkot was originally part of Sanhedrin, and Bava Kamma, Bava Metzia and Bava Batra may be regarded as subdivisions of a single tractate Nezikin.)

Interestingly, Reuvein Margolies (18891971) posited that there were originally seven orders of Mishnah, citing a Gaonic tradition on the existence of a seventh order containing the laws of Sta"m (scribal practice) and Berachot (blessings).[citation needed]

A number of important laws are not elaborated upon in the Mishnah. These include the laws of tzitzit, tefillin (phylacteries), mezuzot, the holiday of Hanukkah, and the laws of conversion to Judaism. These were later discussed in the minor tractates.

Nissim ben Jacob's Hakdamah Le'mafteach Hatalmud argued that it was unnecessary for Judah the Prince to discuss them as many of these laws were so well known. Margolies suggests that as the Mishnah was redacted after the Bar Kokhba revolt, Judah could not have included discussion of Hanukkah, which commemorates the Jewish revolt against the Seleucid Empire (the Romans would not have tolerated this overt nationalism). Similarly, there were then several decrees in place aimed at suppressing outward signs of national identity, including decrees against wearing tefillin and tzitzit; as conversion to Judaism was against Roman law, Judah would not have discussed this.[6]

David Zvi Hoffmann suggests that there existed ancient texts analogous to the present-day Shulchan Aruch that discussed the basic laws of day to day living and it was therefore not necessary to focus on these laws in the Mishnah.

Rabbinic commentaries on the Mishnah from the next four centuries, done in the Land of Israel and in Babylonia, were eventually redacted and compiled as well. In themselves they are known as Gemara. The books which set out the Mishnah in its original structure, together with the associated Gemara, are known as Talmuds. Two Talmuds were compiled, the Babylonian Talmud (to which the term "Talmud" normally refers) and the Jerusalem Talmud. Unlike the Hebrew Mishnah, the Gemara is written primarily in Aramaic.

The Mishnah teaches the oral traditions by example, presenting actual cases being brought to judgment, usually along with the debate on the matter and the judgment that was given by a notable rabbi based on halakha, mitzvot, and spirit of the teaching ("Torah") that guided his decision. In this way, it brings to everyday reality the practice of the mitzvot as presented in the Torah, and aims to cover all aspects of human living, serve as an example for future judgments, and, most important, demonstrate pragmatic exercise of the Biblical laws, which was much needed since the time when the Second Temple was destroyed (70 CE). The Mishnah does not claim to be the development of new laws, but rather the collection of existing traditions.[citation needed]

The term "Mishnah" is related to the verb "shanah", to teach or repeat, and to the adjectives "sheni" and "mishneh", meaning "second". It is thus named for being both the one written authority (codex) secondary (only) to the Tanakh as a basis for the passing of judgment, a source and a tool for creating laws, and the first of many books to complement the Tanakh in certain aspects.

Before the publication of the Mishnah, Jewish scholarship and judgement were predominantly oral, as according to the Talmud, it was not permitted to write them down.[7] The earliest recorded oral law may have been of the midrashic form, in which halakhic discussion is structured as exegetical commentary on the Torah.[citation needed] Rabbis expounded on and debated the Tanakh, the Hebrew Bible, without the benefit of written works (other than the Biblical books themselves), though some may have made private notes ( ) for example of court decisions. The oral traditions were far from monolithic, and varied among various schools, the most famous of which were the House of Shammai and the House of Hillel.

After First JewishRoman War in 70 CE, with the end of the Second Temple Jewish center in Jerusalem, Jewish social and legal norms were in upheaval. The Rabbis were faced with the new reality of Judaism without a Temple (to serve as the center of teaching and study) and Judea without autonomy. It is during this period that Rabbinic discourse began to be recorded in writing.[8][9] The possibility was felt that the details of the oral traditions of the Pharisees from the Second Temple period (530s BCE 70 CE) would be forgotten, so the justification was found to have these oral laws transcribed.[10][11]

Over time, different traditions of the Oral Law came into being, raising problems of interpretation. According to the Mevo Hatalmud[citation needed] many rulings were given in a specific context, but would be taken out of it; or a ruling was revisited but the second ruling would not become popularly known. To correct this, Judah the Prince took up the redaction of the Mishnah. If a point was of no conflict, he kept its language; where there was conflict, he reordered the opinions and ruled; and he clarified where context was not given. The idea was not to use his own discretion, but rather to examine the tradition as far back as he could, and only supplement as required.[citation needed]

According to Rabbinic Judaism, the Oral Torah (Hebrew: -) was given to Moses with the Torah at Mount Sinai or Mount Horeb as an exposition to the latter. The accumulated traditions of the Oral Law, expounded by scholars in each generation from Moses onward, is considered as the necessary basis for the interpretation, and often for the reading, of the Written Law. Jews sometimes refer to this as the Masorah (Hebrew: ), roughly translated as tradition, though that word is often used in a narrower sense to mean traditions concerning the editing and reading of the Biblical text (see Masoretic Text). The resulting Jewish law and custom is called halakha.

While most discussions in the Mishnah concern the correct way to carry out laws recorded in the Torah, it usually presents its conclusions without explicitly linking them to any scriptural passage, though scriptural quotations do occur. For this reason it is arranged in order of topics rather than in the form of a Biblical commentary. (In a very few cases, there is no scriptural source at all and the law is described as Halakha leMoshe miSinai, "law to Moses from Sinai".) The Midrash halakha, by contrast, while presenting similar laws, does so in the form of a Biblical commentary and explicitly links its conclusions to details in the Biblical text. These Midrashim often predate the Mishnah.

The Mishnah also quotes the Torah for principles not associated with law, but just as practical advice, even at times for humor or as guidance for understanding historical debates.

Some Jews did not accept the codification of the oral law at all. Karaite Judaism, for example, recognised only the Tanakh as authoritative in Halakha (Jewish religious law) and theology. It vehemently rejected the codification of the Oral Torah in the Mishnah and Talmud and subsequent works of mainstream Rabbinic Judaism which maintained that the Talmud was an authoritative interpretations of the Torah. Karaites maintained that all of the divine commandments handed down to Moses by God were recorded in the written Torah without additional Oral Law or explanation. As a result, Karaite Jews did not accept as binding the written collections of the oral tradition in the Midrash or Talmud. The Karaites comprised a significant portion of the world Jewish population in the 10th and 11th centuries CE, and remain extant, although they currently number in the thousands.

The rabbis who contributed to the Mishnah are known as the Tannaim,[12][13] of whom approximately 120 are known. The period during which the Mishnah was assembled spanned about 130 years, or five generations, in the first and second centuries CE. Judah the Prince is credited with the final redaction and publication of the Mishnah,[14] although there have been a few additions since his time:[15] those passages that cite him or his grandson, Judah II, and the end of tractate Sotah, which refers to the period after Judah the Prince's death. One must also note that in addition to redacting the Mishnah, Judah the Prince and his court also ruled on which opinions should be followed, though the rulings do not always appear in the text.

Most of the Mishnah is related without attribution (stam). This usually indicates that many sages taught so, or that Judah the Prince ruled so. The halakhic ruling usually follows that view. Sometimes, however, it appears to be the opinion of a single sage, and the view of the sages collectively (Hebrew: , hachamim) is given separately.

As Judah the Prince went through the tractates, the Mishnah was set forth, but throughout his life some parts were updated as new information came to light. Because of the proliferation of earlier versions, it was deemed too hard to retract anything already released, and therefore a second version of certain laws were released. The Talmud refers to these differing versions as Mishnah Rishonah ("First Mishnah") and Mishnah Acharonah ("Last Mishnah"). David Zvi Hoffmann suggests that Mishnah Rishonah actually refers to texts from earlier Sages upon which Rabbi based his Mishnah.

The Talmud records a tradition that unattributed statements of the law represent the views of Rabbi Meir (Sanhedrin 86a), which supports the theory (recorded by Sherira Gaon in his famous Iggeret) that he was the author of an earlier collection. For this reason, the few passages that actually say "this is the view of Rabbi Meir" represent cases where the author intended to present Rabbi Meir's view as a "minority opinion" not representing the accepted law.

There are also references to the "Mishnah of Rabbi Akiva", suggesting a still earlier collection;[16] on the other hand, these references may simply mean his teachings in general. Another possibility is that Rabbi Akiva and Rabbi Meir established the divisions and order of subjects in the Mishnah, making them the authors of a school curriculum rather than of a book.

Authorities are divided on whether Rabbi Judah the Prince recorded the Mishnah in writing or established it as an oral text for memorisation. The most important early account of its composition, the Iggeret Rav Sherira Gaon (Epistle of Rabbi Sherira Gaon) is ambiguous on the point, although the Spanish recension leans to the theory that the Mishnah was written. However, the Talmud records that, in every study session, there was a person called the tanna appointed to recite the Mishnah passage under discussion. This may indicate that, even if the Mishnah was reduced to writing, it was not available on general distribution.

Very roughly, there are two traditions of Mishnah text. One is found in manuscripts and printed editions of the Mishnah on its own, or as part of the Jerusalem Talmud. The other is found in manuscripts and editions of the Babylonian Talmud; though there is sometimes a difference between the text of a whole paragraph printed at the beginning of a discussion (which may be edited to conform with the text of the Mishnah-only editions) and the line-by-line citations in the course of the discussion.

Robert Brody, in his Mishna and Tosefta Studies (Jerusalem 2014), warns against over-simplifying the picture by assuming that the Mishnah-only tradition is always the more authentic, or that it represents a "Palestinian" as against a "Babylonian" tradition. Manuscripts from the Cairo Geniza, or citations in other works, may support either type of reading or other readings altogether.

The first printed edition of the Mishnah was published in Naples. There have been many subsequent editions, including the late 19th century Vilna edition, which is the basis of the editions now used by the religious public.

Vocalized editions were published in Italy, culminating in the edition of David ben Solomon Altaras, publ. Venice 1737. The Altaras edition was republished in Mantua in 1777, in Pisa in 1797 and 1810 and in Livorno in many editions from 1823 until 1936: reprints of the vocalized Livorno editions were published in Israel in 1913, 1962, 1968 and 1976. These editions show some textual variants by bracketing doubtful words and passages, though they do not attempt detailed textual criticism. The Livorno editions are the basis of the Sephardic tradition for recitation.

As well as being printed on its own, the Mishnah is included in all editions of the Babylonian and Jerusalem Talmuds. Each paragraph is printed on its own, and followed by the relevant Gemara discussion. However, that discussion itself often cites the Mishnah line by line. While the text printed in paragraph form has generally been standardized to follow the Vilna edition, the text cited line by line in the Gemara often preserves important variants, which sometimes reflect the readings of older manuscripts.

The nearest approach to a critical edition is that of Hanoch Albeck. There is also an edition by Yosef Qafi of the Mishnah together with the commentary of Maimonides, which compares the base text used by Maimonides with the Napoli and Vilna editions and other sources.

The Mishnah was and still is traditionally studied through recitation (out loud). Many medieval manuscripts of the Mishnah are vowelized, and some of these contain partial Tiberian cantillation. Jewish communities around the world preserved local melodies for chanting the Mishnah, and distinctive ways of pronouncing its words.

Most vowelized editions of the Mishnah today reflect standard Ashkenazic vowelization, and often contain mistakes. The Albeck edition of the Mishnah was vowelized by Hanokh Yalon, who made careful eclectic use of both medieval manuscripts and current oral traditions of pronunciation from Jewish communities all over the world. The Albeck edition includes an introduction by Yalon detailing his eclectic method.

Two institutes at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem have collected major oral archives which hold (among other things) extensive recordings of Jews chanting the Mishnah using a variety of melodies and many different kinds of pronunciation.[17] These institutes are the Jewish Oral Traditions Research Center and the National Voice Archives (the Phonoteca at the Jewish National and University Library). See below for external links.

Both the Mishnah and Talmud contain little serious biographical studies of the people discussed therein, and the same tractate will conflate the points of view of many different people. Yet, sketchy biographies of the Mishnaic sages can often be constructed with historical detail from Talmudic and Midrashic sources.

According to the Encyclopaedia Judaica (Second Edition), it is accepted that Judah the Prince added, deleted, and re wrote his source material during the process of redacting the Mishnah. Modern authors who have provided examples of these changes include J.N. Epstein, and S. Friedman.[21]

Following Judah the Prince's redaction there remained a number of different versions of the Mishnah in circulation. The Mishnah used in the Babylonian rabbinic community differing markedly from that used in the Palestinian one. Indeed within these rabbinic communities themselves there are indications of different versions being used for study. These differences are shown in divergent citations of individual Mishnah passages in the Talmud Yerushalmi and the Talmud Bavli, and in variances of medieval manuscripts and early editions of the Mishnah. The best known examples of these differences is found in J.N.Epsteins Introduction to the Text of the Mishnah (1948).[21]

Epstein has also concluded that the period of the Amoraim was one of further deliberate changes to the text of the Mishnah, which he views as attempts to return the text to what was regarded as its original form. These lessened over time, as the text of the Mishnah became more and more regarded as authoritative.[21]

Many modern historical scholars have focused on the timing and the formation of the Mishnah. A vital question is whether it is composed of sources which date from its editor's lifetime, and to what extent is it composed of earlier, or later sources. Are Mishnaic disputes distinguishable along theological or communal lines, and in what ways do different sections derive from different schools of thought within early Judaism? Can these early sources be identified, and if so, how? In response to these questions, modern scholars have adopted a number of different approaches.

A notable literary work on the composition of the Mishnah is Milton Steinberg's novel As a Driven Leaf.

See more here:

Mishnah - Wikipedia


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