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Outnumbering the racists – Mondoweiss

Posted By on June 16, 2017

Last week, I watched the Hadassah panel on Feminism and Zionism, and within a couple of hours, I published what is best described as a rushed transcript rather than a reflective OpEd. But I have not really stopped thinking about how these otherwise successful, powerful Zionists clearly felt beleaguered. The panel was defensive at best, as each woman felt the need to explain why she is a Zionist, how she felt isolated, alienated from todays progressive coalitions, and how she would pitch her ideology to todays youth.

Upon reflection, I think it important to point out the still-unquestioned sense of entitlement that made it possible for Hadassah to put on such a panel, with absolutely no Palestinian perspective, when Palestinians are always pressured to include a Zionist perspectivefor balance, you know We usually argue that this is normalization, that there is no balance between Palestinians and Zionists in real life, and that to seek to project such balance on a panel is misleading, and adds insult to the injury Zionists inflict upon Palestinians. But the pressure remains there, on panels with Palestinian speakers, to at least include one Jewish panelist, even if they are anti-Zionist, because no panel with only Palestinian speakers can be good enough, objective enough, convincing enough. Alternately, if a Palestinian speaker is invited alone, they must be followed by a Zionist. Evanston librarian Lesley Williams, for example, to list but one of many, may lose her job after inviting Ali Abunimah in 2014, and has been dealing with the political fallout of that event for three years.

But Hadassah did not include a Palestinian perspective, as if Zionism, or Zionist feminism, had nothing to do with Palestine even though the panelists conversation was a direct result of the questioning, by Palestinians and our allies, of the possibility of reconciling Zionism with feminism. If five men were to discuss reproductive justice without womens participation, we would totally pan the manel, as all-male panels are derogatorily known. Indeed, a friend has suggested we start calling panels such as Hadassahs a Zionel.

But more interestingly, in todays context, with the visibility of many Palestinian feminists, the fact that they did not include a Palestinian perspective (or two, or three) is indicative of the defensiveness that some groups under attack feel. We (Palestinians, queers, people of color, and other disenfranchised minorities) have long held events where attendance was restricted, by invitation only. We are jealously protective of what little space and privacy we have, in a hostile larger society. We try and create safe spaces, knowing they dont exist yet, so we settle for safer spaces.

Now, it is Hadassah doing so.

One image that came to my mind as I watched the Zionel was of these women circling the wagons. At first, I was uncomfortable with the image, because in the hegemonic discourse, it is about creating a protective circle when coming under attack. The image is one of hordes of Indians, attacking civilian families, from all directions. The travelers are besieged. And such has been our social training that our mind immediately conjures up the hardships of those families, exhausted, threatened, simply trying to eke out a new life in hostile circumstances. And coming under attack. Those circumstances are well documented, impressed into the national ethos of opportunity coming to those who seek it: extreme weather that makes the old country seem moderate, food scarcity, no concrete roof over their heads, an entire family in one wagon, always on the lookout for attackers.

A similar hegemonic narrative articulates the experience of Zionists, and what they have been doing in Palestine for over 70 years, starting with the massacres of the Nakba, up to todays outposts, the trailers that will grow into villages, towns, cities which Israel plans to annex. They are projected as the brave pioneers who made the desert bloom, rather than the settlers who destroyed an existing society, ravaging its orchards as well as stealing its cultural heritage.

And of course, the reality in the North American context is that the attackers were Indigenous people defending themselves from the intrusions of colonizers, intent on killing and otherwise displacing them, so as to steal and settle their lands. In other words, or rather, in more correct words, the Indigenous were not attackers at all, they were protecting the land they had always lived on. Similarly, whatever the (waning) hegemonic discourse would project, the Palestinian people are not attacking, so much as responding to the attacks of the Zionist settlers.

Today, as white supremacy in the US, and relentless Zionist expansion in Palestine, seem to have the blessing of politicians, it is important to remember that we are many, and we are putting up the kind of resistance that makes racists circle their wagons, because we are indeed resisting from everywhere. Our coalitions, as Palestinians, African-Americans, Indigenous, Jews, atheists, queer, and other communities come together to challenge Israeli apartheid, are our strength. And these coalitions are coming together in expansive ways, forging co-resistance to various manifestations of institutionalized racism, from Zionism to Law Enforcement Violence to the White supremacist anti-Muslim hate rallies, which brought out people of all races and religions at the counter-rally protests, and which are estimated to have outnumbered the anti-Sharia protesters ten to one. Next week, on June 20th, World Refugee Day, we will once again call on anti-racists to make the connection with the struggle for justice in Palestine, as we state that If you have an opinion about Trumps Muslim ban, you have an opinion about Israel.

The racists may have the conventional weapons, we have the numbers. They are few, we are many. We are reaching out, growing our communities, they are closing in, festering within, wondering how they can still appeal to todays youth.

With that said, we cannot ignore the fact that the situation on the ground remains dire, and that the incremental genocide in the Gaza Strip is intensifying, with the latest further reduction in power supply threatening to snuff out yet more innocent lives. Now is the time to grow our coalitions even more, so that we can break the siege, because the residents of Gaza cannot do it alone. Palestinian intellectual and Gaza resident Haidar Eid recently called for support again, in a Facebook post, when he wrote: lets be clear, there isnt much we, Gazans, can do against Israel and those who support its crimes against Gaza except calling on our conscientious supporters to intensify BDS, and make it absolutely clear that every victory made by the movement is dedicated to Gaza.

As Mahmoud Darwish, poet of the Palestinian people, put it: This siege will endure until the besiegers feel like/ the besieged/ that anger/ is an emotion like any other. We are besieging the Zionists, and their circle is getting smaller by the day, while we keep growing. We are claiming our rights, justice for the dispossessed, food, light and breathing space for the refugees, while the racists are trying to hold on to their privileges. It is only fair that they should feel isolated, that they can only talk amongst themselves, while Palestinian resistance turns to co-resistance with anti-racists everywhere, and we finally turn the tables.

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Outnumbering the racists – Mondoweiss

Rabbis at influential NY synagogue to officiate at intermarriages … – Jewish Telegraphic Agency

Posted By on June 16, 2017

A view of Bnai Jeshurun synagogue in New York City. (Wikimedia Commons)

NEW YORK (JTA) Rabbis at Bnai Jeshurun, an influential nondenominational synagogue in New York City, will officiate at theweddings of interfaith couples who commit to creating Jewish homes and raising Jewish children.

The new policy, which was announced at the synagogues annual meeting Thursday night, is intended to welcome the participation of interfaith families within the bounds of Jewish law, or halachah. Interfaith couples will not not sign aketubah, the traditional document sealing a marriage between a Jew and a Jew, but a ritual contract called a tenaim, a traditional engagement agreement that lays out the conditions of marriage.

We are embracing a significant change in how we approach the future of Jewish life at BJ, J. Rolando Matalon, the synagogues senior rabbi, said in a video shared with congregants, according to the Forward. He called the decision a shift in emphasis in the way we relate to and invite in intermarried couples.

The synagogues rabbis also announced that they will continue to hold to the traditional matrilineal definition of Jewish identity, in which a child is considered Jewish at birth if its mother is Jewish by birth or choice. Patrilineal adults andchildren will continue to immerse in amikvah as part of a conversion ceremony at the synagogue.

Bnai Jeshurun, known as BJ, is a large and trend-setting congregation on the Upper West Side of Manhattan that has led a renaissance of sorts among tradition-minded, egalitarian worshippers living in that heavily Jewish section. Although the synagogue has roots in the Conservative movement, it is unaffiliated with any denomination and has set its own course betweenthe liberalism of Reform and the stricter traditionalism of Conservativism.

For example, the Reform movement has embraced patrilineal descent, while Conservative rabbis affiliated with their movement may not officiate at intermarriages.

The BJ decision comes amid a renewal of the debate over the growing numbers of interfaith marriages involving Jews. Last week,the Jerusalem-based Jewish People Policy Institute published a study saying that barely 40 percent of Jews are marrying Jewish spouses and that among non-OrthodoxJewish-American adults, only 32 percent were raising their children Jewish in one way or another. Only about 8 percent ofgrandchildren of intermarried couples are being raised as Jews by religion.

In an essay in the Forward, oneof the studys authors, Steven M. Cohen of the Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute for Religion, noted the dilemmas facing rabbis, especially in the Conservative movement, who are torn between upholding Jewish norms and encouraging interfaith couples to engage in Jewish life.

This month, the leader of another influential New York congregation, Lab/Shul, also announced thathewill officiate at weddings between Jews and non-Jews following a learning series ahead of and afterthe wedding ritual. Although ordained in the Conservative movement,Rabbi Amichai Lau Laurie said he expectsto resign its Rabbinical Assembly infavor of a policy that he wrote may enable more rabbis to welcome more people into our community with open arms.

Bnai Jeshurun announced its new policy after a yearlong series of classes and discussion on the topic to prepare the community and earn its buy-in. In 2012, its rabbis apologized to the congregation and leadership for the tone and the process of a letter affirming a controversial vote by the United Nations to upgrade the Palestinian delegationto observer-state status.

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Rabbis at influential NY synagogue to officiate at intermarriages … – Jewish Telegraphic Agency

Synagogue is divided when a balcony collapses – Entertainment … –

Posted By on June 16, 2017

By Pat Padua Special To The Washington Post

Set in an Orthodox Jewish community in Jerusalem, “The Women’s Balcony” centers on the literal breakdown of a synagogue. Structural damage to the women’s seating section results in a social conflict – one that resonates well beyond its specific milieu.

After a balcony in a moderate synagogue collapses during a bar mitzvah, the congregation’s rabbi falls ill. While plans are being made to renovate the house of worship, his replacement, the younger, more conservative Rabbi David (Aviv Alush), comes in with ideas that divide the community along gender lines.

Rabbi David insists that married women cover their hair, a proposal that is largely met with resistance. After the women raise enough money to reconstruct the balcony, he further insists that the money be used for a new bible scroll instead of balcony repairs.

“The Women’s Balcony” immerses the viewer in a culture whose rules may seem unusual to outsiders. One example is the debate over whether it’s acceptable to employ a “Sabbath Gentile” (that is, a non-Jew who is allowed to use a flashlight when the power goes out).

In the face of this particular orthodoxy, husbands and wives sometimes find themselves at odds. But in society at large, whether secular or religious, such contentious climates are becoming an increasingly unfortunate reality.

The film itself seems divided. While director Emil Ben-Shimon and writer Shlomit Nehama appear to side with the more moderate camp, images of the neglected synagogue – including a broken window that was never repaired – suggest that, just as the structure has been left to decay, so have its traditions.

Although the film ultimately strikes a celebratory tone, the stark divisions it reveals offer an unsettling look at the state of public discourse. Despite that broader message, it may be hard for some outsiders to feel fully invested in the central conflict. In the end, the solution offered by “The Women’s Balcony” to end the rancor feels unearned.

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Synagogue is divided when a balcony collapses – Entertainment … –

Amherst synagogue addition gains Planning Board approval – Buffalo News

Posted By on June 16, 2017

The merged congregation ofTemple Beth Tzedek and B’nai Shalom received the Amherst Planning Board’s approval Thursday night to move forward with a proposed synagogue addition on North Forest Road, over the objections of some neighbors of the property.

Temple Beth Tzedek is selling its longtime home at 621 Getzville Road to Northtown Automotive and is combining with B’nai Shalom, located at 1641 N. Forest Road. Temple Beth Tzedek plans to use the proceeds of the sale to pay for a new, 10,210-square-foot synagogue, 100-space parking lot, infrastructure and landscaping on about 4 acres at 1641 and 1623 N. Forest.

Temple Beth Tzedek details plans for new Amherst synagogue

The addition would connect to the existing synagogue.

Neighbors who opposed the project said water run-off from the synagogue property is a problem and there aren’t enough parking spaces to handle the crowds expected for the high holidays, weddings and other special events.

The Planning Board approved the project site plan, with some conditions attached, and found the project wouldn’t harm the environment.


Amherst synagogue addition gains Planning Board approval – Buffalo News

Celebrate ‘Egg Rolls, Egg Creams, and Empanadas’ with the … – Bowery Boogie

Posted By on June 16, 2017

Theannual block party celebrating atrifecta of treats egg rolls, egg creams, and empanadas is hitting the streets of the Lower East Side this weekend. Yup, now in its 17th season, the Museum at Eldridge Streets festival will once again commemoratethe diverse communities of the neighborhood, by way of food, performances, games, and hands-on demonstrations.

As in years prior, there will be performances byFrank London and band,theChinatown Senior Center Orchestra, East River Ensemble, and Cantor Eric Freeman. Puerto Rican bomba music will fill the streets, while Hebrew and Chinese scribal art is showcased. Other activities include yarmulke making, Puerto Rican mask making, and plenty ofof mah jongg to go around. Plus, you can watch food demos, including how to make kreplach, dumplings, and empanadas. And, lest we forget, there will be kosher egg rolls, egg creams, and empanadas for sale.

Festivities kick of this Sunday, June 18 at noon, at the Museum at Eldridge Street (aka Eldridge Street Synagogue).

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Celebrate ‘Egg Rolls, Egg Creams, and Empanadas’ with the … – Bowery Boogie

Upper West Side Synagogue Tapped For Registers of Historic Places –

Posted By on June 16, 2017
Upper West Side Synagogue Tapped For Registers of Historic Places
UPPER WEST SIDE, NY An Upper West Side synagogue is one of 22 properties being recommended to the State and National Registers of Historic Places by the New York State Board for Historic Preservation, Gov. Andrew Cuomo announced Thursday.

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Upper West Side Synagogue Tapped For Registers of Historic Places –

What is ‘Holocaust Denial’?

Posted By on June 16, 2017

What is ‘Holocaust Denial’?

By Barbara Kulaszka

In recent years, considerable attention has been devoted to the supposed danger of “Holocaust denial.” Politicians, newspapers and television warn about the growing influence of those who reject the Holocaust story that some six million European Jews were systematically exterminated during the Second World War, most of them in gas chambers.

In several countries, including Israel, France, Germany and Austria, “Holocaust denial” is against the law, and “deniers” have been punished with stiff fines and prison sentences. Some Jewish community leaders have called for similar measures in North America. In Canada, David Matas, Senior Counsel for the “League for Human Rights” of the Zionist B’nai B’rith organization, says: [1]

“The Holocaust was the murder of six million Jews, including two million children. Holocaust denial is a second murder of those same six million. First their lives were extinguished; then their deaths. A person who denies the Holocaust becomes part of the crime of the Holocaust itself.”

Often overlooked in this controversy is the crucial question: Just what constitutes “Holocaust denial”?

Six Million?

Should someone be considered a “Holocaust denier” because he does not believe – as Matas and many others insist – that six million Jews were killed during World War II? This figure was cited by the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg in 1945-1946. It found that “the policy pursued [by the German government] resulted in the killing of six million Jews, of which four million were killed in the extermination institutions.” [2]

Yet if that is so, then several of the most prominent Holocaust historians could be regarded as “deniers.” Professor Raul Hilberg, author of the standard reference work, The Destruction of the European Jews, does not accept that six million Jews died. He puts the total of deaths (from all causes) at 5.1 million. Gerald Reitlinger, author of The Final Solution, likewise did not accept the six million figure. He estimated the figure of Jewish wartime dead might be as high as 4.6 million, but admitted that this was conjectural due to a lack of reliable information.

Human Soap?

Is someone a “Holocaust denier” if he says that the Nazis did not make soap from the corpses of murdered Jews? After considering the evidence – including an actual bar of soap supplied by the Soviets – the Nuremberg Tribunal declared in its Judgment that “in some instances attempts were made to utilize the fat from the bodies of the victims in the commercial manufacture of soap.” [3]

In 1990, though, Israel’s official Yad Vashem Holocaust center “rewrote history” by admitting that the soap story was not true. “Historians have concluded that soap was not made from human fat. When so many people deny the Holocaust ever happened, why give them something to use against the truth?,” said Yad Vashem official Shmuel Krakowski. [4]

Wannsee Conference?

Is someone a “Holocaust denier” if he does not accept that the January 1942 “Wannsee conference” of German bureaucrats was held to set or coordinate a program of systematic mass murder of Europe’s Jews? If so, Israeli Holocaust historian Yehuda Bauer must be wrong – and a “Holocaust denier” – because he declared: “The public still repeats, time after time, the silly story that at Wannsee the extermination of the Jews was arrived at.” In Bauer’s opinion, Wannsee was a meeting but “hardly a conference” and “little of what was said there was executed in detail.” [5]

Extermination Policy?

Is someone a “Holocaust denier” if he says that there was no order by Hitler to exterminate Europe’s Jews? There was a time when the answer would have been yes. Holocaust historian Raul Hilberg, for example, wrote in the 1961 edition of his study, The Destruction of the European Jews, that there were two Hitler orders for the destruction of Europe’s Jews: the first given in the spring of 1941, and the second shortly thereafter. But Hilberg removed mention of any such order from the revised, three-volume edition of his book published in 1985. [6] As Holocaust historian Christopher Browning has noted: [7]

“In the new edition, all references in the text to a Hitler decision or Hitler order for the ‘Final Solution’ have been systematically excised. Buried at the bottom of a single footnote stands the solitary reference: ‘Chronology and circumstances point to a Hitler decision before the summer ended.’ In the new edition, decisions were not made and orders were not given.”

A lack of hard evidence for an extermination order by Hitler has contributed to a controversy that divides Holocaust historians into “intentionalists” and “functionalists.” The former contend that there was a premeditated extermination policy ordered by Hitler, while the latter hold that Germany’s wartime “final solution” Jewish policy evolved at lower levels in response to circumstances. But the crucial point here is this: notwithstanding the capture of literally tons of German documents after the war, no one can point to documentary evidence of a wartime extermination order, plan or program. This was admitted by Professor Hilberg during his testimony in the 1985 trial in Toronto of German-Canadian publisher Ernst Zndel. [8]


So just what constitutes “Holocaust denial”? Surely a claim that most Auschwitz inmates died from disease and not systematic extermination in gas chambers would be “denial.” But perhaps not. Jewish historian Arno J. Mayer, a Princeton University professor, wrote in his 1988 study Why Did the Heavens Not Darken?: The ‘Final Solution’ in History: “…From 1942 to 1945, certainly at Auschwitz , but probably overall, more Jews were killed by so-called ‘natural’ causes than by ‘unnatural’ ones.” [9]

Even estimates of the number of people who died at Auschwitz – allegedly the main extermination center – are no longer clear cut. At the postwar Nuremberg Tribunal, the Allies charged that the Germans exterminated four million people at Auschwitz. [10] Until 1990, a memorial plaque at Auschwitz read: “Four Million People Suffered and Died Here at the Hands of the Nazi Murderers Between the Years 1940 and 1945.” [11]

Is it “Holocaust denial” to dispute these four million deaths? Not today. In July 1990, the Polish government’s Auschwitz State Museum, along with Israel’s Yad Vashem Holocaust center, conceded that the four million figure was a gross exaggeration, and references to it were accordingly removed from the Auschwitz monument. Israeli and Polish officials announced a tentative revised toll of 1.1 million Auschwitz dead. [12] In 1993, French Holocaust researcher Jean-Claude Pressac, in a much-discussed book about Auschwitz, estimated that altogether about 775,000 died there during the war years. [13]

Professor Mayer acknowledges that the question of how many really died in Auschwitz remains open. In Why Did the Heavens Not Darken? he wrote: [14}

“… Many questions remain open … All in all, how many bodies were cremated in Auschwitz? How many died there all told? What was the national, religious, and ethnic breakdown in this commonwealth of victims? How many of them were condemned to die a ‘natural’ death and how many were deliberately slaughtered? And what was the proportion of Jews among those murdered in cold blood among these gassed? We have simply no answers to these questions at this time.”

Gas Chambers

What about denying the existence of extermination “gas chambers”? Here too, Mayer makes a startling statement: “Sources for the study of the gas chambers are at once rare and unreliable.” While Mayer believes that such chambers did exist at Auschwitz, he points out that “most of what is known is based on the depositions of Nazi officials and executioners at postwar trials and on the memory of survivors and bystanders. This testimony must be screened carefully, since it can be influenced by subjective factors of great complexity.” [15}

Hss Testimony

One example of this might be the testimony of Rudolf Hss, an SS officer who served as commandant of Auschwitz. In its Judgment, the Nuremberg International Military Tribunal quoted at length from his testimony to support its findings of extermination. [16]

It is now well established that Hss’ crucial testimony, as well as his so-called “confession” – which was also cited by the Nuremberg Tribunal – are not only false, but were obtained by beating the former commandant nearly to death. [17] Hss’ wife and children were also threatened with death and deportation to Siberia. In his statement – which would not be admissible today in any United States court of law – Hss claimed the existence of an extermination camp called “Wolzek.” In fact, no such camp ever existed. He further claimed that during the time that he was commandant of Auschwitz, two and a half million people were exterminated there, and that a further half million died of disease. [18] Today no reputable historian upholds these figures. Hss was obviously willing to say anything, sign anything and do anything to stop the torture, and to try to save himself and his family.

Forensic Investigations

In his 1988 book, Professor Mayer calls for “excavations at the killing sites and in their immediate environs” to determine more about the gas chambers. In fact, such forensic studies have been made. The first was conducted in 1988 by American execution equipment consultant, Fred A. Leuchter, Jr. He carried out an on-site forensic examination of the alleged gas chambers at Auschwitz, Birkenau and Majdanek to determine if they could have been used to kill people as claimed. After a careful study of the alleged killing facilities, Leuchter concluded that the sites were not used, and could not have been used, as homicidal gas chambers. Furthermore, an analysis of samples taken by Leuchter from the walls and floors of the alleged gas chambers showed either no or minuscule traces of cyanide compound, from the active ingredient of Zyklon B, the pesticide allegedly used to murder Jews at Auschwitz. [19]

A confidential forensic examination (and subsequent report) commissioned by the Auschwitz State Museum and conducted by Institute of Forensic Research in Krakow has confirmed Leuchter’s finding that minimal or no traces of cyanide compound can be found in the sites alleged to have been gas chambers. [20]

The significance of this is evident when the results of the forensic examination of the alleged homicidal gas chambers are compared with the results of the examination of the Auschwitz disinfestation facilities, where Zyklon B was used to delouse mattresses and clothing. Whereas no or only trace amounts of cyanide were found in the alleged homicidal gas chambers, massive traces of cyanide were found in the walls and floor in the camp’s disinfestation delousing chambers.

Another forensic study was carried out by German chemist Germar Rudolf. On the basis of his on-site examination and analysis of samples, the certified chemist and doctoral candidate concluded: “For chemical-technical reasons, the claimed mass gassings with hydrocyanic acid in the alleged ‘gas chambers’ in Auschwitz did not take place … The supposed facilities for mass killing in Auschwitz and Birkenau were not suitable for this purpose…” [21]

There is also the study of Austrian engineer Walter Lftl, a respected expert witness in numerous court cases, and former president of Austria’s professional association of engineers. In a 1992 report he called the alleged mass extermination of Jews in gas chambers “technically impossible.” [22]

Discredited Perspective

So just what constitutes “Holocaust denial”? Those who support criminal persecution of “Holocaust deniers” seem to be still living in the world of 1946 where the Allied officials of the Nuremberg Tribunal have just pronounced their verdict. But the Tribunal’s findings can no longer be assumed to be valid. Because it relied so heavily on such untrustworthy evidence as the Hss testimony, some of its most critical findings are now discredited.

For purposes of their own, powerful special interest groups desperately seek to keep substantive discussion of the Holocaust story taboo. One of the ways they do this is by purposely mischaracterizing revisionist scholars as “deniers.” But the truth can’t be suppressed forever: There is a very real and growing controversy about what actually happened to Europe’s Jews during World War II.

Let this issue be settled as all great historical controversies are resolved: through free inquiry and open debate in our journals, newspapers and classrooms.


1. The Globe and Mail (Toronto), Jan. 22, 1992.

2. Trial of the Major War Criminals Before the International Military Tribunal (IMT “blue series”), Vol. 22, p. 496.

3. IMT “blue series,” Vol. 22, p. 496.

4. The Globe and Mail (Toronto), April 25, 1990; See also: M. Weber, “Jewish Soap,” The Journal of Historical Review, Summer 1991.

5. The Canadian Jewish News (Toronto), Jan. 30, 1992, p. 8.

6. See: Barbara Kulaszka, ed., Did Six Million Really Die: Report of the Evidence in the Canadian ‘False News’ Trial of Ernst Zndel (Toronto: Samisdat, 1992), pp. 192, 300, 349.

7. C. Browning, “The Revised Hilberg,” Simon Wiesenthal Annual, Vol. 3, 1986, p. 294; B. Kulaszka, ed., Did Six Million Really Die (1992), p. 117.

8. B. Kulaszka, ed., Did Six Million Really Die (1992), pp. 24-25.

9. A. Mayer, Why Did the Heavens Not Darken?: The ‘Final Solution’ in History (Pantheon, 1988), p. 365.

10. Nuremberg document 008-USSR, in IMT “blue series,” Vol. 39, pp. 241, 261.

11. B. Kulaszka, ed., Did Six Million Really Die (1992), p. 441.

12. Y. Bauer, “Fighting the Distortions,” The Jerusalem Post (Israel), Sept. 22, 1989; “Auschwitz Deaths Reduced to a Million,” The Daily Telegraph (London), July 17, 1990; ” Poland Reduces Auschwitz Death Toll Estimate to 1 Million,” The Washington Times, July 17, 1990.

13. J.-C. Pressac, Les Crmetoires d’Auschwitz: La machinerie du meurtre de masse (Paris: CNRS, 1993), p. 148. See also: R. Faurisson, “Jean-Claude Pressac’s New Auschwitz Book,” The Journal of Historical Review, Jan.-Feb. 1994, p. 24.

14. A. Mayer, Why Did the Heavens Not Darken? (1988), p. 366.

15. A. Mayer, Why Did the Heavens Not Darken? (1988), pp. 362-363.

16. IMT “blue series,” Vol. 1, pp. 251-252; Nuremberg document 3868-PS, in IMT “blue series,” Vol. 33, pp. 275-279.

17. Rupert Butler, Legions of Death (England: 1983), pp. 235-237.

18. See: R. Faurisson, “How the British Obtained the Confession of Rudolf Hss,” The Journal of Historical Review, Winter 1986-87, pp. 389-403.

19. See, for example: B. Kulaszka, ed., Did Six Million Really Die (1992), pp. 469-502. See also: M. Weber, “Fred Leuchter: Courageous Defender of Historical Truth,” The Journal of Historical Review, Winter 1992-93, pp. 421-428 ( )

20. “An Official Polish Report on the Auschwitz ‘Gas Chambers’,” The Journal of Historical Review, Summer 1991, pp. 207-216.

21. G. Rudolf, Gutachten ueber die Bildung und Nachweisbarkeit von Cyanidverbindungen in den ‘Gaskammern’ von Auschwitz (London: 1993) ( ); The Rudolf Report (in English) ( )

22. “The ‘Lftl Report’,” The Journal of Historical Review, Winter 1992-93.

About the Author

Barbara Kulaszka is a Canadian lawyer who practices law in Brighton, Ontario. She is best known for her work in free speech cases. During the 1988 “Holocaust trial” in Toronto, she served a co-counsel (with Doug Christie) for defendant Ernst Zundel. In 1999 she was awarded the “George Orwell Award” by the Canadian Free Speech League.

#2014 01/2007 (Revised)

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What is ‘Holocaust Denial’?

List of Jewish Genetic Diseases – Moment

Posted By on June 16, 2017

Many recessive diseases caused by genetic mutations among Ashkenazi Jews from Eastern Europe are disabling and fatal. They occur when a fetus inherits two mutations in the same gene, one from each parent. Tests can determine if people carry the common mutations, and prenatal testing is possible for all the diseases included on the list below. Cystic Fibrosis and Spinal Muscular Atrophy, while slightly more prevalent among Jewish Caucasian populations than among other Caucasian populations, are not primarily considered Jewish diseases. If both parents are carriers of the same disease there is a one in four chance with each pregnancy of having an affected fetus. This is the autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance where both individuals must carry the same disease in order to be at risk of having an affected child.

Recent research also indicates Crohns disease, Ulcertative Colitis, and a mutation which increases the chance of developing Parkinsons disease are all more commonly found in Ashkenazi Jews. Bloom Syndrome Bloom Syndrome hinders normal growth. Children typically reach a maximum of five feet at maturity. Other symptoms include increased respiratory and ear infections, redness of the face, infertility in males and an increased risk of cancer.

Apparently normal at birth, babies with Canavan Disease develop an enlarged head, mental retardation, feeding difficulties and seizures. Although many die in the first year of life, some live into their teens.

Familial Dysautonomia This dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system has been found only in Ashkenazi Jews. Occurring in infancy, symptoms include the inability to produce tears when crying, poor weight gain, indifference to pain, excessive sweating, gastrointestinal problems and incorrect perceptions of heat and taste. Before 1960, approximately 50 percent of patients died before age five, but today that same percentage reaches age 30.

All five types of Fanconi Anemia, a red and white blood cell and platelet deficiency, are inherited, but Type C is the most common in Ashkenazi Jews. Although symptoms are highly variable, physical abnormalities such as limb defects, bone marrow failure, and increased cancer risks are common. Many children who are diagnosed with Type C do not survive beyond young adulthood.

Caused by an enzyme deficiency, the symptoms of Gaucher Disease are variable and can present any time from early childhood to adulthood. Gaucher disease type 1 causes orthopedic problems and blood abnormalities. Gaucher disease is treatable with enzyme replacement therapy.

Its first symptoms are severe developmental delays and clouding of the cornea of the eye during early infancy. As it progresses, ML IV cripples the central nervous system. Most afflicted children never walk and some become severely retarded by age three.

Among its five variations, only Type A is more frequent among Ashkenazi Jews. By six months, infants with Type A experience difficulty feeding and recurrent vomiting, and develop enlarged spleens and livers. Children with Niemann-Pick disease type A usually die by age three.

A severe neurodegenerative disease, the most common symptom is the development of a cherry-red spot on the back of the eye, which occurs when a child is four to eight months old. Most children are totally debilitated with seizures, blindness, and spasticity by age three and die by age five.

Other diseases of connection to Ashkenazi Jews are Glycogen Storage Disease type 1A, Maple Syrup Urine Disease, Familial Hyperinsulinism, Joubert Syndrome Type 2, Lipoamide Dehydrogenase Deficiency (E3), Nemaline Myopathy, Usher Syndrome Type 3, Usher Syndrom Type I, and Walker Warburg Syndrome.

NOTE: There are also diseases which are more prevalent in people with Ashkenazi Jewish heritage. They are autosomal dominant, where an individual carrying a mutation is affected, and then has a 50% chance to pass on the mutation to his/her children, including:

Torsion Dystonia Affecting movement control, Torsion Dystonia generally shows up between the ages of six and 16 and affects the muscular development of limbs. Approximately one in 3,000 Ashkenazis is likely to develop it, and symptoms sometimes develop when there is no family history.

5-10% of breast and ovarian cancers are hereditary. Of those, ~85% are due to mutations in the BRCA genes, which cause hereditary breast and ovarian cancer. 1 in 40 Ashkenazi Jews carry a mutation in the BRCA genes. There are three specific mutations (two in the BRCA1 gene and one in the BRCA2 gene) in the Ashkenazi Jewish population. If an Ashkenazi Jewish woman carries a BRCA mutation, most of the time it is one of the three founder mutations previously discussed.

Sephardi Jews, whose ancestry can be traced to North African and Mediterranean countries, including Spain and Greece, suffer from the same genetic diseases as other populations in these countries. Jews of Sephardi ancestry also have their own set of distinct carrier screening tests based on their country of origin.

This disorder reducing the amount of hemoglobin can result in severe anemia in the first two years of life or in a milder case later in life. Roughly one in 30 people of Mediterranean descent carries the gene; one in 3,600 develops it.

As many as one in 200 North African and Iraqi Jews, Armenians and Turks has the disease, distinguished by 12 to 72-hour bouts of fever. Symptoms usually start between ages five and 15.

This common human enzyme deficiency affects an estimated 400 million people worldwide, and is transmitted from a carrier mother to her male infant. The disease can manifest itself as life-long hemolytic anemia or bouts of it. Some experience no symptoms at all, although certain oxidative drugs and infections as well as fava beans can induce it.

This disease prevents the liver and muscle from breaking down stored glycogen to glucose. Some develop hypoglycemia, an enlarged liver and weak muscles. Roughly one in 5,400 North African Jews has the disease.

Other diseases of connection to Sephardi origin include: Alpha-Thalassemia, Ataxia Telangiectasia, Corticosterone Methyloxidase Type II Deficiency, Costeff Optical Atrophy, Cystic Fibrosis (CF), Familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease, Familial Tumoral Calcinosis (Normophosphatemic Type), Inclusion Body Myophy Type 2B, Metachromic Leukodystrophy, Polyglandular Deficiency Syndrome, Pseudocholinesterase Deficiency, Spinal Muscular Athrophy (SMA) and Wolman Disease.

Mizrahi, the term for Eastern, in Hebrew, generally refers to Jews of Persian (Iranian) and Middle Eastern heritage. Jews of Mizrahi ancestry also have their own set of carrier screening tests based on their country of origin.

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List of Jewish Genetic Diseases – Moment

Who Were the Ashkenazi Jewish People, and Are You Related to …

Posted By on June 16, 2017

If you ever get your DNA tested, you might be surprised to discover a certain percentage of Ashkenazi Jewish DNA. Many people with European ancestry who are not practicing Jews and know of no Jewish ancestors do discover some Ashkenazi in them. There is a lengthy discussion on the topic on, a popular DNA testing site. People are using the discussion to try to determine their Jewish ancestors and their origins after discovering they are descended from some of the Ashkenazi population. Heres what you need to know about the Ashkenazi Jewish people, and how they are different genetically from the general Jewish community.

The name Ashkenazi comes from a Biblical person named Ashkenaz. He was the eldest son of Gomer. Gomer was a grandson of Noah through Noahs son Khaphet. This makes Ashkenaz a great-grandson of Noah. The Jewish population in eastern and central Europe began being distinguished from the Holy Land Jewish people by the use of the name Ashkenazi in the early Medieval period of history. There was a Christian custom at this time of calling areas of Jewish settlement in Europe with Biblical names, which is how the Ashkenzazis received their name. By the later Medieval period, the term Ashkenazi was used for the German and French Jewish populations alone and was even adopted by the Jewish people and scholars of the area themselves.

How the Ashkenazis got up into Germany and France is a matter of speculation. There are historical records that talk of Jewish settlements in the southern part of Europe during the pre-Christian era. Most of these Jewish people were living in Roman communities. Jewish people were granted full Roman citizenship and all the privileges and rights that came with it in 212 A.D., but began to be pushed to the outskirts of society and shunned when Christianity became the dominant religion of Rome in 380 A.D.

There is also evidence of Jewish people living in ancient Greece. The Greek historian Herodutus knew Jewish people and called them Palestinian Syrians. The Jewish people in ancient Greece were included in the lists of the naval forces who fought for Greece against the invasion parties of Persians. Though the Jewish people practiced monotheism, while the ancient Greeks practiced polytheism, there was no mixing of their religions and no persecution that was recorded. Both communities appear to have lived in harmony with one another. In fact, the lifestyle of ancient Greece was attractive to wealthy Jewish people. There are at least three known ancient Jewish synagogue ruins in ancient Greece, which shows the Jewish people were there, practicing their religion, and allowed to do so.

While there were definitely Jewish people in ancient Greece, no trace of them exists above or east of Germany before the age of the Romans. Through the Roman period and into the Middle Ages, the Jewish people in Europe migrated into eastern Europe and France, and some of them became assimilated into the local cultures. Some converted to Christianity, while others, like the Ashkenazis, maintained their Jewish customs and religious practices.

It was only with the rise of emperor Charlemagne, who joined the mini-kingdoms of France into one country in 800 A.D. that the history of the Ashkenazi Jewish people in Europe becomes well documented. Charlemagne gave them the same freedoms they once enjoyed under the Romans, and they began opening businesses in finance and commerce. They also got into banking, as Christians were prohibited from charging interest by their religion. By the 11th century A.D., the Ashkenazi Jewish people were well known for their Talmudic studies and halakhic learning. They were also criticized by Jewish people in the Holy Land for their lack of knowledge in traditional Jewish law and the Hebrew language. They spoke Yiddish instead, which was a combination of traditional Hebrew and various German dialects from the communities in which they lived. The Yiddish language was still written with Hebrew letters, however, while also being influenced with Aramaic.

If you have Ashkenazi Jewish DNA, you come from a line that goes into antiquity. The Ashkenazi Jews moved away from the Jews of the Holy Land so early on that their DNA is now distinct from other Jewish people. If you discover Ashkenazi Jewish DNA in your DNA profile, explore it and see where it leads. You may be surprised by what you discover.

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Who Were the Ashkenazi Jewish People, and Are You Related to …

Why isn’t there more ‘Jewish food’ in Israel? – BBC News

Posted By on June 16, 2017

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Why isn't there more 'Jewish food' in Israel?
BBC News
The menu is classic Ashkenazi or Eastern European Jewish food, and the glass display case is full of prepared potato latkes (pancakes) and fried cauliflower. The matzoh balls (soup dumplings) here are 'sinkers', in the common parlance. That means
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Why isn’t there more ‘Jewish food’ in Israel? – BBC News

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